Demand resources or services over Internet scale and reliability of
Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically
scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a serve
over the Internet.
Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over
the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.
Grid Computing: A form of distributed computing. Cluster of loosely
coupled, networked computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.
Utility Computing: Packaging of computing resources such
as computing power, storage, also a metered services.
Share Computers and data
Evolved to harness inexpensive computers in Data center to solve variety of problems
Harness power of loosely coupled computers to solve a technical or mathematical problem
Used in commercial applications for drug discovery, economic forecasting, seismic analysis
Small to big
• Can be confined to a corporation
• Large public collaboration across many companies and networks
Most grid solutions are built on
• Computer Agents
• Resource Manager
• Batch up jobs
• Submit the job to the scheduler, specifying requirements and SLA(specs) required for
running the job
• Scheduler matches specs with available resources and schedules the job to be run
• Farms could be as large as 10K cpus
Most financial firms has grids like this
Grids lack automation, agility, simplicity and SLA guarantees
Computing resources (CPU hour, memory, network) and
platform to run software are provided as on demand
• Think electricity service
The same evolution happened
• Hardware as a service (HaaS), Infrastructure as a service
(IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Examples of UC providers: Amazon EC2, Google
Who will use UC? Is UC the end of high-end PC?
• People who otherwise has to build their own data center: SaaS
providers, analytics & batch processing
Evolved over a period of time
Roots traced back to Application Service Providers
in the 1990’s
Parallels to SaaS
Evolved from Utility computing and is a broader
Write a file -> Save -> Computer down
File is lost
Files are always stored in cloud, never lost.
Device and location dependence
Services on demand
Resources on demand
Physical assets as services
Cloud Computing in three levels
Application in the cloud
• This is what almost everyone has already used in the
form of Gmail , Yahoo mail, wordpress.com, etc.
Platform in the cloud
• Developers write their application to a more or less
open specification and then upload their code into the
cloud where the app is run magically somewhere.
Infrastructure in the cloud
• Developers and system administrators obtain general
compute, storage, queuing, and other resources and
run their applications with the fewest limitations.
• This is the post powerful type of cloud in that virtually
any application and any configuration.
Application Services(services on demand)
• Gmail, GoogleCalender
• Payroll, HR, CRM etc.
• Sugarm CRM, IBM Lotus Live
Platform Services (resources on demand)
• Middleware, Intergation, Messaging,
Information, connectivity etc
• AWS, IBM Virtual images, Boomi, CastIron,
Infrastructure as services(physical assets as services)
• IBM Blue house, VMware, Amazon EC2,
• Microsoft Azure Platform, Sun Para scale and more
A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or software that relies
on cloud computing for application delivery. Ex., PC, NB, mobile phones.
Cloud application service or "Software as a Service (SaaS)"
delivers software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to
install and run the application on the customer's own computers and
simplifying maintenance and support.
Platform as a Service (Papas) delivers a computing
platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud
infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform
virtualization environment as a service.
The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer
software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of
cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific
operating systems and combined offerings.
The illusion of infinite computing resources
The elimination of an up-front commitment by users
The ability to use and pay on demand
Software as a service
Platform as a service
Infrastructure as a service
What is “as a service”?
Low barriers to entry
• making them available to small businesses.
• allows resources to be shared by many users.
• which allows users to access the systems on
Cloud Computing Services
Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS)
• Amazon EC2
• Go Grid
Platform as a Service(PaaS)
• Right Scale
Software as a Service(SaaS)
• Sales force for Google Apps
IaaS is sometimes also called Hardware as a Service
Just offers the hardware for customers to rent
• Server space
• Network equipment
• CPU cycles
• Storage space
IaaS involves several pieces:
• Service level agreements
• Computer hardware
• Internet connectivity
• Platform virtualization environment
• Utility computing billing
• Supplies all the resources required to build applications and services
completely from the Internet
• Without having to download or install software
PaaS services include
• Application design
PaaS is normally based on
to help the creation of user interfaces
Software as a Service
• An application is hosted as a service
• The customer does not have to maintain it or support off-site
Some of SaaS applications include
• Customer resource management (CRM)
• Video conferencing
• IT service management
• Web analytics
• Web content management
Benefits of SaaS
• Familiarity with the World Wide Web .
