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Chapter 15.1 immigration

  1. Chapter 15.1 Immigration
  2. Intro/precursor With the boom of business in industry in the late 1800s, and early 1900s, there was a demand for labor in the United States. Businesses relied on the surplus of labor provided by the incoming immigrants to the United States.
  3. Changing Patterns of Immigration Q: How did patterns of immigration change at the turn of the century? ❏ Old Immigrants - 1800-1880 approx. 10 Million immigrants came to America - From Northern and Western Europe - Wanted a voice in the gov’t - Escape political turmoil - Wanted more economic opportunity since the church in Europe controlled much of the land and therefore most jobs ❏ New Immigrants - 1880-1910 approx. 18 million immigrants came to America - From Southern and Eastern Europe - Different religion (Catholic, Arab, Jewish, Armenian, Greek Orthodox, Asian religions) - Seeking the American dream of prosperity - By 1910, 1 in 12 Americans had been foreign born
  4. Immigration Classifications Classification Old New When Pre-civil War Early 1800s After the Civil War stating in the Late 1800s Where From Northern and Western Europe Eastern and Southern Europe and Asia Countries Ireland, England, Germany, Scandinavia Italy, Russia, Poland, China, Japan, Greece Religion Christian Christian, Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu Language English or English based Non-English based languages Settled Where Country City
  5. Coming to America Q: Why did immigrants come to America in the late 1800s, and where did they settle? - Russian Jews fled religious persecution - Southern and Eastern Europe populations rose quickly, providing little economic opportunity - Too little land and too few jobs - Many believed that America was the “land of opportunity” - It was said that all people needed to do was work hard and save their money, and they would prosper. ** Do you think this to be true today?
  6. Push/Pull Factors for Immigration Push Factors Reasons to Emigrate Pull Factors Reasons to Immigrate
  7. Push/Pull Factors for Immigration - Religious Persecution - Poverty - Political Persecution - Freedom of Speech - Free Land - Freedom - Job Opportunities - Family There - Religious Freedom - Scarcity of Land
  8. Coming to America cont… Q: What did U.S. immigration authorities want to know about each immigrant after 1893? - Journey to America - One member (father or eldest son) would go ahead of the family - Send pre-paid tickets for remaining family months later - 1893 immigration laws change - Approval of steamship authorities before allowed to board - Show proof of identification - Have at least $30 in cash - Indicate if ever were in prison, poorhouse, or mental hospital - Medical examination for obvious diseases and vaccinations - Disinfection of person and personal belonging - Traveled in Steerage (bottom of ships) “The ventilation is almost always inadequate, and the air soon becomes foul. The unattended vomit of the seasick, the odors of not too clean bodies, the reek of food and the awful stench of the nearby toilet rooms make the atmosphere of the steerage such that it is a marvel that human flesh can endure it… All of these conditions are naturally aggravated by the crowding.” ~ 1911
  9. Coming to America cont… Q: Why do you think steerage passengers were required to go through immigration at Ellis Island? - Ellis Island - Immigration station built in 1892 in New York Harbor - Over 62 years of operation 112 million immigrants pass through the station - Used as a check-point - Immigrants had to pass inspection - Took up to 5 hours - Doctor scans for obvious illness - If medical exam was failed, you were sent back to your home country - Provide correct paperwork, if not correct, you were detained for weeks until you got the right forms and identification papers.
  10. Urban Communities Q: Why do you think many immigrants wanted to keep their own traditions, language, and culture? - Immigrants moved to urban centers (NYC, Chicago, Philadelphia, etc.) - Settled in common communities that shared language and culture - Forced to live in poor housing due to low paying/unskilled jobs available - Patchwork of neighborhoods created benevolent societies - Organization to help and aid newcomer immigrants - Helped find jobs - Obtain health care - Go to school - Financial support if too sick to work
  11. Nativists How did nativists respond to the new wave of immigration? - The American economy strengthened in the wave of immigration as the labor force grew helping factories run and cities growing. - However Many native born Americans hated the immigrants and complained: - Too different to fit in - Blamed for problems of crime, poverty and violence - Posed a threat to American economy - Acceptance of lower wages - Taking all the “good” jobs - Had congress pass the Chinese Exclusion act in 1882, banned chinese immigration for 10 years - 1917 passed a literacy test as a requirement for admittance to America - Determined someone's ability to read and understand English
  12. Identify what you see in this primary source image. Describe.
  13. What is this image showing? Describe.
  14. How many people are featured in this image? Describe everything you see.
  15. Immigration What we know: How immigrants arrived, what their journey was like. Where immigrants came from in 1800s-1900s Why immigrants came to America. What kind of people came to America. Where they settled, and what life was like there.