2. Key words: memory and storage systems,
using language, choice of material, choice of
task, group work, explicit vocabulary
instruction, keyword method, word maps, root
At begin level, teachers frequently use explain and
practice procedures. For examples, we might have
individual pictures on flashcards showing people who are
tired , sad, happy, frightened, exhausted, etc. We hold up a
picture, point to it and say ‘tired …. She’s tired’, while
miming a yawn. Then we model ‘tired’ and get the students
to repeat it. Next, we point to the next picture and model
‘sad’. As the students learn more words, we conduct a cue-
response drill, holding up different flashcards so that the
students give the correct word. Students can then use the
words in their own sentences. Then, the students always use
more vocabularies about everything.
Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above
elementary levels was mostly incidental, limited to
presenting new items as they appeared in reading or
sometimes listening texts. This indirect teaching of
vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will
happen through the practice of other language skills,
which has been proved not enough to ensure
There are several aspects of lexis that need to be
taken into account when teaching vocabulary,
according to Gains and Redman the lists are as
6. Memory and storage systems:
Understanding how our memory works might
help us create more effective ways to teach
Another strategy for some level learners is to turn
their accept vocabulary items into productive ones . In
order to do that, we need to refine their understanding of
the item, exploring boundaries between conceptual
meaning, polysemy, synonymy, style, register, possible
collocation, etc., so that students are able to use the item
7. Choice of material:
As both the Task-based and the lexical
approach suggest, we wanted to use authentic
material tp expose our students to rich,
contextualised naturally-occurring language.
8. Choice of the task:
Ask we said earlier in part 2.3, we find it vital
that students are given opportunities to use the
language they are learning in a realistic context.
Therefore, we have devised the final task to meet
9. Group work:
Working in groups help fostering learning
independence, and specially in vocabulary work,
learners can exchange knowledge, asking others to
explain unknown items.
We also hope that group work will be a
motivating factor, as students talk about places they
have been holiday to, trying to remember details
together, exchanging impressions and even good
10. Explicit Vocabulary Instruction.
There are as following:
1. Pre-teaching Vocabulary words: One of the most
effective methods of helping children learn new
vocabulary words is to teach unfamiliar words used in
a text prior to the reading experience. Adults should
preview reading materials to determine which words
are unfamiliar. Then these words should be defined
2. Repeated Exposure to Words. It may seem common
sense that more times we are exposed to a word, the
stronger our understanding becomes.
12. Word maps:
The word map is an excellent method for
scaffolding a child’s vocabulary learning. Like the
other explicit instructional methods, the adult should
preview reading materials to determine which words
are unfamiliar. For each of these new vocabulary
words the child creates a graphic organizer for the
13. Root analyses:
While root analysis is taught explicitly, the
ultimate goal is for readers to use the strategy
independently. Children should then be given
practice analyzing words to determine their root
and definition. When a reader is able to break down
unfamiliar words into their prefixes, suffixes and
roots they can begin to determine their meanings.
14. Implicit Vocabulary Instruction:
1. Incidental learning: Incidental vocabulary
learning occurs all of the time when we read.
2. Context Skills: Context skills are the strategies
that a reader uses for incidental vocabulary
learning. Texts are full of “clues” about the
meanings of words.
15. Useful vocabulary learning exercises that
require little or no preparation
Find the core meaning. The learners look at dictionary
entries and find the shared meaning in the various senses of
Word parts The teacher writes words on the board and
the learners cut them into parts and give the meanings of
Suggest collocates The learners work together in pairs
or small groups to list collocates for a given word.
Word detectives A learner reports on a word he or she
has found in their reading. They talk about the meaning,
spelling, pronunciation, word parts, etymology, collocates
and grammar of the word.
Choosing the words:
1 As words come up in class, one learner (the class
secretary) has the job of noting them for future attention.
2 The teacher chooses words that have appeared in work
in the last week or two.
3 The teacher chooses words that the learners need to
Spelling dictation The teacher says words or phrases
and the learners write them.
Pronunciation The teacher writes words on the board
and the learners pronounce them getting feedback from
the teacher. Each learner picks what word to say.
Word parts The teacher writes words on the board
and the learners cut them into parts and give the
meanings of the parts.
17. Using method and materials….
1. Using authentic materials
2. Using Online Resources
3. Using pictures
4. Using direct method
5. Research tools
6. Vocabulary notebooks
7. Using grammar-translation method
18. Suggestion and discussion:
I wrote some questions for discussion about this
research work as lesson.
1. Why teach vocabulary?
2. How we learn our lesson’s text over vocabulary?
3. How many words which words to teach?
4. What vocabulary has own advantage and
5. What types of vocabulary do you know?
Teachers need to take a broader view of what
vocabulary instruction entails, and take proactive
charge of both explicit and incidental vocabulary
development. It is important to acknowledge the
incremental nature of vocabulary learning, and to
understand that an effective vocabulary learning
program needs to be principled, long term, and have
high vocabulary learning expectations. There will
never be one “best” teaching method, but teachers
will not go wrong following the overall principle of
maximizing sustained engagement with words.
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Evidence for the parasitic model of vocabulary development. IRAL
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Horst, M. (2005). Learning L2 vocabulary through extensive
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Koda, K. (1997). Orthographic knowledge in L2 lexical processing.
Coady, J. and Huckin, T. (eds.) Second Language Vocabulary