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  1. Employee Involvement 1 Employee Involvement at ArvinMeritor
  2. Employee Involvement 2 Opening Video . . . Video Time Fish
  3. Employee Involvement 3 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW
  4. Employee Involvement 4 Workshop Goal  To provide you with Employee Involvement concepts and tools that will help you conduct effective EI team meetings.
  5. Employee Involvement 5 Workshop Objectives  Upon completion of this workshop you will be able to: – Discuss your role on an EI Team – Explain the four stages of team development – Identify the various roles of team members – Describe effective communication techniques you can use during a team meeting – Discuss how to overcome the barriers your team may face – Use the EI Problem Solving Tools – Participate on an EI Team
  6. Employee Involvement 6 Workshop Agenda  Workshop Overview  Our EI Philosophy  The EI Team  Stages of EI Team Development  Interpersonal Communications & Group Dynamics  EI Team Tools  EI Strategies for Success  EI Team Meeting Simulation  Wrap-Up and Workshop Feedback
  7. Employee Involvement 7 Key Learnings Contract  Identify 3-5 things you would like to learn from today’s workshop…
  8. Employee Involvement 8 Our EI Philosophy
  9. Employee Involvement 9 “Employee Involvement is the on-going effort to involve all employees in the decisions that affect their work lives.” EI Mission Statement
  10. Employee Involvement 10 The Right Way  We promote and support EI because it is the right way to operate; recognizing the abilities and potentials of all employees.  EI is a prerequisite for maintaining our competitive position in today’s marketplace.
  11. Employee Involvement 11 Employee Involvement Goals  Give employees a voice in changes  Give everyone’s ideas a chance to be heard  Involve everyone  Make our products more competitive
  12. Employee Involvement 12 What are the EI Benefits?  Increases job satisfaction  Helps solve problems  Improves skill levels  Increases commitment  Improves quality & productivity  Reduces absenteeism  Improves work environment
  13. Employee Involvement 13 Link to AM Vision The on-going effort to involve all employees in the decisions that affect their work lives.” EI Mission To be the number one supplier to the current and new customers by 2010. Our Vision Teamwork and Respect for Each Another Integrity Pursuit of Excellence Core Values
  14. Employee Involvement 14 The EI Team
  15. Employee Involvement 15 Five-Square Configuration Exercise  Instructions: – Using the worksheet provided arrange the 5 squares so that at least one side of each square touches and is in line with one side of another square. – Use all 5 squares each time. – Mirror images are not acceptable. – There are 11 possible configurations.
  16. Employee Involvement 16 What is a Team? Large Group Discussion
  17. Employee Involvement 17 EI Teams Emphasize…  People Building  Teamwork  Open Communication  Problem Solving  Listening  Discussing  Education & Training  Continuous Improvement  Supportive Leadership
  18. Employee Involvement 18 EI Team Characteristics  6 to 12 members  May be natural work team  May be cross- functional  Team selects leader  Meet regularly  Explore problems  Recommend solutions  Management listens  Recognition of ideas
  19. Employee Involvement 19 Empowered to Make Contributions CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTS IDEAS Non-Management Management TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION
  20. Employee Involvement 20 Measures of Success  % of workforce on teams – Goal: 100%  Proposals per year per person – World Class Goal: 15 – Best In Class Goal: 24  % of proposals implemented – World Class Goal: 85% – Best In Class Goal: 85%  Scrap reduction  PPM (parts per million)  Changeover time  Training hours
  21. Employee Involvement 21 Typical Production Team Successes  521 Proposals (99% Implemented)  Reduced downtime by 70%  Reduced scrap by 82%  Reduced change-over time from 1 hour to 10 minutes  Reduced raw material inventory from 7 days to 2 days  Reduced costs totaled $50,000
  22. Employee Involvement 22 Typical Administrative Team Success  14 Suggestions per member  Implemented $100,000 in MRO savings – MRO = Maintenance Repair & Operating  Implemented supply tracking system  Reduced use of outside trucking firm - saving $40,000 annually  Changed shipping containers saving $20,000  Contributed to doubling “On-Time” shipments
