• Automation can be explained as a process to
create, control and monitor the applications of
technology. Automation is the process of
handling the operation of equipment such as
processors, machinery, stabilization of ships,
aircraft, boilers and many applications with
minimum human efforts.
3. REASONS FOR AUTOMATION
1. To increase labor productivity
2. To reduce labor cost
3. To mitigate the effects of labor shortages
4. To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical
5. To improve worker safety
6. To improve product quality
7. To reduce manufacturing lead lime
8. To accomplish. processes that cannot be done
9. To avoid the high cast of not automating
4. CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMATION
Base on hardware and software. Three main
classification are :
1.Fixed (hard) automation – involve hardware
2.Programmable automation – involve software
3.Flexible automation – involve hardware and
5. FIXED AUTOMATION
• Is a machine refer to totally hardware that can operate
automatically without human interference.
• Examples – door with spring load – watch , gravity
machine, water-wheel, animal/wind – wheel.
• Used in low and medium production manufacturing.
• Special machine for production process efficiency at
higher number/rate of product.
• An Automatic machine and numerical control machine
is an example of fixed automation because the inner
construction and function can’t be change.
6. PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION
• Combination of hardware (machine) and software (programmable).
• Example – Production line assemble, Air condition, screen saver,
traffic light, radiator
• Used when rate of production are small and there is a variation at
• An equipments can be easily change their setup according to the
product configuration needs after the first production is finish.
• More different/variety and unique product can be produce
economically in small amount.
• One set of program to control the whole operation of product.
7. FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION
• Also known as “Flexible Manufacturing System(FMS)” and “Computer Integrated
• Combination of hardware and software ( same as programmable) but can easily
changed during the operation without waiting the whole operation completed.
• It can be programmed for different configuration product either at the beginning,
middle or end of the production according to the production changes.
• But usually configuration product are limited compare to the programming
• Allows combination of certain system.
• In flexible automation, different product can be made in the same time at the
same manufacture system.
• Flexible Automation System mostly consist of series of workstation that is
connected to the material operation and storage system, assembly line and control
of operation of work by using a program for a different work station.
• Example – Automobile assemble line.
11. ROBOTICS COINED
• Robot (a Slavic word for worker) was first
introduced in 1921 in a play by the Czech
playwright, Karel Čapek.
• The use of the word Robot was introduced into
his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) which
opened in Prague in January 1921.
• The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround,
a short story published in 1942, by Isaac Asimov
(born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). I, Robot, a
collection of several of these stories, was
published in 1950.
12. ROBOTICS TIMELINE
• 1922 Czech author Karel Capek wrote a story called
Rossum’s Universal Robots and introduced the word
• 1954 George Devol developed the first programmable
• 1955 Denavit and Hartenberg developed the
homogenous transformation matrices
• 1962 Unimation was formed, first industrial Robots
• 1973 Cincinnati Milacron introduced the T3 model
robot, which became very popular in industry.
• 1990 Cincinnati Milacron was acquired by ABB
• Defined by Robotics Industry Association (RIA) as
“A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator
designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices
through variable programmed motion for a variety of tasks”
• Law of Japan states that a robot is
“All purpose machine equipped with a memory device
(for handling) capable of replacing human labour for the
automatic performance of tasks”
• Robert Schilling defines a robot as
“a software controlled mechanical device that uses
sensors to guide one or more of its end effectors through various
programmed motions in a work space in order to manipulate
14. CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOT
Possible classification schemes are base on :
2.Control of movement
3.Kinematics /geometry structure
8.Based on design
10.By number of degree of freedom (gripper configuration)
15. BASED ON ANATOMY
2. Two arm
3. Arm and leg
4. Arm, leg and face
• 2 fingers
• 3 fingers
• 5 fingers
16. BASED ON CONTROL OF MOVEMENT
a) Limited sequence Robot
b) From point to point Robot
c) Continues Robot
17. LIMITED SEQUENCE ROBOT
• The movement of robot is limited in linear direction.
• Use of mechanical stop and limit switch to control the movement of manipulator.
• Difficult to fixed the stop point.
