1. HEALTH & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
-DR. NEELAM SRIVASTAVA (JR-II)
-DR. BHARATBHUSHAN BHAURAO TELANG (JR-II)
GUIDE: DR. ANITA G. SHENOY.
2. • WHO definition of HEALTH
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
• SUSTAINABLE development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted
definition is from ”Our Common Future”, also known as the Brundtland Report:
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
It contains within it two key concepts:
1. The concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to
which overriding priority should be given; and
2. The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social
organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."
3. Principle I of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development states that,
The goals of sustainable development
cannot be achieved when there is a
high prevalence of debilitating illnesses,
and population health cannot be
maintained without ecologically
4. • STEADY GAINS IN GLOBAL HEALTH:
- Over the past decade, average life expectancy has increased, infant and child
mortality rates have declined, and the proportion of underweight and stunted
children has decreased.
7. GLOBAL REPORT ON URBAN HEALTH: EQUITABLE,
HEALTHIER CITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Published by WHO in March, 2016 at KOBE, JAPAN.
Presents new data on the health of urban residents from nearly 100 countries,
updating the first joint WHO-UN Habitat global report on urban health
titled Hidden cities: unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings.
It presents a special analysis on the impact of persistent urban health inequities
on achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
It sets a baseline for the new global health and development agenda in the
Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage.
It also presents evidence that in cities, progress in health depends not only on the
strength of health systems, but also on shaping healthier urban environments.
9. GLOBAL REPORT ON URBAN HEALTH: EQUITABLE, HEALTHIER CITIES FOR
• From 2016 to 2030, the global community will focus its attention on achieving the 17
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed by 193 United Nations (UN) Member States.
• GOAL 3 – the “HEALTH GOAL” – of the SDGs includes 13 targets on ensuring healthy lives
and promoting well-being for all at all ages.
• This goal vastly extends the ambitions of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by
including targets on maternal and child health, infectious diseases, non communicable diseases
(NCDs), universal health coverage (UHC) and environmental health.
• GOAL11 – the “CITY GOAL” – consists of 10 targets that aim to make cities inclusive, safe,
resilient and sustainable. These 10 targets include a variety of critical issues such as housing,
transport, economy and environment that strengthen the physical and social fabric of a city.
• Importantly, this is the first time that cities have been prioritized on the global development
• There are two main reasons for this increased interest:
• First, since 2008, a majority of the world’s population has started living
in cities. This proportion is likely to continue rising and it is projected that
two in three people will live in cities by 2050. The economic, social and
environmental impact of cities will determine quality of life experienced
globally in the future.
• Second, cities are increasingly providing leadership in resolving global
development issues such as climate change, public health and food
• . It is, therefore, no surprise that SDG 3 and SDG 11 are strongly
• Both goals SDG-3 & SDG-11 have explicitly targeted improving road
safety and air quality.
• Target 4 for cities directly links to health by aiming to reduce mortality due
• Additionally, all targets of Goal 11 that aim to improve the living and
working conditions of people in cities will support the achievement of the
• The first global report on urban health titled Hidden cities – unmasking and
overcoming health inequities in urban settings argued that insufficient
concern for health equity in cities was hindering achievement of the MDGs.
• Unlike the MDGs, the SDGs have incorporated equity as a core value of
achieving its targets.
21. While there are substantial inequalities across regions, there are also high
inequalities that exist within cities, countries and regions across various
dimensions such as gender, age, wealth status, education levels and ethnicity.
An analysis of urban data from 79 LMICs across four global regions revealed
that children in the poorest fifth of urban households are more than twice as
likely to die before their first birthday as children in the richest fifth of urban
households are, with substantial variations within regions (Figure 1(a)).
22. As another example, solid fuel use for cooking, a major contributor to
deaths due to indoor air pollution, is uncommon among the richest
populations in three of the four regions, Africa being the exception
However, in the Asia-Pacific region, one in two people in the poorest
fifth use solid fuels for cooking. In Africa, 90% of the poorest fifth are
likely to use solid fuels for cooking compared to 50% of the richest
These two examples illustrate that it is not enough to monitor urban
averages. It is also necessary to disaggregate data by
sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This information
can then inform policies and programmes to improve equity.