  23. Employee Involvement 23  Representative Team – Select group of representatives from different shifts  Natural Work Team – Work Cells or Departments  Cross-Functional Team – Representatives from different functions  Ad-Hoc Team – Formed for a specific purpose Types of EI Teams
  24. Employee Involvement 24  2 from Bending Line Day Shift  2 from Bending Line 2nd Shift  2 from Assembly Day Shift  2 from Assembly 2nd Shift Representative Team Example
  25. Employee Involvement 25  Accounts Payable is an operation with 6 people.  Cell 4510 is a bending line with eight operators. Natural Work Team Examples
  26. Employee Involvement 26  Line Operator  Set Up Person  Toolmaker  Welder  Floor Inspector  Industrial Engineer  Rods  Tube Mill  Piston Heads  Assembly  Engineering  Tool Maker Cross-Functional Team Example
  27. Employee Involvement 27  1 Division Packaging Engineer  1 Purchasing Agent  1 Customer Service Representative  2 Programmer Analysts  1 Accounting Manager Cross-Functional Team Example
  28. Employee Involvement 28  Formed for a specific purpose  May be created from available persons  May provide help or additional resources to existing team  May discontinue meeting once purpose or goal is met Ad-Hoc Team
  29. Employee Involvement 29  Team Leader  Facilitator  Team Contributor Team Member Roles
  30. Employee Involvement 30  Committee Chairman  Coordinates Activities  Develops Team Approach  Guides Problem Solving Techniques  Encourages ALL to Participate  Guides Issues and Content  Reinforces Positive Behavior  Minimizes Non-Productive Behavior  Leads by Focusing  Ensures Members Have Agenda & Minutes Team Leader’s Role
  31. Employee Involvement 31  Assists the Leader  Facilitator is an Outside Consultant  Observes and Suggests Improvements  Concerned with Process Not Content  Keeps the Team Focused on Goals  Encourages Decisions by Consensus  Ensures Tasks and Dates are Assigned Facilitator’s Role
  32. Employee Involvement 32 Team Contributor’s Role  Contributes Ideas and Suggestions  Listens to Other Team Members  Focuses on Team Goals and Objectives  Helps Accomplish Assigned Tasks  Reports Progress
  33. Employee Involvement 33  Idea Initiator: Offers ideas, problems, goals, and project ideas.  Information Seeker: Seeks facts, opinions, feelings, and data.  Information Provider: Offers facts, ideas, opinions, research, and data. Team Task Roles
  34. Employee Involvement 34  Problem Clarifier: Interprets ideas, clears up confusion.  Summarizer: Restates the groups comments or decisions for clarity.  Consensus Tester: Checks groups response on a regular basis. Team Task Roles (cont.)
  35. Employee Involvement 35 Team Social Roles  Coach: Encourages and guides.  Harmonizer: Promotes understanding, reconciles disagreements and reduces tension.  Gatekeeper: Keeps communications open and encourages participation.  Diplomat: Negotiates peace, looks for common ground, maintains objectivity.
  36. Employee Involvement 36  Problem Definition & Analysis  Idea Generation  Data Gathering  Problem-Solving Tools  Team Assignments  Solutions  Follow-Up Plans  Progress Reports Meeting Content
  37. Employee Involvement 37  General process guidelines: – Participation by all members is encouraged – Members should focus on the team goals and objectives – Meetings should not be dominated by one person – Everyone should have the opportunity to share ideas – Team meetings should be orderly – Use an agenda as a meeting guide Conducting a Team Meeting
  38. Employee Involvement 38  Progress should be discussed at every team meeting.  Report progress and obtain feedback from Leadership on a regular basis.  Progress and accomplishments should be posted on a Bulletin Board dedicated to EI Team activities. Reporting Progress Guidelines
  39. Employee Involvement 39 It’s Time for a Video… Employee Involvement
  40. Employee Involvement 40 Stages of EI Team Development
  41. Employee Involvement 41 4 Stages of Team Development Forming Storming Norming Performing
  42. Employee Involvement 42 PRODUCTIVITY MORALE FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING People may not open up May be polite and untrusting Being moderately eager Having some anxiety Stage 1: Forming Testing the situation Depending on authority Defining goals, roles, direction
  43. Employee Involvement 43 Stage 1: Setting Ground Rules  They are basic rules the team establishes for how they will work together.  Rules cover meetings, discussions, and all the ways team members interact.  Established during the formation of your EI team.
