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◊◊ Narrative patternsNarrative patterns ◊◊
• To The
• Waiting For
Sem. 3, Roll no. 8.
Paper. 9, Modernist Literature.
Department of English,
MK Bhavnagar University.
• Why narrator have
(specifically Stream of
Consciousness) form to
write about Mrs.
• Why it was necessary to
depict absurdity in form
To The Lighthouse Waiting For Godot
• Action happens in the mind of
• A single afternoon constitutes half
the book, and the other ten years
time comes in almost a blink of eyes.
• A single, simple event happens but
stream of consciousness deals with
the events which goes in the mind of
• The ambiguity is shown in long
paragraphs and long dialogues,
• Absurdity comes in the behaviour
of the characters.
• The drama basically contains two
days narration only.
•We have to observe the things
through behaviour with each other.
• The simplicity of diction is so high
that we need to see that we are
trapped in the simplicity of
-- Part 1 ‘The window’, chapter 1,
- ‘To the Lighthouse’
"Yes, of course, if it's fine tomorrow," said Mrs Ramsay. "But
you'll have to be up with the lark," she added.
To her son these words conveyed an extraordinary joy, as if it
were settled, the expedition were bound to take place, and the
wonder to which he had looked forward, for years and years
it seemed, was, after a night's darkness and a day's sail,
within touch. Since he belonged, even at the age of six, to that
great clan which cannot keep this feeling separate from that,
but must let future prospects, with their joys and sorrows,
cloud what is actually at hand, since to such people even in
earliest childhood any turn in the wheel of sensation has the
power to crystallise and transfix the moment upon which its
gloom or radiance rests, James Ramsay, sitting on the floor
cutting out pictures from the illustrated catalogue
of the Army and Navy stores, endowed the picture of a
refrigerator, as his mother spoke, with heavenly bliss. It was
fringed with joy. The wheelbarrow, the lawnmower, the
sound of poplar trees, leaves whitening before rain, rooks
cawing, brooms knocking, dresses rustling—all these were so
coloured and distinguished in his mind that he had already
his private code, his secret language, though he appeared the
image of stark and uncompromising severity, with his high
forehead and his fierce blue eyes, impeccably candid and
pure, frowning slightly at the sight of human frailty, so that
his mother, watching him guide his scissors neatly round the
refrigerator, imagined him all red and ermine on the Bench
or directing a stern and momentous enterprise in some crisis
of public affairs.
--Act 1, ‘Waiting For Godot’.
• ESTRAGON: (giving up again). Nothing to be done.
• (advancing with short, stiff strides, legs wide apart). I'm beginning to come
round to that opinion. All my life I've tried to put it from me, saying Vladimir, be
reasonable, you haven't yet tried everything. And I resumed the struggle. (He
broods, musing on the struggle. Turning to Estragon.) So there you are
• ESTRAGON: Am I?
• VLADIMIR: I'm glad to see you back. I thought you were gone forever.
• ESTRAGON: Me too.
• VLADIMIR: Together again at last! We'll have to celebrate this. But how? (He
reflects.) Get up till I embrace you.
• ESTRAGON: (irritably). Not now, not now.
• VLADIMIR: (hurt, coldly). May one inquire where His Highness spent the
• In a ditch.
• (admiringly). A ditch! Where?
• (without gesture). Over there.
VLADIMIR (DIDI) ESTRAGON (GOGO)
• ID • EGO
• SUPER EGO
• SLAVE OF
• We tend to give meanings to the play which
stands for meaninglessness of life. Real
absurdity would come if we study the text
without any implied references perhaps.
--Waiting For Godot
• Sense of reality would come to a text only
when writer depicts his own era faithfully.
--To The Lighthouse
Taken help from..
• Audio book ‘To The Lighthouse’
• Audio book ‘waiting For Godot’
• Research work by Yanxia Sang “An Analysis of Stream-of-
consciousness Technique in To The Lighthouse”.
• Research work by Bhumi Dangi “Absurdity of
Existentialism in the light of Samuel Beckett’s ‘Waiting for
Godot’ and Shrikant Shah’s ‘Apne badha akash niche ubha