24. ACTION ON HEALTH INEQUITIES USING URBAN HEART:
More than 100 cities in 53 countries around the world have used the WHO
URBAN HEART tool, to plan action for reducing health inequities.
• WHO URBAN HEART TOOL :
Urban HEART : i.e. Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool
Urban HEART guides local policymakers and communities through a standardized
procedure of gathering relevant evidence and planning efficiently for appropriate
actions to tackle health inequities.
25. Three main approaches applied to measure and tackle inequities in health are:
• Targeting disadvantaged population groups or social classes
• Narrowing the health gap
• Reducing inequities throughout the whole population.
26. HEALTH AS THE PULSE OF THE NEW URBAN AGENDA
(UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON HOUSING AND SUSTAINABLE
URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HABITAT-III), QUITO, 17-20TH OCT. 2016)
This paper was developed by the World Health Organization
(WHO), in close consultation with international experts and
organizations working on urban health and development.
It draws significantly on the Global Report on Urban Health:
EQUITABLE, HEALTHIER CITIES for Sustainable Development,
produced earlier this year by the World Health Organization Centre
for Health Development in Kobe, Japan, MARCH 2016.
HABITAT I: In 1976, alarmed by rapid and uncontrolled urban growth, particularly in the
developing world, the UN General Assembly called for the First United Nations Conference
on Human Settlements “Habitat I in Vancouver, Canada, May 31 - June 11, 1976”
addressing the challenges and future of human settlements.
HABITAT II (Popularly called the "City Summit” ), the Second United Nations Conference on
Human Settlements was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 3–14, 1996, to assess the
member nations’ progress made towards tackling urbanization issues since the Vancouver
Declaration (Habitat I) 20 years before.
It formulated UN-Habitat’s (then still the Habitat Commission) current main twin goals,
1) to ensure adequate shelter for all and
2) to guarantee sound development of human settlements in an urbanizing world.
28. UN HABITAT-III:
• This century will see a substantial majority of the world’s population living in
urban centers. It is now estimated that 54.5% of people live in urban areas.
• The adoption of a New Urban Agenda—an action-oriented document which
will set global standards of achievement in sustainable urban development,
rethinking the way we build, manage, and live in cities (right to the city)
through drawing together cooperation with committed partners, relevant
stakeholders, and urban actors at all levels of government as well as the
• The world urban population is expected to nearly double by 2050.
29. Focus on URBAN DESIGN and PLANNING:
PRINCIPLE 100: “We will support the provision of well-designed networks of safe,
inclusive for all inhabitants, accessible, green, and quality public spaces and streets,
free from crime and violence, including sexual harassment and gender-based violence,
considering the human scale and measures that allow for the best possible commercial
use of street-level floors, fostering local markets and commerce, both formal and
informal, as well as not-for-profit community initiatives, bringing people into the
public spaces, promoting walkability and cycling towards improving health and well-
• Principle 100 is a clear statement of support for state-of-the-art thinking about
public space and its importance in establishing sustainable urban development
that results in good quality of life.
• In the New Urban Agenda sub-national and local governments are
acknowledged as key players in addition to national governments.
30. HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
1. WHO BREATHE LIFE CAMPAIGN
2. TRANSPORT AND HEALTH
3. HOUSING AND HEALTH
4. CITIES AND HEALTH
31. BREATHE LIFE CAMPAIGN: WHO in partnership with the
Climate and clean air coalition (CCAC) & Govt. of
• Air pollution causes 1 in 8 deaths, nearly 7 million deaths
• Outdoor pollution causes more than 3 million premature
deaths every year.
• Indoor pollution causes more than 4.3 million premature
deaths every year.
A campaign to raise awareness
about the health risks of short-
lived climate pollutants, which
contribute significantly to global
warming and air pollution.
It advocates action in the areas of
knowledge sharing between cities,
increasing monitoring, supporting
solutions and educating people.
35. 2. TRANSPORT & HEALTH:
• Transport strategies that prioritize rapid transit/public transport, and safe
walking and cycling networks can support physical activity and reduce traffic
injuries. These same strategies can also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide as
well as short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon - a major air
• Healthier transport strategies can also yield health equity gains by providing
vulnerable groups with greater access to social and economic opportunities,
particularly for low wage earners, women and the elderly, who often lack
access to a private vehicle.