  44. Employee Involvement 44 Stage 1: Developing a Team Mission  A mission statement clarifies a team’s overall purpose -- the reason it exists as a team.  It is developed by the team and must be supported and understood by all members.
  45. Employee Involvement 45 Developing a Team Mission (cont.)  Key questions to ask: – What has our team been formed to do? – Why have we been selected to do it? – What could we accomplish that would add value to the organization? – What would our customers say is our purpose? – What would we like to say we accomplished?
  46. Employee Involvement 46 Team Mission Examples  Customer Service: Our mission is to continually enhance our service by meeting or exceeding customer needs 100% of the time.  Product Maintenance: Our mission is to improve and standardize the product maintenance process so that the procedure for correcting all types of errors is clear to our customers.  Marketing: Our mission is to provide services that will allow our organization to remain competitive in today’s changing environment.
  47. Employee Involvement 47 Stage 1: Setting Goals  Goals are specific, measurable standards of performance or the activities to which the team commits to achieving.  Ensures the team members are moving in the same direction and are aligned with the organization.
  48. Employee Involvement 48 Stage 1: Setting Goals (cont.)  Well-stated goals: – Are specific and measurable – Include timeframes or completion dates – Are communicated to others – Are challenging, but attainable – Help fulfill the team’s mission
  49. Employee Involvement 49 Goal Examples  By the end of the second quarter, we will process orders within three days of receiving them.  By December, our team will reduce cycle time by 20% and cost per unit by 10%.  By June 1, we will create a survey that measures customer satisfaction.
  50. Employee Involvement 50 Stage 1: Developing a Team Plan  Clarify the scope of the task or problem  Determine expected outcomes  Determine how performance will be measured  Brainstorm actions to take and the time required  Agree on roles and responsibilities  Review and finalize the plan  Report progress and revise as you go
  51. Employee Involvement 51  Being dissatisfied with team  Feeling frustrated with actions  Confronting one another  Being competitive PRODUCTIVITY MORALE FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING Stage 2: Storming  Needing to redefine goals, roles, tasks  Needing to remove emotional blocks or resistance  Having difficulty working together
  52. Employee Involvement 52 Stage 2: Sources of Tension – Small Group Exercise  Take 15-20 minutes to answer the following questions: – What can cause tension among team members? •Which would be the easiest to bring up? Hardest? – What could happen if the team doesn’t deal with these problems? – How would your team address these problems?
  53. Employee Involvement 53 Stage 2: Raising Difficult Issues  Request time to bring up an issue that may affect the team’s performance.  Describe what you have observed.  Explain what you see as the possible impact on the team.  Ask others to react to your comments.  Clarify and summarize what you have heard.  Ask others to suggest the best approaches for addressing the issue.
  54. Employee Involvement 54 Stage 2: When Do You Bring Up an Issue?  The situation is preventing the team from accomplishing its goals.  You have been approached by other team members who have been reluctant to bring up the issue at a meeting.  You need to talk through an issue with others.
  55. Employee Involvement 55 PRODUCTIVITY MORALE Establishing Group Goals or Norms Discussing Issues Participating Asking Questions Giving Feedback FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING Stage 3: Norming Resolving Discrepancies Communicating More Openly Developing a Sense of “Team” Providing Critical, Constructive, Evaluation
  56. Employee Involvement 56 Stage 3: How Well Are We Working Together?  Teams should evaluate: – How well they get things done – How freely members express their views – Everyone’s understanding of the mission and goals – The effectiveness of their decision making progress – How effective they communicate and listen to one another
  57. Employee Involvement 57 PRODUCTIVITY MORALE Solving Problems Attaining Goals Using Creative Problem Solving Seeking Information Obtaining Resources FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING Stage 4: Performing Being Interdependent Having Confidence in Leader Feeling Positive Confident to Set Targets Becoming More Self-Directed
  58. Employee Involvement 58 Stage 4: Team Progress Reports  Conduct regular progress reports to: – Make sure the team is on track – Give feedback on how things are going – Generate action items for things that still need to happen – Discuss lessons learned and best practices – Identify other required resources – Identify any roadblocks or issues
  59. Employee Involvement 59 Stage 4: Recognizing Accomplishments  Recognize accomplishments when your team: – Has finished a project or task – Is about to meet its goals but needs to keep the momentum going – Is working well together – Has improved its performance – Is completing milestone or a goal – Is “stressed out”
  60. Employee Involvement 60 Remember all teams go through these stages of development… Forming Storming Norming Performing The question is… What will you do to ensure your team becomes a high performing team?