• The stop point on the path cannot be changed easily (only one stop point on a
single path between the 2 point)
• Mechanical stop give a fixed position stop (repetition +/- 0.5mm).
• Advantages :
• the cost is cheap 25% to 50%. Compare to others.
• This type of robot are used for casting, pressing and fixed movement.
• The robot not sophisticated.
• Disadvantages :
• 1) Control and movement are limited.
• 2) used longer time for setting machine.
18. POINT TO POINT ROBOT
• The movement of robot is in linear direction.
• Can stop the axes at any point through the path.
• At the end of the tool will be programmed at sequence
discrete points in the work space.
• No control for movement speed.
• Move at different speed and distance.
• Axes can reach the destination and stop before another
• Usually used in industry environment where amount of
work is zero and consistency between the movement
of the outside object like ”conveyer” not needed.
19. CONTINUES CONTROL ROBOT
• The movement of robot is in any direction
• For complex workstation environment.
• Position and end tool must be controlled and
Follow 3 dimension (3-D) space.
• Speed of movement action is different.
• Example : paint spray, welding works and
20. BASED ON KINEMATICS COORDINATE
• Work space can be defined as space that
robot manipulate (MOVE)
• a) Cartesian Coordinate /Movement (x,y,z)
• b) Cylindrical Movement(Ø, r, z)
• c)Spherical Movement(Ø, R, Ø)
• d)SCARA Movement(Ø, Ø, Z)
• e)Revolute Movement(Ø, Ø, Ø)
21. BASED ON ENERGY SOURCES
• It is the energy source that makes the actuator
or robot joint to move.
• Normally there is four categories :
1) Electrical Robot
2) Hydraulic Robot
3) Pneumatic Robot
4) Mechanical Robot
22. ELECTRICAL ROBOT
• Used electrical energy to move the motor.
• DC stepper motor, DC servomotor or AC
servomotor, solenoid or plunger at the
• Advantages : - Very popular, - low price, -
clean, - silent and - easy to assemble.
• Avoided backlash ( slow response )
• Easy to control or brake the circuit/operation
23. HYDRAULIC ROBOT
• Used hydraulic energy to move the actuator.
• Advantages :More powerful and response
more faster then electrical robot.
• Used to manipulate high speed in range of
• Disadvantages : Less clean and cleanliness is a
important feature in assembling application.
24. PNEUMATIC ROBOT
• Both electrical and hydraulic robot usually use
end tool from pneumatic power.
• Limited for robot network.
• In general, this robot is more cheaper and
• But it quite hard to control and perform less
dynamic then other robot.
25. BASED ON AUTHORITY BODY
• Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA)
– divide into 6 class.
• Robotics Institute of America (RIA)
–divide into 4 class (only consider class 3-6
as robots )
• Association Francaise de Robotique (AFR)
–divide into 4 class ( A to D )
26. JIRA (Japan Industrial Robot
• Class 1: manual handling device – a device with several DOF’s
actuated by the operator.
• Class 2: fixed sequence robot – similar to fixed automation.
• Class 3: variable sequence robot – similar to programmable
• Class 4: playback robot – the human performs tasks manually to
teach the robot what trajectories to follow.
• Class 5: numerical control robot – the operator provides the robot
with the sequence of tasks to follow rather than teach it.
• Class 6: intelligent robot – a robot with the means to understand its
environment, and the ability to successfully complete a task despite
changes in the surrounding conditions where it is performed.
27. RIA ( Robotics Institute of America )
• Class 3: variable sequence robot – similar to
• Class 4: playback robot – the human performs tasks
manually to teach the robot what trajectories to follow.
• Class 5: numerical control robot – the operator
provides the robot with the sequence of tasks to follow
rather than teach it.
• Class 6: intelligent robot – a robot with the means to
understand its environment, and the ability to
successfully complete a task despite changes in the
surrounding conditions where it is performed.
28. AFR (The Association Francaise de
• Type A: Handling devices with manual control
• Type B: Automatic handling devices
• Type C: Programmable, servo controlled robot
with continuous point-to-point trajectories
• Type D: Same as type C, but with the
capability to acquire information from its
29. BASED ON INDUSTRIAL / NON
• Non industrial robot
use in home,school,field, for
showcase and promote
• Industrial robot
in manufacturing, welding, cutting, formatting,
assembling, heavy works,painting
31. INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS
• Industrial robots is more complex.