36. TRANSPORT AND HEALTH RISKS:
1. CLIMATE IMPACTS:
A. Long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and;
B. Short-lived black carbon generated primarily by diesel vehicles. Eg. Black Carbon,
Ground level Ozone.
2. AIR POLLUTION:
Air pollution-related deaths and illness are linked most closely to exposures to
small particulate matter (PM) of less than 10 or 2.5 microns in diameter (PM10 and
3. TRAFFIC INJURIES:
Road traffic injuries are one of the top ten causes of death worldwide, resulting
in some 1.25 million deaths annually.
Between 20 and 50 million sustain non-fatal injuries each year with long-term
adverse health consequences
37. • Travel by rail and bus is generally safer than private
motorized transport, per unit of travel.
• Absent or weak infrastructure for walking and cycling are
major factors responsible for the increased risk of traffic
injury among pedestrians and cyclists.
• Making walking and cycling safer is also important to
supporting moves to reduce carbon emissions and
encouraging physical activity.
38. 4. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY:
Per year, 2 million deaths globally are attributable to a lack of physical
activity. It is a leading risk factor for poor health, and is one of the factors driving
global increases in obesity and non communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular
disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer.
Compared with motorized transport, walking and
cycling both reduce emissions and improve health
through physical activity.
39. 5. NOISE:
-Road traffic is the biggest cause of community noise in most cities, and typically
noise levels increase with higher traffic volumes and speeds.
-Environmental noise exposure is responsible for a range of health effects, including
increased risk of ischaemic heart disease as well as sleep disturbance, cognitive
impairment among children, annoyance, stress-related mental health risks, and
- In high-income European countries it account for a loss of 1-1.6 million disability
adjusted life years (DALYs).
40. TRANSPORT & HEALTH EQUITY:
Transport provides access to jobs, education, services, and recreational activities - critical
social determinants of health.
Many vulnerable groups, such as women, children and youth, disabled persons, low-
income groups, and the elderly, have less access to a personal vehicle; they rely on
walking, cycling, and public transport.
Improving public and non-motorized transport can improve health equity in two ways:
i. Directly reducing air pollution, noise, and injury risks in poor neighbourhoods, and
ii. Secondly, by increasing mobility and accessibility for the poorest and most vulnerable
sectors of society.
41. OVERVIEW of strategies for healthy, sustainable transport:
Well-designed transport policies and infrastructure investment priorities can lead to far-
reaching reductions in traffic-related health risks from air and noise pollution and injuries.
Overarching goals of healthy transport include:
Reduced deaths and disease from transport-generated air, noise and water pollution;
Reduced exposures of disadvantaged groups to transport-related injuries and health
Safer and more efficient access to jobs, services and social opportunities;
Increased physical activity, including safe walking and bicycling;
Reduced greenhouse gas emissions from transport that contribute to long- and short-term
42. • Major sustainable transport strategies
• in light of their potential to both mitigate climate change and
achieve health gains, including:
I. Investments in, and prioritization of, rapid transit/public transport,
such as rail, metro and bus;
II. Investments in, and prioritization of, transport networks for
pedestrian and cyclists;
III. Compact land use systems that increase density and diversity of
IV.Adoption of cleaner vehicular technologies;
V. Adoption of cleaner fuel technologies.
43. INDIA & SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM:
• CONNECTKaro is part of a global series of events focused on sustainable transport and
urban development is organized and hosted by “WRI India (EMBARQ INDIA)”
• This annual conference is held every year from 2013 starting from the city Mumbai.
• The current CONNECTkaro conference was held in
NEW DELHI with the theme of “Advancing Ideas to
Action in Cities”
44. 5 KEYS TO SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN INDIA:
1. BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM,
2. TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT,
3. CITY BUS SYSTEM,
4. PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLING NETWORKS,
5. ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR.
45. 1. BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM: This system is based on the idea of
“local innovations for local conditions”.
It has special separate corridors, bus stations, bus terminals and
intelligent transit management system on the roads so that the public
transport buses can easily pass through the heavy traffics.
eg. a) PMPML PUNE 2006,
b) JANMARG in AHMEDABAD, INDIA’s first fully fledged BRT
launched in 2009.
c) THE RAINBOW PROJECT, PIMPARI CHINCHWAD & PUNE 2015
47. 2. TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT is the “Next big thing”:
• Merely increasing the supply of mass transport will not be enough, the
integration of land use and transportation is also essential, this would ensure the
creation of truely walkable and attractive neighbourhoods.
