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  1. 1. Communication Network
  2. 2. Communication Network Internal Vertical Downward Upward Diagonal Horizontal External
  5. 5. External Communication ⚫Outside theorganization Communication. ⚫Links theorganization with outsideworld.
  6. 6. Example ⚫Communication between heads of twoorganizations.
  7. 7. Internal communication ⚫Inside theorganization communication. ⚫Takes place in different directions.
  8. 8. Example ⚫Communication between teacherand student in a university.
  9. 9. Vertical Communication • Upward communication • Downward Communication
  10. 10. Vertical Communication Vertical communication is communication that flows both upand down theorganization. It is thecommunication that takes place between managers and theirsuperiors and subordinates. Vertical communication may involve only two persons, or it may flow through several different organizational levels.
  11. 11. Downward Communication . It occurswhen information flows down the hierarchy from high level to low level. Example: When your boss shares information with you, it’s downward communication, becauseyour boss, as yoursupervisor, is communicating with you as an employee orsubordinate.
  12. 12. Main objectives: Togive specific directions tosubordinatesabout the jobentrusted.  Toexplainorganizational policiesand procedures.  Toapprise the subordinatesof their performance.
  13. 13. Advantages of Downward Communication  Useful for management The management finds it useful tocommunicate necessary official information tosubordinates.  Useful foremployees Downward communication is useful forsubordinates as theyarewell informed about theirwork from time to time.  A Senseof belonging In downward communication, thesubordinates carrya strong feeling of participation in the management of the organization. They regard themselves as important subordinates.
  14. 14. Disadvantages of Downward Communication Distortion Downward communication has to pass through many levels of authority, so there is a delay as well as distortion of the message. Authoritarian approach In downward communication, there is too much concentration of authority at the higher level. As people in the lower levels are merely receivers of decisions. So they unconsciously receive such message and miscommunication results.
  15. 15. Overand underCommunication Downward communication suffers from over communicationor under-communication. Inover- communicationsupervisors talk too much and merely waste the timeof his subordinates. In under-communication, the supervisordoes not talkenough and leaves his subordinates to his guessing aboutwhat he wants them todo
  16. 16. Upward Communication  Upward communication is the process of information flowing from the low levels of hierarchy to the upper levels.  This flow is usually from subordinates to theirdirect superior, then to that person’s direct superior, and so on up the hierarchy. Example: When you giveyoursupervisor feedback about a new system or patron, it’s upward communication
  17. 17. Methods of Upward Communication  Open-door policy: Employees are given a feeling that theirviews, suggestionsarealways welcome by superiors.  Complaintsand suggestion Boxes: Are installed in the company. Employees are encouraged to drop in these boxes.  Direct Correspondence: Writedirectly to superiorsor managers.  Counseling: Employeesareencouraged to talk to their superiorsof theirproblems.
  18. 18. Advantages of Upnward Communication Fosters Friendly Relations Upward communication helps to bring about co- operation, goodwill and understanding among superiors and subordinates. This stimulates friendly relations. ProvidesValuable Feedback Upward communication providesavaluable feedback. The superiors come to know how their plans and policies; orders and instructionsare being received and executed.
  19. 19. Making Suggestions The subordinatesareencouraged to make suggestions in the interest of the organization. Some of these suggestions prove useful, and the subordinates are suitablyrewarded
  20. 20. Disadvantages of Upward Communication Resistance From Subordinates Subordinates rarely initiate upward communicationas they are afraid of being ignored.so they hesitate to initiate itagain. Fearof Incompetence The subordinatescommunicating with the superiors fear that their colleagues or work may be regarded by theirsuperioras a reflection on theirowncompetence.
  21. 21.  Indecisive Superiors If the superiorsdo not takeanydecision in the light of upward communication, the subordinates loss confidence in theirsuperiors.
  22. 22. Diagonal Communication Diagonal Communication takes placeatdifferent levels in the hierarchy. Itoccurs both ways, that is, from the upper level to low level and viceversa. The path is mixtureof vertical and horizontal movement.
  23. 23. In large communicationsvariousdepartments need communicationsupport from each other. Diagonal communication aims at discussing such mattersas pertain to theexecutionof the plans and policies of an organization to meet its business objectives.
  24. 24. Advantages and Disadvantages of Diagonal Communication The path is mixture of vertical and horizontal movement. So diagonal communication has all the advantages and disadvantages of both, horizontal and vertical communication.
  25. 25. Horizontal Communication Takes place between individuals of equal hierarchical rank and is more informal than either downward or upward communication
  26. 26. Functions of Horizontal Communication It helps employees fulfill theirsocialization needs. It helpsemployeesand departmentscoordinate their activitieswith oneanother. It helpsothers betterunderstand individual and departmental responsibilities. It helps individualssolve theirown problems before others have to become involved.
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES OF HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION:- ⚫Co-ordination ⚫Fastercommunication 25
  28. 28. DISADVANTAGES OF HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION:- ⚫Lack of motivation ⚫Presenceof physical barriers 26
  29. 29. Examples of Horizontal Communication
  30. 30. The marketing manager can communicate with production manager at the same level without any difficulty.
  31. 31. By horizontal communication army and rangers employees co-ordinate with each other. Manager can better understand his responsibility inside his perimeter. It enhances the self actualization among the people in society.
  32. 32. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION 30 Supervisors Staff Departments Top-level managers Lower-level managers Departments