• Consist of some subsystem that operate together to
perform function that have been determined.
• Main importancy in the subsystem for the robot is
kinematic, control system and driver.
• Robots are used in a wide range of industrial
• The earliest applications were in materials handling,
spot welding, and spray painting.
• Robots were initially applied to jobs that were hot,
heavy, and hazardous such as die casting, forging, and
32. • There are many different device types that
perform similar functions. For example:
• –Manual manipulator. A manipulator worked by a
• –Fixed-sequence robot. A manipulator that
performs successive steps of a given operation;
its instructions cannot be easily changed.
• –Variable-sequence robot. A manipulator similar
to the fixed-sequence robot, but its instructions
can be changed easily.
33. • –Playback robot. A manipulator that can
reproduce operations originally executed under
• –Numerically controlled (NC) robot. A
manipulator that can perform a sequence of
movements which is communicated by means of
• –Intelligent robot. A robot that can itself detect
changes in the work environment by means of
sensory perception and adjust its movements
34. BASED ON MOVEMENT
• The robot classification based on movement
can be divided into two class :
1. Static Robot (still)
2. Dynamic Robot (moving)
35. STATIC ROBOT
• These robots just stand at it’s place and still
moving to do work with it’s arm.
• These robot known as automatic control.
• Doing same work reputably. For example :
• These robot are suitable to do task that is
bored in the industrial.
• Can be reprogrammed to do other task.
36. • Example of Stationary Robots :
1. Forging robot.
2. Assembling installation.
3. Blocking rod for car park.
4. Robotic Arm
37. DYNAMIC ROBOT
• The base of robot can travel along the track or rail either on
the floor or overhead mount.
• This robot work at several place and can move/walk by
• The movement using wheel, foot or rail.
• The tasks that have been done by robot needs to make it
move from one place to another place.
• The workspace maybe danger, difficult or wide.
• Dynamic robot is divide into 3 types :
1. Walking robots.
2. Rolling robots.
3. Sliding robots.
38. BASED ON TECHNOLOGY
• This classification same as computer.
• According to the level of technology used.
• The factor are number of axes, payload, cycle
time, accuracy, control and actuation.
• The tree levels of technology are :
1. Low level technology
2. Medium level technology
3. High level technology
39. LOW TECHNOLOGY ROBOTS
• Used in industrial for simple job like machine loading
and unload ( doing same sequence of job in a
particular time) .
• The task can’t be change during working - fixed control.
• The axes of movement are between two to four
• Non servo controlled robots. Need mechanical stop at
the end of each axes of travel.
• The axes motion are generally up/down, reach and
• Stop after finish the job/task and repeat back .
40. • Payload (load capacity) that manipulator can position is at
the end of effectors this weight is measure at the center of
wrist flange of the robot.
• The maximum of weight can range from 3-13.6 Kg.
• The time taken for robot to move from one location to
other (cycle time) depend on payload and length
manipulator arm must travel.
• For low technology robot have very high cycle time from 5–
• The accuracy ( how closely a robot can position its payload
to a given programmed point) related to the repeatability
for LTR is very high (0.050 – 0.024 millimetre.
41. MEDIUM TECHNOLOGY ROBOTS
• Primarily for picking and placing and loading and
• More sophisticated than low-technology robots
• Have a large work cell. Its mean axis travel is
• Have a three, five to six axes (Degree of freedom)
of motion (up/down, reach, rotation, band, roll,
• Have a grate payload able to handle weight from
68 -150 kg.
42. • The cycle time form reach axis from 25 to 65
centimeter take 1secont to execute . Rotation 150
• The accuracy is not as good as LTR because of
increased number of axes
• Capable to repeating their position data to meet
the requirement of the job. For 0.2 mm to 1.3mm
• Microprocessor used to control the robot system
• Can be control by manually, all the position and
movement can be recorded and stored
43. HIGH TECHNOLOGY ROBOTS
• Used for multi purpose job such as material handling, press,
transpiring, painting, sealing, spot welding and arc welding.