• For developing such TOD, the significant technical and financial support is given
by Ministry of Urban Development, Central Govt. through JNNURM.
3. CITY BUS SYSTEM will remain the backbone of urban transport:
• Redesigning bus networks and routes to make services more efficient and
user-friendly, as well as using technology to improve passenger information
systems will be essential.
48. 4. PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS must be at the core of urban and transport planning:
Every year, more than 130,000 people in India die as a result of traffic accidents
— one-tenth of the global total.
One of the reasons for this danger is the disproportionate allocation of road
80 percent of road space is allocated for only 15 percent of users (those driving
ITDP India works with cities to transform streetscapes to incorporate features such
as protected footpaths and cycle lanes.
ITDP is working towards improving conditions for non-motorised transport in
Coimbatore, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Pune, Nashik, Ranchi, and Tiruchirapalli.
50. 5. ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR IS CRITICAL:
• There is a significant opportunity to channel the actions of private sector players
into sustainable transport and urban development initiatives— whether through real
estate developers embracing sustainable transport principles in their projects;
entrepreneurs creating companies that deliver sustainable transport services; or
financiers providing the capital that allows these outcomes to materialize.
51. VEHICLE & FUEL TECHNOLOGIES:
1. ELECTRIC & HYBRID CARS IN INDIA:
Mahindra Reva e2o Tata Indica vista electrical Tata Megapixel
52. 2. CNG, BIODIESEL & ETHANOL as alternative fuels:
CNG BUSES IN INDIA GREEN (ETHANOL) BUSES IN NAGPUR
54. Indicators, guidance and tools for effective sustainable transport:
• Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) is one example of a
transport indicator set that tracks progress towards transport-related environmental
targets, including greenhouse gas emissions, air quality and noise.
• Health Impact Assessment (HIA) can be used to identify and address the health co-
benefits and risks of transport and land-use policies and projects.
• The Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for cycling and walking, developed by
WHO is an example of a tool that can help value the health benefits from investments in
walking and cycling systems.
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) is a financial mechanism by which high-income countries committed to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol are allowed to invest in
projects that reduce emissions in low- and middle-income countries.
55. 3. HOUSING AND HEALTH:
• The housing sector (commercial and residential) is responsible for
approximately 19% of global greenhouse gas emissions and approximately
one-third of black carbon emissions - a major component of particulate air
• Numerous housing strategies are available to improve health and mitigate
climate change. Eg. Biogas cookstoves
• The design and quality of housing structures can also pose numerous health
risks by way of exposure to extremes of heat and cold; insect and pest
infestations; toxic paints and glues, and dampness and mould.
• Household cooking and heating systems can generate indoor smoke that is a
source of cardiovascular and respiratory health risks, as well as cancers.
56. HOUSING & HEALTH RISKS:
Housing has an impact on health and well-being through numerous environmental
Key housing related environmental health risks include:
I. household air pollution from cooking, heating and lighting, particularly rudimentary
biomass and coal cooking and heating stoves;
II. indoor air quality risks from dust or gases emitted by toxic building materials etc.
III. exposure to extreme heat and cold;
IV. exposure to disease-bearing vectors, including pests and insects;
V. exposure to damp and mould;
VI. lack of access to clean drinking-water and sanitation
VII. outdoor air pollution – both from household emissions and other sources;
VIII. urban siting and design features, which affect exposures to flooding and extreme
weather; access to green spaces for physical activity; noise exposures; and access to
IX. use of unsafe construction materials and poor construction practices.
57. These environmental factors impact on a range of disease and disability
1. Airborne infectious diseases, including TB;
2. Vector-borne diseases (e.g. malaria, Chagas, leishmaniasis);
3. Waterborne/diarrhoeal diseases related to unsafe water and sanitation;
4. Non communicable diseases, including risk of stroke, heart failure and other
cardiovascular disease (from air pollution as well as extreme temperature
5. Allergies (from mould and damp); and cancers, e.g. from radon exposures;
6. Domestic injuries;
7. Mental health and neighbourhood social cohesion;
8. Occupational health risks, ranging from injuries and falls to environmental
exposures to toxic building materials.
