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Passive voice

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Passive voice

  1. 1. • Describe the form and structure of the passive voice. • Know when and how to use the passive voice in terms of oral and written usage.
  2. 2. is less common. The subject is the receiver of the action; he or she receives the action expressed by the verb. The sentence begins with the object or person the subject is performed on.
  3. 3. Subject + Auxillary verb be + Main verb past participle + by + agent OPTIONAL
  4. 4. Subject To be Main verb past participle by I am employed by Apple. You will be woken at 6. It will have been Finished by then. We have been notified by Head office. You are being transferred next week. They will be paid.
  5. 5.  The subject of an active sentence "does" the action. In a passive sentence, we express the doer (or agent) through a by phrase (the long passive) or, veryoften, we remove it completely (the short passive). In the followingexample, the agent is "the Allies": active The Allies firebombed Dresden. passive long Dresden was firebombed by the Allies. short Dresden was firebombed.
  6. 6. The table below shows examples of the passive with negative sentences, question sentences and negative-question sentences: SUBJE CT TO BE main verb (past participle) - The OBTEC students’ classes were not suspended Love can never be controlled by us.
  7. 7. ? Are they cleaned regularly? Has your wallet been stolen? -? Is he not notified immediately? Will they not be dismissed ? Haven't they been forgotten?
  8. 8. There are several times when the passive voice is useful, and usually the decision has to do with the "doer" (agent) or the "receiver" of the action. For example, we use the passive when: 1. We want to emphasize the receiver of the action: • President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. cf: Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy.
  9. 9. 2. We don't know who didthe action (the doer): •My wallet has been stolen. cf: Somebody has stolen my wallet. 3. We think the doer is not importantor interesting: • Our house is being painted. cf: XYZ Company is painting our house.
  10. 10. 4. When the agent or doer is obvious. • I am paid weekly. cf: My company pays me weekly. 5. We are making general statements or announcements: •Passengers are reminded to fasten their seatbelts. cf: The Captain reminds passengers to fasten their seatbelts.
  11. 11. 6. The doer is everyone: • The emergency services can be called by dialling 999. cf: The public can call the emergency services by dialling 999. 7. We are writing formal or scientific texts: • Potassium was added and mixed in. The solution was heated to 80°C and then allowed to cool. cf: The technician added potassium and mixed it in. The technician heated the solution to 80°C and then allowed it to cool.
  12. 12. 8. We want to avoidresponsibility for our own actions: • Mistakes were made and unfortunately never rectified. cf: The man made mistakes and unfortunately never rectified them.
  13. 13. The passive voice is not a tense itself. But for transitive verbs each tense, as well as other verb forms such as infinitives and participles, can be produced in the passive voice. Some of the more complicated tenses (mostly perfect continuous) are rarely used in the passive, but they are possible.
  14. 14. infinitive to be loved perfect infinitive to have been loved participle Loved perfect participle having been loved gerund being loved
  15. 15. Here are some examples of the passive voice with many of the possible forms using the verb sing: Simple Continuous Perfect Present am, are, is loved am, are, is being loved have, has been loved Past was, were loved was, were being loved had been loved Future will be loved will be being loved will have been loved
  16. 16. perfect infinitive It seems to have been taken. participle I saw it being eaten by the cat. perfect participle My work having been finished, I went home. gerund I insisted on being paid.
  17. 17. PRESENT SIMPLE is/are + Past Participle Ex: Julia designs the bulletin board. The bulletin board is designed by Julia. The students wear black shoes. Black shoes are worn by the students.
  18. 18. was/were + Past Participle Ex: Allysa took the OBTEC Examination yesterday. The OBTEC Examination was taken by Allysa yesterday.
  19. 19. Ex: Louise paid me coins last week. Coins were paid to me by Louise last week. will + be + Past Participle
  20. 20. is/are + being +Past Participle Ex: Love Joy is keeping a diary A diary is being kept by Love Joy
  21. 21. EX: Louie will buy a ring as a birthday gift to her friend. A ring will be bought by Louie as birthday gift to her friend Ex: The reporter will ask them. They will be asked by the reporter
  22. 22. Ex: They are discussing the reporters’ questions. The reporters’ questions are being discussed by them. Was/ were + being + Past Participle
  23. 23. Ex: They were watching good films in class. Good films were being watched in class. Ex: Christian was eating junk food when she arrived. Junk food was being eaten by Christian
  24. 24. has/ have + been + Past Participle Ex; Abrielle has submitted the occasional papers. The occasional paper has been submitted by Abrielle. The essays have not been read by the students. EX: The students have not read the essays.
  25. 25. had+ been + Past Participle Ex: PNU had introduced the new curriculum. The new curriculum had been introduced by PNU.
  26. 26. 1. You can recognize passive voice because the verb phrase will include a form of be (was, am, are, been, is). 2. Not all verbs in English take an object. Therefore some sentences are complete without an object. Example: Ana lived far away. Ana slept soundly. 3. The get-passive Although we normally construct the passive with be + past participle, it is also possible (in informal language) to use get + past participle.
  27. 27. 1. Changing the tense to similar tense. Example: Active: She has submitted the homeworks Wrong passive: The homeworks were submitted. Correct passive: The homeworks have been submitted. 2. Plural/ singular confusion. Example: Active: She has submitted the homeworks Wrong passive: The homeworks has been submitted. Correct passive: The homeworks have been submitted.
  28. 28. Sources: Toadvine, A., Brizee, A., & Angeli, E. (2012, August 12). Active versus Passive Voice. Retrieved from: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/539/2/ English Club (n.a.). Passive Voice. Retrieved from: https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-voice-passive.htm Joki, K. (July 2015). How to Use the Passive Voice Correctly. Retrieved from : http://www.grammarly.com/blog/2015/how-to-use-the- passive-voice-correctly-2/?source=trending&position=1

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