  61. Employee Involvement 61 Interpersonal Communications & Group Dynamics
  62. Employee Involvement 62 SOLER Activity
  63. Employee Involvement 63 Reading Writing Talking Listening Did you know that listening is the most neglected communication skill and that adults listen at about a 25% level of efficiency? How Do We Communicate?
  64. Employee Involvement 64 Use S O L E R S Square up to speaker O Open your mind L Lean toward the speaker E Use Eye contact R Relax How Do We Become Active Listeners?
  65. Employee Involvement 65 How Can We Communicate Better With One Another?  Use active listening skills first.  Clarify and summarize what you have heard.  Be open and candid about your ideas and feelings—this is crucial to the quantity and quality of work produced.  Find ways to understand different points of view because there will always be diverse personalities on a team.
  66. Employee Involvement 66 Don’t Say Is there anyone who doesn’t understand? It’s time to move on. That’s just the way things are. Say That might not be clear. Do we need to go into that a little more? Is there anything else, or should we move on? How do you think we can change that? How Can We Communicate Better With One Another (cont.)?
  67. Employee Involvement 67 Non-Productive Behavior  Aggressor: Deflates status of others, very demanding, dominates the conversation, know it all.  Complainer: Makes negative comments, resistant to new ideas, doesn’t recognize progress.  Manipulator: Takes advantage of others, shifts focus of team to meet own objectives.
  68. Employee Involvement 68 Non-Productive Behavior  Joker: Humorist, doesn’t take things seriously, makes inappropriate remarks.  Nit-Picker: Misses the big picture, focuses on irrelevant details.  Detractor: Does not keep the team focused on their goals and objectives.  Talker: Rambles, talks too long, jumps to a new subject frequently.
  69. Employee Involvement 69 Tallest Free Standing Structure Activity  Each team has 10 minutes to build the tallest structure with the materials provided.  Select an instruction card from the box—do not share this information with others on your team.  At the end of the activity share your team’s experiences with the entire class.
  70. Employee Involvement 70 Overcoming Team Conflicts  Never attack the person! Address the behavior instead.  Resist becoming defensive.  Seek out reasons behind the arguments; search for facts.  Try to keep the team focused on their mission and goals.
  71. Employee Involvement 71 EI Team Tools
  72. Employee Involvement 72  Brainstorming  Consensus  Cause and Effect Analysis – Fishbone Diagrams  Ask “Why” Five Times  Pareto Chart  BOS Charts What Are the EI Team Tools?
  73. Employee Involvement 73  The purpose of brainstorming is to: – Generate a large number of ideas in an open environment – Give everyone the opportunity to share – Encourage everyone to participate – Record ALL the ideas Brainstorming
  74. Employee Involvement 74  Problem: – A customer at your restaurant just complained that he was served a bad tasting cup of coffee. He asked for another cup and said the coffee was just as bad as the first cup he was served. • What are the possible causes? • What are the possible solutions? Brainstorming Activity
  75. Employee Involvement 75  Group consensus is: 100% support by the team Reached after full discussion of all views Each individual stating his/her position and why Consensus Building
  76. Employee Involvement 76  Majority rule  Autocratic rule  Pressure rule  100 % Agreement  Efficient (but it is effective)  Argument for, or against, different views Consensus Building is Not….