58. HOUSING & HEALTH EQUITY:
• Slum environments, are by definition, neighbourhoods characterized by structurally deficient or
• Most slums are overcrowded, lack of access to appropriate utilities, such as safe drinking-water
• Children living in slums are more at risk of diarrhoeal disease.
• Crowding also exacerbates risks of airborne disease transmission, particularly of tuberculosis.
• Furthermore, the elderly are the most at risk of mortality associated with extreme heat or cold.
• Insufficient housing quality is associated with stress and mental health impacts.
• Access to structurally sound dwellings, safe drinking water, improved sanitation, and
affordable, secure energy can promote health equity.
59. STRATEGIES FOR HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE HOUSING:
• Well designed housing strategies can both reduce energy use as well as create
healthier environments for occupants.
• The most attractive measures for healthy, sustainable housing involve:
I. insulation and thermal envelope;
II. heating and cooling systems;
III. improved ventilation;
IV. solar energy (passive and photovoltaic), eg “LIGHTING A BILLION LIVES”;
V. efficient cooking and lighting technologies;
VI. safer building materials;
VII. “compact” urban planning of neighborhoods with easy access to schools,
commerce, transport – and green spaces;
VIII. healthy home behaviours
61. LIGHTING AND DAYLIGHTING:
• Exposure to natural light is important for vitamin D production,
sleep cycle regulation and mood.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, lighting energy use can be
reduced 75-90% through…..
AKSHAY URJA SHOPS PROGRAMME: The objective
of the programme is to support the establishment of
one shop in each district for creation of a network of
retail outlets in form of “Akshay Urja Shops” in all the
districts for sale and service of solar energy and
other renewable energy products.
62. CLEANER COOKSTOVES:
• Over 3 billion people in low- and middle-income countries rely on solid
fuels (wood, animal dung, charcoal, crop wastes and coal) burned in
inefficient and highly polluting stoves for cooking and heating.
• Currently resulting in some 4 million premature deaths annually.
63. INDIA’S INITIATIVE TOWRDS CLEANER COOKSTOVES:
PRADHANMANTRI LPG SUBSIDY “PAHAL” YOJANA (DBTL):
National Biomass Cookstoves Initiative (NBCI) was launched by MNRE on
2ndDecember 2009 at New Delhi with the primary aim to enhance the use
of improved biomass cookstoves.
As follow up to the National Biomass Cook-stove Initiative (NBCI), the
Ministry initiated a new proposal for promoting the development and
deployment of Unnat Chulhas (Biomass Cookstoves) in the country, so
Unnat Chulha Abhiyan was formulated on 27th June 2014.
64. IMPROVED BUILDING MATERIALS:
• Building materials such as asbestos and lead have the potential to damage human
health. Insulation, paint and dust derived from harmful materials can result in cancer, lung
disease and impaired growth and development.
• While dwellers may suffer from exposure to these materials in existing structures, workers
may also suffer from exposure during the building and renovation process.
URBAN PLANNING & RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT:
• Urban design impacts powerfully on residential environments and, in turn, on health
outcomes. Medium housing density, with easy pedestrian access to local businesses,
schools, and green spaces, is associated with safe, accessible pedestrian environments,
more access to healthy physical activity and to basic services for women, children, elderly
and those without cars.
65. PRADHAN MANTRI AWAS YOJNA- HOUSING FOR ALL (Urban):
Launched on 25th June 2015, with an objective of providing affordable houses to
Indian citizens. Target of building 2crore houses till 2022.
Primary targets under this scheme are people belonging to LIG & EWS group.
The Mission is being implemented during 2015-2022 and provides central assistance
to Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and other implementing agencies through States/UTs
In-situ Rehabilitation of existing slum dwellers using land as a resource through
Credit Linked Subsidy
Affordable Housing in Partnership
Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction/enhancement.
66. INDICATORS, GUIDANCE AND TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING:
• The Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS), developed by the United
Kingdom government in 2001, is a good example of a housing rating system that
considers energy-saving measures and health impacts.
• Health impact assessment: eg. Healthy Housing Program (HHP), China.
• Financing health co-benefits: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) finances emissions reductions and
supports sustainable development in developing countries through tax exemptions;
subsidies and grants; loan incentives.
