2. What is Literature Review?
Literature Review is an examination of the
research that has been conducted in a
particular field of study.
A literature review is an account of what
has been published on a topic by
accredited scholars and researchers.
3. What is the Purpose of a Literature
Attain a good knowledge of the field on inquiry-
Proposed research is really needed
Helps to narrow a problem
Generation of hypotheses, RQs or questions for
To convey what knowledge and ideas have
been established on a topic
And what their strengths and weakness are?
4. Why is the Literature Review necessary?
To identify gaps in the research area.
To avoid the reinventing the wheel.
To carry on from where others have already
To identify other people’s working in the same
To fathom the depth of knowledge of our
5. A Literature Review must do these things
Be organized around and relate directly to the
thesis or research questions we are
Synthesize results into a summary of what is
and what is not known.
Identify areas of controversy in the literature.
Formulate questions that need for further
6. Two Important Objectives of LR
Seeking Information: the ability to scan the
literature efficiently, using manual or
computerized methods, to identify a set of
useful articles and books.
Critical Appraisal: the ability of apply
principles of analysis to identify unbiased and
7. Ask Yourself Question Like these
What is the specific thesis, problem or research
question that my literature review helps to
what type of literature review am I conducting?
Am I looking at issues of theory? Methodology?
Policy? Quantitative research?
What is the scope of my literature review? What
type of publications am I using (e.g. Journals,
books, government documents, popular media)?
8. Ask Yourself Questions…….
What discipline am I working in (e.g., Engineering,
Psychology, humanities, Pharmacy, Management)?
How good was my seeking information? Has my
search been wide enough to ensure I have found all
the relevant materials? Is the number of sources I
have used appropriate for the length of my paper?
Have I critically analyzed the literature I use? Do I
follow through a set of concepts and questions,
comparing items to each other in the ways they deal
9. Ask Yourself Questions…….
Instead of just listing and summarizing items,
do I assess them, discussing strengths and
Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to
Will the reader find my literature review
relevant, appropriate, and useful?
10. Ask Yourself Questions…….
Has the author formulated a problem/issue?
Is it clearly defined? Is its significance (scope,
severity, relevance) clearly established?
Could the problem have been approached more
effectively from another perspective?
What is the author’s research orientation (e.g.,
interpretive, critical science, combination)?
What was the author’s theoretical framework (e.g.,
psychological, developmental, feminist)?
11. Ask Yourself Questions…….
Has the author evaluated the literature
relevant to the problem/issue? Does the
author include literature taking positions she
or he does not agree with?
How accurate and valid are the
measurements? Is the analysis of the data
accurate and relevant to the research
question? Are the conclusions validly based
upon the data and analysis?
12. Literature Review Process
1. Select a
2. Search and
3. Develop your
6. Write the
13. 1. Select A Topic
Read your assignment carefully!
Ask for clarification from professor
Talk over your ideas with someone
Scan academic journals
Read professional blogs and listserve
Look for Research Agendas on professional
Focus on your topic.
14. 2. Search the literature
Types of sources that can be included:
Books, Articles, Abstracts, Reviews,
Dissertations and thesis, Research reports,
Websites, Films, etc.
Identify the most important/useful databases
for your discipline.
Develop an understanding of the academic
terminology for your field of study
Determine time frame.
15. 2.Cont.……. Search the
Look for empirical and theoretical literature
Include primary and secondary sources
Identify classic or seminal studies
Identify important authors who are contributing to
the development of your topic
Use a system to organize and manage material
From the very beginning
Refworks or other bibliographic management software.
16. 3. Develop your argument
This step is a planning step- you will develop these
arguments in the next two steps: surveying and
critiquing the literature
You must build a case for what is known about
your topic and determine how this knowledge
addresses the question”- Machi and McEvoy, 2009
Develop two types of arguments:
Argument of discovery- develop findings that present that current state
of knowledge about your research interest.
Argument of advocacy- analyze and critique the knowledge gained from
developing the argument of discovery to answer the research question.
17. 3.Cont.….. Develop Your
Analyze the claims within the literature to develop
Claim- the argument’s declaration or assertion
Evidence- data that define and support the claim
Types of claims:
18. 4+5. Survey and Critique the
Develop the discovery argument and the advocacy
Answer the Questions:
What do we know about the subject of our study?
Based on what we know, what conclusions can we draw about the
Critically assess each piece of literature you have
gathered to analyze its content.
You need to be:
19. 4+5. Cont.…. Survey and Critique
Stage 1: Skim and Read
Skim first- note topic, structure, general reasoning, data,
and bibliographical references.
Go back and skim the prefaced and introduction, try to
identify main ideas contained in the work.
Identify key parts of the article or key chapters in books.
20. 4+5. Cont.….. Survey and
Stage 2: Highlight and Extract Key Elements
Trying to understand historical context and current state
Identify themes, trends, patterns
Also looking for gaps and anomalies
Key questions to ask of the literature:
What are the origins and definitions of the topic?
What are the key theories, concepts, and ideas?
What are the major debates, arguments, and issues?
What are the key questions and problems that have been addressed to
Are there any important issues that have been insufficiently addressed
21. 4+5. Cont.….Survey and Critique
When analyzing research studies, must also identify
some of the key elements that all research studies
22. 6.Write the Review
Use the results of your analysis and critique of the
literature to develop the organization of your review
Develop a detailed outline:
Identify the themes and /or patterns that have emerged
Translate these into headings and subheadings
Be sure your outline is logical
Be selective with the literature you include
23. 6. Cont.…. Write Review
Synthesis , reorganize and reassemble all of the
separate pieces and details to create an integrated
Make connections between ideas and concepts
Never present a chain of isolated summaries of
The synthesis needs to build a knowledge base and
extend new lines of thinking
Remember- this is your entry into conversation!
Writing a literature review is a creative activity
1. Bloomberg, L.D. and M. Volpe (2008). Completing
your Qualitative Dissertation: A Roadmap from Beginning
to End. Los Angeles: Sage
2. Machi, L.E. and B.T. McEvoy (2009). The Literature
Review: Six Steps to Success. Thousand Oaks: Corwin
25. The End
Thanks all my dear brothers and
sisters for your kind cooperation
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