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TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION EE-391
• We all know about the present four modes of transportation.
Rail Transport Air Transport
WHAT IS IT ?
A concept for a fifth mode of transport after planes ,trains , cars and boats.
Hyperloop is a new way to move people or things anywhere in the world quickly ,safely ,efficiently and
with minimal impact to the environment.
It is for the distances around 1500 km(900 mi) where this supersonic air travel ends up being faster and
Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high
speeds throughout the length of the tube.
The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear accelerators.
He is the founder of SpaceX, Tesla
Motors, Solar City, and co-founder of
If we want to make a new mode of transportation then it should ideally be:
• Lower cost
• More convenient
• Sustainably self powering
• Resistance to earthquakes
• Immune to weather
The main aim of the project or design is to find a new mode of transport that reduces both travel time
It is proposed transportation system for travelling between Los Angeles, California and San Francisco,
California in just 35 minutes.
Energy cost per passenger for a journey between Los Angeles
and San Francisco for various modes of transport.
HYPERLOOP TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM:
Hyperloop consists of several distinct components, this includes :
1. Capsule or pod.
1. CAPSULE :
• Passenger only version.
• Passenger plus vehicle version.
Approximately 28 passengers per
capsule with an average departure
time of every 2 min between the
3 vehicles per capsule in passenger
plus vehicle version.
Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design
The greatest requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.
Aerodynamics drag increases with square of speed and then power requirement increase with cube of
Air pressure in Hyperloop tube is about 1/6th the pressure of the atmosphere on Mars(100 pascals)
which reduces the drag force of air by 1000 times relative to sea level conditions . It is equivalent to
flying above 1,50,000 feet altitude.
Despite air drag there are also other challenges like preventing shockwaves , accumulation of air in front
of the nose , overall acceleration felt by human should be less than 1g.
SPEED: ‘x’ SPEED: ‘2x’
AIR-DRAG: ’ y’ AIR-DRAG: ’4y’
GEOMETRY OF CAPSULE:
In order to optimize the capsule speed and
performance the frontal area has been
minimized for size while maintaining passenger
Vehicle features a compressor at the leading
The maximum width is 4.43 ft. (1.35 m) and
maximum height is 3.61 ft. (1.10 m). With
rounded corners, this is equivalent to a 15 ft2 .
Aerodynamic power requirement at 700 mph. is
around 134 hp (100KW) .
Hyperloop passenger capsule subsystem notional locations
Streamlines for capsule traveling at high subsonic velocities
Interior of the capsule is specifically designed with passenger
safety and comfort in mind.
There is firewall / sound bulkhead which divides the
passenger couch with compressor .
Passenger needed emergency equipment is also provided.
Entertainment like music is available in the capsule.
It allows the capsule to traverse the relatively
narrow tube without choking flow.
It supplies air to the air bearings and also used
for propulsion for some extent.
≈ 52 kW
p ≈ 99 Pa
T ≈ 292 K
𝑚 ≈ 0.49 kg/s
≈ 276 kW
p ≈ 2.1 kPa
T ≈ 857 K
𝑚 ≈ 0.2 kg/s
p ≈ 101 kPa
T ≈ 293 K
𝑚 ≈ 290 kg Air Out
p ≈ 11 kPa
T ≈ 557 K
rp ≈ 11 kPa
T ≈ 400 K
𝑚 𝐻2 𝑂 ℓ ≈ 0.14 kg/s
𝑚 ≈ 0.29 kg/s
Compressor schematic for passenger capsule.
Conventional wheel and axle systems become impractical at high speed due to frictional losses and
Magnetic levitation can be used but more power is consumed.
An alternative is an air bearing suspension which offer stability and extremely low drag.
Capsule also includes wheels similar to aircraft landing gear for ease of movement at speed under
As the capsule accelerates upto subsonic speed, so the air accumulating in front of the capsule is used
for this bearing and for some extent for propulsion and it is also stored on-board.
The predicted total drag generated by the air bearings at a capsule speed of 760 mph is 140N, resulting
in a 64hp of power loss.
On-board power system by using batteries for compressor and other components.
Schematic of air bearing skis that support the capsule
The expected pressure inside the tube will be
maintained around 0.015psi (1/1000) the pressure on
It is important to avoid shock waves and column of air
in front of its nose by careful selection of the
capsule/tube area ratio.
The column of air is displaced through the gaps, any
flow not displaced must be ingested by the on board
compressor of each capsule.
The surface above is lined with solar panels to provide
the required power system.
The stations are isolated from the main tube in order
to limit air leaks into the system.
Vacuum pumps will run continuously at various
locations along the tube to maintain the required
pressure. Hyperloop capsule in tube cutaway with attached solar arrays
PYLONS AND TUNNELS:
The tube will be supported by pillars called pylons.
They are made of reinforced concrete for the tensile strength.
The spacing of the Hyperloop pillars is about 100 ft.
There are dampers which will provide longitudinal and horizontal movement of the tube if there is an
earthquake or tube is expanded due to the heat.
It is used mainly to:
1. Accelerate the capsule from 0 to 300 mph (480 kph) for
relatively low speed travel in urban areas.
2. Maintain the capsule at 300 mph (480 kph) as necessary,
including during ascents over the mountains.
3. To accelerate the capsule from 300 to 760 mph (480 to
1,220 kph) at 1G.
4. To decelerate the capsule back to 300 mph (480 kph) at
the end of the journey.
Hyperloop as a whole is projected to consume an
average of 21(MW).
A solar array covering the entire Hyperloop is large
enough to provide an average of 57(MW).
Hyperloop uses a linear induction motor to accelerating
and decelerating the capsule and these are placed at
Linear accelerator concept for capsule acceleration and
Linear Induction Motor:
Lower material cost (aluminium).
Lighter capsule can be made.
Small capsule dimensions.
Rotor is mounted to the capsule.
Stator is mounted to the tube.
Rotor (mounted to capsule)
Stator (mounted to tube)
The Hyperloop route should be based on several
1. Maintaining the tube as closely as possible to
2. Limiting the maximum capsule speed to 760 mph
(1,220 kph) for aerodynamic considerations.
3. Limiting accelerations on the passengers to 0.5g.
4. Optimizing locations of the linear motor tube
sections driving the capsules.
5. Local geographical constraints, including location of
urban areas, mountain ranges, reservoirs, national
parks, roads, railroads, airports, etc. The route
must respect existing structures.
Overview of Hyperloop route from Los Angeles to San
SAFETY AND RELIABILITY:
With human control error and unpredictable weather removed from the system, very few safety
concerns are remained.
1. On-board passenger emergency.
2. Power outage.
3. Capsule depressurization.
4. Capsule stranded in tube.
The total cost of Hyperloop passenger transportation system is less than $6 billion USD and that of
passenger plus vehicle system is $7.5 billion USD.
It would cost $20 for a one way trip for the passenger version of Hyperloop(which is 9% of the high
speed rail system).
Passenger plus vehicle version of the Hyperloop costs less than 11% the cost proposed for passenger
high speed rail system.
Hyperloop is considered as an open source transportation concept.
More additional work is to be done in areas like:
1. More expansion on the control mechanism for Hyperloop capsules, including altitude thruster or
control moment gyros.
2. Detailed station designs with loading and unloading of both passenger and passenger plus vehicle
versions of the Hyperloop capsules.
3. Trades comparing the costs and benefits of Hyperloop with more conventional magnetic levitation
4. Sub-scale testing based on a further optimized design to demonstrate the physics of Hyperloop.