67. 4. CITIES AND HEALTH:
• Already 3.6 billion people, more than half of the world’s population, live
in cities. By 2050, the world’s urban population will double in size, and
most of that growth will occur in low and middle-income cities. Cities &
towns in India constitute the 2nd largest urban system in the world.
• About health risks in cities
• WHO estimates 63% of global mortality, about 36 million deaths per
year, is due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).
• Outdoor air pollution alone is responsible for 3.7 million deaths
annually, mainly attributed to NCDs. Furthermore, physical inactivity is
responsible for 3.2 million deaths annually, and traffic injuries cause
some 1.3 million deaths annually – both health risks are likely to be much
larger among urban populations.
• Communicable diseases also are associated with an unhealthy urban
69. CLIMATE RISKS:
Cities’ impacts on climate:
Cities, especially those in high-income areas, are significant
contributors to climate change insofar as they represent some 67-
76% of global energy ( CO2, short lived climate pollutants-
methane, ozone, black carbon) use according to the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate.
Climate change impacts on cities:
Sea level rise, “urban heat island” effect, urban poor are the worst
affected by climate change such as slum dwellers’ homes.
71. AIR POLLUTION:
The world’s cities occupy just 3% of the earth’s land, but account for 60-
80% of energy consumption & 75% of carbon transmission.
Some 3.7 million premature deaths annually are attributed to outdoor
air pollution. About 80% of those deaths are due to heart disease and
stroke, while another 20% are from respiratory illnesses and cancers
related to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), the most health-
harmful air pollutant.
According to WHO’s most recent survey of 1600 cities worldwide, only
12% of the urban population surveyed live in areas that comply with
WHO air quality guideline levels for PM2.5.
73. HOUSING RELATED HEALTH RISKS IN CITIES:
Poorly planned or unplanned urbanization patterns represent a major public
This most vividly represented by the persistence of urban slums which are
one third of the world’s urban population.
UN-HABITAT defines a SLUM as lacking at least one of the following;
a) access to safe water
b) access to sanitation
c) safe and secure tenure
d) durable housing structures.
“Durable” housing mean housing that is located away from natural or
manmade hazards; is structurally safe, and protective against extreme
74. NUTRITION INSECURITY & UNHEALTHY DIETS:
Urban households with lower socioeconomic status tend to spend more than 70% of
their income on food, impacting the availability of funds for education, child care
and other activities.
Rapid urbanization has been associated with an increase in energy-dense diets,
characterized by high levels of refined sugars, salt, and other additives, increased
saturated fat intake (mainly from animal source foods), and reduced intakes of
complex carbohydrates, fibre, fruits, and vegetables.
These changing dietary patterns have been referred to as the “NUTRITION
TRANSITION”. In cities around the world, obesity and overweight, cancers,
diabetes, cardiovascular diseases associated with high sugar and saturated fat
consumption (among higher income consumers) are on the rise.
The consequent dearth of nutritious food outlets makes healthier diets far more
expensive; such urban areas have been described as “FOOD DESERTS.”
75. UNSAFE DRINKING-WATER, SANITATION & WASTE MANAGEMENT:
Diseases due to poor drinking-water access, unimproved sanitation, and poor hygiene
practices cause 4.0% of all deaths and 5.7% of all disability or ill health in the world.
Contaminated drinking-water is estimated to cause more than 500 000 diarrhoeal deaths
Health risks are often exacerbated by poor sanitation. Some 20% of the urban
population still lacked access to improved sanitation in 2012 and 100 million city dwellers
still practiced open defecation.
Urban solid waste disposal is another sanitation-related challenge. Recent estimates also
suggest that cities generate 1.3 billion tonnes of solid waste per year, a figure expected
to rise to 2.2 billion tonnes by 2025.
76. URBAN GREEN SPACES:
Green spaces such as parks and sports fields as well as woods and natural meadows,
wetlands or other ecosystems, represent a fundamental component of any urban
Urban parks and gardens play a critical role in cooling cities, and also provide safe
routes for walking and cycling for transport purposes as well as sites for physical activity,
social interaction and for recreation
Recent estimates show that physical inactivity, linked to poor walkability and lack of
access to recreational areas, accounts for 3.3% of global deaths.
Green spaces also are important to mental health.
79. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR CITIES WITH SIGNIFICANT
HEALTH CO-BENEFITS include:
Energy-efficient transport: eg. BRT system, Low-sulphur diesel fuels and low-
Healthy urban planning:
HEALTHY URBAN DIETS:
Urban farmer’s market connecting consumers with local producers of fresh fruits
and vegetables and other foodstuffs, rooftop and community gardens which can
promote local production and increase education and awareness of food
production techniques, and peri urban projects which set aside land to grow fresh
produce within a short distance of city limits.
• Urban agriculture projects can help reduce the prevalence of “FOOD
81. SLUM UPGRADING:
Simple, climate-friendly housing initiatives in slum areas have included innovations such
as: roof insulation; installation of rooftop solar hot-water heaters; PV solar panels for
lighting and grid electricity backup; improvements in piped drinking-water and sewage
infrastructure; and the creation of pedestrianized corridors in narrow alleyways to
keep out motorcycle traffic, reduce noise, and protect children’s safety.
83. HEALTHY, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HOUSING:
Structurally sound, safe, climate-adapted and energy-efficient housing design can
reduce exposures not only to household air pollution, but also to excessive heat, cold,
and dampness – all of which are risk factors for stroke, heart attacks, respiratory
illnesses and other cardiopulmonary diseases.
Effective use of natural ventilation helps to reduce indoor temperatures in
warm months and hot climates, reducing health risks from heat stroke.
84. IMPROVED URBAN WASTE MANAGEMENT:
Strategies for waste reduction, separation, processing, management and recycling and
reuse are feasible, low-cost alternatives to the open incineration of solid waste, which is
common now in developing cities.
Improved collection, management and disposal of urban waste.
Sustainable waste management activities can
serve as a catalyst for local economic development
85. SMART CITIES Mission is an urban renewal
and retrofitting program by the Government of
India with a mission to develop 100 cities (the
target has been revised to 109 cities) all over the
country making them citizen friendly and
The Union Ministry of Urban Development is
responsible for implementing the mission in
collaboration with the state governments of the
Smart Cities Awas Yojna Mission was launched
by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in June 2015.
86. 1. SOLAR/GREEN CITIES:
Development of Solar Cities” programme is designed to
support/encourage Urban Local Bodies to prepare a Road Map to guide
their cities in becoming ‘renewable energy cities’ or ‘solar cities’.
Sanctions have been given to 31 cities.
These cities are:
Agra, Moradabad, Rajkot, Gandhinagar, Nagpur, Kalyan-Dombiwali,
Kohima, Dehradun, Chandigarh, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Thane, Panaji City
& Environs, Bilaspur, Raipur, Imphal, Itanagar, Jodhpur, Jorhat, Guwahati,
Agartala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Shimla, Hamirpur, Haridawar & Rishikesh,
Vijaywada, Aizawl, Mysore, Hubli and Gwalior.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MINISTRY OF NEW &
87. 2. GREEN BUILDINGS:
A building which can function using an optimum amount of energy,
consume less water, conserve natural resources, generate less waste and
create spaces for healthy and comfortable living, as compared to
conventional buildings, is a green building.
3. SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS:
Solar power plants
Solar water heating systems
88. 4. GRID CONNECTED POWER:
Established by State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC),
- Biomass power / bagasse cogeneration
- Non-bagasse cogeneration
- Biomass gasifier
- Urban & Industrial wastes
Small Hydro Power
- Upto 25 MW station capacity
- Aims to generate competitively Solar Thermal and Solar Photovoltaic Power.
89. 5. OFF GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY/POWER:
Biomass based heat and power projects and industrial waste to-energy
projects for meeting captive needs
Biomass gasifiers for rural and industrial energy applications
Watermills/micro hydro projects – for meeting electricity requirement of
Small Wind Energy & Hybrid Systems - for mechanical and electrical
applications, mainly where grid electricity is not available.
Solar PV Roof-top Systems for abatement of diesel for power generation in
In the broadest sense, the strategy for sustainable development aims to promote harmony
among human beings and between humanity and nature.
In essence, it is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of
investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all
in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and
As the natural resources are meant for all, the future generations have every right to use
those to meet their own demands and hence it is our duty to achieve sustainable
development in a rightful way.
Health being center of the concern for sustainable development, it is need of the hour to
have sustainable transport, sustainable energy, sustainable houses and sustainable cities
for a healthy life.