  77. Employee Involvement 77 1. Encourage different views. 2. Don’t vote, nor flip a coin, etc. 3. Don’t reach quick agreements. Discuss. 4. Don’t argue for or against. Logically present your case, then consider others. 5. Don’t quickly give in without discussing. 6. Don’t try to avoid conflict and disagreement. 7. Avoid I win you lose situations. Look for areas where you agree. 8. Move toward solutions everyone can support. Consensus Rules
  78. Employee Involvement 78 Lost at Sea Exercise
  79. Employee Involvement 79 1. Define The Problem 2. Brainstorm Possible Causes 3. Do a Cause and Effect Analysis Using a Fishbone Diagram 4. Select the Root Cause(s) 5. Verify Cause(s) & Determine Corrective Actions 6. Propose Solution(s) Including Costs, Benefits & Timing 7. Implement the Solution(s) 8. Monitor Results Problem Solving Process
  80. Employee Involvement 80 STEP 1 Identify the problem during one of your team’s brainstorming sessions. Draw a box around the problem. This is called the “effect”. STEP 2 Draw a long process arrow leading into the box. This arrow represents the direction of influence. Bad Tasting Coffee Cause & Effect Analysis – Fishbone Diagram Problem or “Effect” Bad Tasting Coffee
  81. Employee Involvement 81 STEP 3 Decide what are the major categories of causes. Groups often start by using Machines, Materials, Methods, and Man. For some problems, different categories work better. MACHINE METHOD MATERIALS MAN BAD TASTING COFFEE Cause & Effect Analysis – Fishbone Diagram (cont.)
  82. Employee Involvement 82 STEP 4 Decide what are the possible causes related to each main category. For example, possible causes related to man are experience, ability and individual preference. MACHINE METHOD MATERIALS MAN drip perk manual automatic filter size of machine sugar cream temperature electric, gas, open fire experience ability individual preference BAD TASTING COFFEE grind Cause & Effect Analysis – Fishbone Diagram (cont.) brand
  83. Employee Involvement 83 STEP 5 Eliminate the trivial, non-important causes. Cause & Effect Analysis – Fishbone Diagram (cont.) MACHINE METHOD MATERIALS MAN drip perk manual automatic filter size of machine sugar cream temperature electric, gas, open fire experience ability individual preference BAD TASTING COFFEE grind brand
  84. Employee Involvement 84 Cause & Effect Analysis – Fishbone Diagram (cont.) STEP 6 Discuss the causes that remain and decide which are important. Circle them. MACHINE METHOD MATERIALS MAN drip perk manual automatic filter size of machine sugar cream temperature electric, gas, open fire experience ability individual preference BAD TASTING COFFEE grind brand
  85. Employee Involvement 85 Problem: The gage cup won’t fit on the outlet end of the tail pipe. 1. Why? The tab is too wide. 2. Why is the tab too wide? It flattens out as it gets welded. 3. Why does it flatten out? The welder temperature is too hot. 4. Why is the temperature too hot? Operator turned up temp control. 5. Why did operator turn up temperature control? Not given work instructions about which temperature ranges work best. Ask “Why” Five Times
  86. Employee Involvement 86 Problem: Expense report submitted Jan 10th, not paid by Jan. 24th. 1. Why? Disbursements Area didn’t submit for payment. 2. Why didn’t they submit for payment? Receipt for hotel stay included charges for movies. 3. Why were non-payable charges included? Employees didn’t understand these are not allowable expenses. 4. Why didn’t the employee understand? Not familiar with policy. 5. Why not familiar with policy? Policy is 30 pages, very detailed document. Ask “Why” Five Times
  87. Employee Involvement 87 A problem solving tool in a form of a bar graph: Illustrates rank potential problem areas according to their cost, part quality or total variation Helps us focus on the largest contributors (80/20 rule) Pareto Chart
  88. Employee Involvement 88 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 week 1 bad welds split tube burrs other Pareto Chart Example
  89. Employee Involvement 89 BOS Chart or Business Operating System charts are one page summaries used to track results. They: –Show Data Trends –Identify Key Factors –Track Projects –Monitor Improvements Tracking Results - BOS Chart