• Smaller staff IT
• Better marketing
• Web reliability
Open for use by general public
• Exist beyond firewall, fully hosted and managed
by the vendor
• Individuals, corporations and others
• Amazon's Web Services and Google appEngine
Offers startups and SMB’s quick setup,
scalability, flexibility and automated
management. Pay as you go model helps
startups to start small and go big
Within the boundaries(firewall) of the organization
All advantages of public cloud with one major difference
• Reduce operation costs
• Has to be managed by the enterprise
Fine grained control over resources
More secure as they are internal to organization
Schedule and reshuffle resources based on business demands
Ideal for apps related to tight security and regulatory concerns
Development requires hardware investments and in-house
Cost could be prohibitive and cost might exceed public clouds
A Hybrid cloud is a composition of at least one Private Cloud and
at least one Public Cloud. A hybrid cloud is typically offered in one
of two ways:
A vendor has a private cloud and forms a partnership
with a public cloud provider.
A public cloud provider forms a partnership with a
vendor that provides private cloud platforms.
Attacks targeting share-tenancy Environment
Launch Pad for brute force and other attacks
Data availability (Business Continuity)
Claims Based Authentication
A trusted authority issues a signed
security token containing a set of
claims which is given to the application
The application will authenticate the
user if the security token is valid and
signed by a trusted issuer.
Top 10 Cloud Computing Service Providers of 2011
Cloud Type: IaaS
Reliance Data Center
Cloud Type: SaaS + PaaS + IaaS
Synapse India Wipro Technologies
Cloud Type: IaaS +
on Demand SaaS
Cloud Type: SaaS
Cloud Type: SaaS + IaaS
Infosys Technologies Orange Scape
Cloud Type: SaaS Cloud Type: PaaS
Bare Operating System
Web or Portal Infrastructure
Customizable Application Services
Bare Operating System- RackspaceCloud.com
Formerly Mosso, a division of Rackspace
Provides various Linux distributions
Also supports “Sites”
• Web server, both Linux and Windows
• O/S managed by hosting Service
Web or Portal Infrastructure- Microsoft
Rich Portal capabilities
• Excel Services
• Forms Services
• Visio Services
• Access Services
• Business Data Services
• Search Services
Applications- Google Apps.
Prebuilt, fully functional applications
• Word Processing
• Dynamic Web pages
Web Services- Amazon
Amazon EC2 and S3
• EC2-Elastic Compute Cloud
• S3-Simple Storage Services
Resizable Compute Capability
• Auto Scaling- Allocate Resources Based on
• IBM sMASH
• Jboss Enterprise Application Platform
• Ruby on Rails
Database - Zoho’s CloudSQL
Cloud based relational database
Google APIs add-on
• extends your Android SDK to give your applications access to
Google libraries such as Maps.
Android Cloud to Device Messaging
• a service that allows you to send lightweight messages from
your application server to an Android application on a device.
• a cross-operating system runtime
• lets developers combine HTML, Ajax, Adobe Flash®, and Adobe
Flex® technologies to deploy rich Internet applications (RIAs) on
Apple iPhone SDK
• includes a complete set of development tools for creating
applications for iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch.
Companies began switching from hardware to cloud services
because they were attracted to benefits like a reduction in
capital costs as well as an easing in IT staffing issues.
According to projections by Century Link, by 2015, the world
will see a four-fold increase in the amount of data being
created and replicated. And once all of that data comes into
being, you need a way to store it all securely and allow end-
users to access it efficiently.
Lauren C. State 1 of d cloud blogger:
• Cloud computing will allow everybody to be a service provider.
• Employees will be able to use any device to access, transact and
manage their work.
• There will be a security breach in 2012 that will force organizations to
rethink how they secure their data and applications.
• A new class of real time, personalized service providers will emerge.
• In Africa, the convergence of social, mobile and cloud will emerge as
critical tools for governments to deliver services and drive economic
The use of the cloud provides a number of opportunities:
It enables services to be used without any understanding of their
Cloud computing works using economies of scale:
• It potentially lowers the outlay expense for start up companies, as they
would no longer need to buy their own software or servers.
• Cost would be by on-demand pricing.
• Vendors and Service providers claim costs by establishing an ongoing
Data and services are stored remotely but accessible from
In parallel there has been backlash against cloud computing:
Use of cloud computing means dependence on others and that could
possibly limit flexibility and innovation:
The others are likely become the bigger Internet companies like Google
and IBM, who may monopolise the market.
Some argue that this use of supercomputers is a return to the time of
mainframe computing that the PC was a reaction against.
There have been cases of users being locked out of accounts and losing
access to data.
Security could prove to be a big issue:
• It is still unclear how safe out-sourced data is and when using these
services ownership of data is not always clear.
There are also issues relating to policy and access:
• If your data is stored abroad whose FOI policy do you adhere to?
• What happens if the remote server goes down?
• How will you then access files?
SAAS:Application is used as an on demand service. Often provided via the InternetThink on-demand TV programsExample: Google App (online office)Benefits to usersReduce expenses: multiple computers, multiple usersEase of usage: easy installation, access everywhereBenefits to providersEasier to maintainControl usage (no illegal copies)
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