• Have an axes form six to nine to 16 or more almost same as human
• The payload about the same ad medium-technology robot around
• The cycle time also same as MTR in additional every axes have their
own cycle time.
• The accuracy and repeatability is the garters, by used of feed back
data from 1-0.4 mm.
• Can perform well although the object is not at the correct position
by use of sensor and microprocessor high bit 16-31 bps).
45. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
• Officially born in 1956 at Dartmouth University
–Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon
Intelligence in machines
• Internal models of the world
• Search through possible solutions
• Plan to solve problems
• Symbolic representation of information
• Hierarchical system organization
• Sequential program execution
46. BASED ON DESIGN
First Generation Robot
• Fixed sequence program
• Take and placed task – Blind and deaf dan ( no sense )
• Less ability to make decision.
• Bight control is open.
• (Sophisticated robot ) the ability will be upgraded.
• Some action control by sense.
• Can know when something happen but cannot rectify.
• Closed control bight have been introduced.
47. Second generation robot:
• Have a coordinate control between manipulator and eye
sensor ( under progress testing)
New ability :
• Voice recognization command.
• Have touch foresee.
• Multi arm action with hand to hand coordination arm that
• Microprocessor intelligence
• Multi robots in crowd-swarm action.
• Can make decision.
48. Third generation robot
• Move faster, more robustly
• Have an AI (Non-physical, “disembodied thinking) to
operate on their own for example discrete part
• Make a decision to commit a deference job/task
• Only need a few information to do their job/task.
• Be able to learn a new thing without reprogram
• Cybernetics - Biologically inspired robot control
• New types of robot control: Reactive, hybrid, behavior-
49. BASED ON JOB OR TASK
There is various job or task that can be done by a robot such as :
1. Bomb destroyer
2. Searching and communicate
3. Searching victim in disaster
4. Seaching for Information - temperature - enemy - on planet Mars
5. Simple assembling – push, pull
6. Lifting and place
7. Entertain/ Hobby/ Friend/ to serve ( waiter) / player
8. Observe and guard (security guard)
9. Assembling line in manufacturing
There is many ways to categorize the robot .
Some are based on job or task.
Some are based on work
50. ROBOT COMPONENTS
1. Manipulator or Rover: Main body of robot
(Links, Joints, other structural element of the
2. End Effecter: The part that is connected to
the last joint hand) of a manipulator.
3. Actuators: Muscles of the manipulators
(servomotor, stepper motor, pneumatic and
4. Sensors: To collect information about the
internal state of the robot or To communicate
with the outside environment.
51. 5. Controller: Similar to cerebellum. It controls
and coordinates the motion of the actuators.
6. Processor: The brain of the robot. It calculates
the motions and the velocity of the robot’s joints,
7. Software: Operating system, robotic software
and the collection of routines.
52. ROBOT COMPONENTS EXAMPLES
Main components are :
- Manipulator : Main body (Links, Joints etc)
- End effector : Welding Torch, Paint spray gun etc
- Actuators : servo motors,stepper motors,cylinders
- Sensors : Vision, Touch, Speech synthesizers etc
- Controller : receives data from PC and controls the
- Processor: calculates motions of joints@speeds
- Software : OS, Appliaction s/w
Sensors provide awareness of the environment by sensing things.
Sensors are the core of robots. It is the system that alerts the
Sensing can be in different forms like-
• Object proximity
• Physical orientation/position
• Magnetic & Electric Fields
54. END EFFECTOS
In robotics, an end effector is the device at the
end of a robotic arm, designed to interact with
End effectors may consist of a gripper or a
tool. The gripper can be of two fingers, three
fingers or even five fingers.
• Degrees of freedom
– independently controllable components of motion
– convenient method to allow full movement in 3D
– more often used in fixed robots due to power & weight
– even more difficult to control!
• due to extra degrees of freedom
– may be very simple (two rigid arms) to pick up objects
– may be complex device with fingers on end of an arm
– probably need feedback to control grip force
Provide necessary intelligence to control the
Process the sensory information and compute
the control commands for the actuators to
carry out specified tasks