DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
M.Phil Sem – 1
Enrollment No : 2069112220170001
Paper No :- 1
Research Skills : Documentation &
Fundamentals of Literary Research.
Sub :- Importance of Citation
Presented by : Bhumi Joshi
What is research
Research is not equal to search .
Not ordinary and emotional job.
Intellectual exercises based on
facts & documentation.
Normally , it is scientific method
but literary research is scholarly
It is completely appropriate to use other works in
a research project, but it is not appropriate to claim those ideas as your own. To
avoid "stealing" others' ideas, cite the sources you use. Citing sources means
listing the materials you used for your research.
(Karen R. Diaz and Nancy O'Hanlon, IssueWeb: A Guide and Sourcebook for
Researching Controversial Issues on the Web. Libraries Unlimited, 2004)
What is citation ?
• A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material
in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the
information necessary to find that source again, including: information
about the author, the title of the work, the name and location that
published copy of the source, date, and the page numbers of the material
one is borrowing.
• A “citation” is a reference to a published or
unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a
citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body
of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references
section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the
works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot. ( Wikipedia)
A citation is a way of giving
credit to individuals for their creative and
intellectual works that you utilized to
support your research. It can also be used
to locate particular sources and combat
plagiarism. Typically, a citation can
include the author's name, date, location
of the publishing company, journal title,
or DOI (Digital Object Identifier).
Citations have several important purposes
• To uphold intellectual honesty and
• To give credit to the original author by citing
sources is the only way to use other’s work without
• Citing sources strengthens scholar’s work by
lending outside support to researcher's ideas.
•People also count citations to a paper as an
indication of how important or influential the paper
Why Should We Cite Sources ?
• Citing sources actually helps reader distinguish researcher’s
ideas from those of their sources. This will actually emphasize the
originality of scholar’s own work.
• Provides a trail by which others can locate the materials which is
consulted by researcher.
• Provides evidence of scholar’s research.
• Citing sources shows the amount of research researcher have
• It's illegal.
• It could affect to scholar’s work.
Failure to provide citation may result in being charged
Quality of research depends on citation.
To credit authors or artists whose arguments, ideas, or
creative works scholars have used.
To allow people reviewing work to check researcher’s
sources for accuracy.
To allow readers to understand how researchers came
up with arguments.
To provide scholars with further sources for their own
Citation shows the authenticity of the work.
Everything must be cited with intellectuality
and research should stand on reality with proper
Reliability of the research work depends on
the sources which scholars cite in their work.
When Does researcher need to cite?
Whenever researchers borrow words or ideas, they need to acknowledge their
whenever scholars use quotes
whenever researchers paraphrase
whatever you read you must cited.
whenever s/he uses an idea that someone else has already expressed.
whenever scholars make specific reference to the work of another research
In all of the cases above, the standards of
academic integrity require both citing the source in
the text of your essay and its incorporation into your
bibliography. To be clear, it is not enough to simply
list a source in your bibliography if it deserves
explicit citation in the essay’s body.
Different forms of citation for different disciplines.
when one cite sources in a psychology paper you would probably use a
different form of citation than one might in a paper for literary research
Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the
form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time
and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What
style of citation should I use?
style dictates the
information necessary for a
citation and how the
information is ordered, as
well as punctuation and
A citation style will provide the format for citing sources and
creating the bibliography in one’s academic work.. The citation style
depends on the academic discipline involved.
APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology,
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History
AAA (AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION)
ASA American Psychological Association
Type MLA Format APA Format
Date: The date follows the publisher in the citation and is not in
The date follows the author and is in parentheses.
Author’s Name: The author’s full name (first and last) is spelled out. The author’s last name is spelled out and the first name is
reduced to initials.
Capitalization: All major words in the title are capitalized and the title is
Only the first word of the title, the first word of a subtitle, and
any proper nouns (like names) are capitalized. Everything else
is lowercase. Also, the title is written in italics.
Source Page: The source page is called a “Works Cited”. The source page is called a “References”.
In-Text Citations: MLA uses the last name of the author and the page number. APA uses the last name of the author and the date.
MLA does not uses commas to separate the material, or p. pp.
before the page numbers.
APA does use commas and, if a page is mentioned, uses p.
Differences between MLA & APA
1 .MLA style is preferred in Humanities and Liberal Arts category
whereas APA style is used in Social Sciences.
2. MLA style does not include separate title page while APA style
provides a separate title page.
3. References are listed in Work Cited page in MLA style whereas the
APA style has a Reference page.
4. APA style focuses on supporting the content with visual aids whereas
MLA style does not advocate the use of such aids.
What’s Bibliography ? & How it differs from References and Work Cited
A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used (whether
referenced or not) in the process of researching your work. In general, a
bibliography should include:
- the authors' names
- the titles of the works
- the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the
- the dates of copies were published
- the page numbers of sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)
The Works Cited or References list is only
comprised of references to those items actually
cited in the paper.
Temple University Liberary. 5 Sep 2016. 25 Jan 2017
Luzy R. "Difference Between MLA and APA. "DifferenceBetween.net. November 28,
2009 < http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-mla-and-apa/ >.
Klaphake, Elizabeth. My Life as an English Professor. Bellevue,
Nebraska: Bellevue University Press. 1999
Wikipedia contributors. "Citation." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The
Free Encyclopedia, 21 Dec. 2016. Web. 24 Jan. 2017.
“What Is Plagiarism?” Plagiarism.org. iParadigms, 2014. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
George A.Spiva Liberary. 8 Dec 2015. 25 Jan 2017 <