  90. Employee Involvement 90 BOS Key Measurable: PPM - Steel Can Assembly Cell Ref # Description Resp. End Date 1 Redesign f inished goods packaging AM 7/18/95 2 Procure new component parts containers JK 6/30/95 3 Improv e weld in process weld monitoring sy stem SL 7/24/95 4 Replace current controller on paint sy stem GA 9/20/95 Improvement Activities Quantifier: PPM Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Actual Target Improvement Tracking 1 21 17 14 18 14 Damaged Assembly Cracked Casing Broken Weld Paint Blistering 0 10 20 30 40 50 Data Analysis Ref # 1 2 3 4 Description Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Damaged Assembly Cracked Casing Broken Weld Paint Blistering 14 15 19 17 18 12 10 14 19 17 17 14 21 20 18 1 20 21 20 17 18 22 20 19 51 42 48 40 45 50 39 5 BOS Chart Example
  91. Employee Involvement 91 Team Tools - Small Group Activity  Each team will be given the same problem and be asked to use an EI Team Tool to come up with possible solutions. – Time: 15 minutes  Demonstrate how you came up with the team’s solutions to the entire group. – Time: 5 minutes
  92. Employee Involvement 92 Start With Simple Type 1 Problems: Team has complete control of problem They can identify problem easily Have experience to solve problem Have authority to implement Problem-Solving Guidelines
  93. Employee Involvement 93 Some Type 2 Problems are “hand offs”: Team has limited control of problem Can identify problem easily May lack expertise to solve May lack authority to implement Can influence the decision maker Problem-Solving Guidelines (cont.)
  94. Employee Involvement 94 Type 3 Problems are “hand offs”: Team has no control of problem Can identify the problem Lacks expertise to solve Lacks authority to implement Cannot influence decision maker Problem-Solving Guidelines (cont.)
  95. Employee Involvement 95 1. Was the solution implemented? 2. Were anticipated benefits realized? 3. Were projected costs realistic? 4. Did the solution affect other areas? Cause other problems? 5. Can the solution be implemented other places? 6. Can the solution be improved upon? Follow-Up Guidelines
  96. Employee Involvement 96 EI Strategies for Success
  97. Employee Involvement 97  Meet once a week  Everyone attends  Have an agenda  Take meeting minutes  Start on time  Have specific goals  Minimize number of projects  Assign responsibilities  Assign dates  Stay focused  Rely on data  Report progress  Recognize accomplishments General Meeting Guidelines
  98. Employee Involvement 98 1. Do identify “key others” who you need and might be affected. 2. Do get input from “key others.” 3. Do invite others to meetings. 4. Do keep others informed. 5. Do involve supporters before you finalize solutions. 6. Do listen carefully to others. 7. Do be very clear about the information you need. 8. Do respect others’ problems when seeking information. The Dozen “Do’s”
  99. Employee Involvement 99 9. Do give others adequate time to get information. 10. Do have the experts give technical information to team. 11. Do remember to thank those who have given support or information. 12. Do remember that you cannot succeed without good support and information. The Dozen Do’s (cont.)
  100. Employee Involvement 100 Don’t treat others as enemies! Other shifts, departments, management, engineering, etc. You will gain nothing, and lose much, if you attack. And One Don’t…
  101. Employee Involvement 101 Look for Common Ground Build Bridges Build Consensus Build Teamwork Key Word: RESPECT
  102. Employee Involvement 102 It’s Time for a Team Meeting . . .
  103. Employee Involvement 103 1. Organize Team • Select a Team Leader and Facilitator • Select 2-3 Observers • Choose Team Name • Identify a Work Problem to Discuss 2. Use the EI Team Tools to Determine Causes and Develop Solutions 3. Conduct Your Meeting 4. Ask Observers to Critique Meeting 5. Report Your Results to the Entire Group Team Meeting Instructions
  104. Employee Involvement 104 Workshop Wrap-Up and Feedback
  105. Employee Involvement 105  Be Flexible  Be Innovative  Be Patient  Be Persistent  Be Positive Key Points to Remember
  106. Employee Involvement 106 “Until we believe the expert in any job is the person performing it, we shall forever limit the potential of that person. Consider a manufacturing setting: within their 25 square foot area, nobody knows more about how to operate a machine, improve its quality, optimize the material flow, or keep it operating than the machine operators. Nobody.” John Young, President Hewlett-Packard