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  2. What is lymphoma?  Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body's germ- fighting network.  The lymphatic system includes the lymph nodes (lymph glands), spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect all those areas as well as other organs throughout the body.
  3. CLASSIFICATION  Many types of lymphoma exist.The main subtypes are:  Hodgkin's lymphoma (formerly called Hodgkin's disease)  Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  4. Symptoms  Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin  Persistent fatigue  Fever  Night sweats  Shortness of breath  Unexplained weight loss  Itchy skin
  5. Risk factors  Your age. Some types of lymphoma are more common in young adults, while others are most often diagnosed in people over 55.  Being male. Males are slightly more likely to develop lymphoma than are females.  Having an impaired immune system. Lymphoma is more common in people with immune system diseases or in people who take drugs that suppress their immune system.  Developing certain infections. Some infections are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, including the Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori infection.
  6. Hodgkin lymphoma
  7. CAUSES  • Unknown  • More common in patients from well- educated backgrounds  and small families  •Three times more likely with a past history of infectious  mononucleosis but no definitive causal link to Epstein–Barr  virus infection is proven
  8. SYMPTOMS  Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin.  Persistent fatigue.  Fever.  Night sweats.  Losing weight without trying.  Severe itching.  Pain in your lymph nodes after drinking alcohol.
  9. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma  Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is the more common type of this disease. People diagnosed with this type have large lymphoma cells called Reed-Sternberg cells in their lymph nodes.  Subtypes of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma include:  Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma  Mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma  Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin's lymphoma  Lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin's lymphoma
  10. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma  This much rarer type of Hodgkin's lymphoma involves lymphoma cells that are sometimes called popcorn cells because of their appearance. Nodular lymphocyte- predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma is usually diagnosed at an early stage and may require less intensive treatments compared to the classical type of the disease.
  11. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma  Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a monoclonal proliferation of lymphoid cells of B cell (70%) orT cell (30%) origin.
  12. CAUSES • Lymphoma is a late manifestation of HIV infection • Specific lymphoma types are associated with viruses: e.g. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) with post-transplant NHL, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) with a primary effusion lymphoma, and humanT-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) with adultT-cell leukaemia lymphoma • Gastric lymphoma can be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.
  13.  Some lymphomas are associated with specific chromosomal translocations; the t(14;18) in follicular lymphoma results in the dysregulated expression of the BCL-2 gene product, which inhibits apoptotic cell death.  The t(8;14) found in Burkitt lymphoma and the t(11;14) in mantle cell lymphoma alter function of c- myc and cyclin D1, respectively, resulting in malignant proliferation • Lymphoma occurs in congenital immunodeficiency states and in immunosuppressed patients after organ transplantation
  14. Symptoms  Swollen lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin  Abdominal pain or swelling  Chest pain, coughing or trouble breathing  Persistent fatigue  Fever  Night sweats  Unexplained weight loss
  15. Risk factors  Medications that suppress your immune system  Infection with certain viruses and bacteria  Chemicals  Older age.
  16. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma most often begins in the:  B cells. B cells are a type of lymphocyte that fights infection by producing antibodies to neutralize foreign invaders. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arises from B cells. Subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that involve B cells include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma.  T cells.T cells are a type of lymphocyte that's involved in killing foreign invaders directly. Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs much less often inT cells. Subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that involveT cells include peripheralT-cell lymphoma and cutaneousT-cell lymphoma.
  17. MANAGEMENT OF LYMPHOMAS  Radiotherapy.  Chemotherapy  Transplantation
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