2. Disclaimer: This presentation is prepared by trainees of
baabtra as a part of mentoring program. This is not official
document of baabtra –Mentoring Partner
Baabtra-Mentoring Partner is the mentoring division of baabte System Technologies Pvt .
6. What is normalization
• Database normalization is the process of organizing
the fields and tables of a relational database to
minimize redundancy and dependency
• Normalization usually involves dividing large tables
into smaller (and less redundant) tables and defining
relationships between them.
• The objective is to isolate data so that additions,
deletions, and modifications of a field can be made in
just one table and then propagated through the rest of
the database using the defined relationships.
7. • Two goals of normalization process:
Eliminating Redundant Data
Ensuring data dependencies
• Main objective:
Reduce the amount of database space
Make database structure flexible
Consistent throughout database
9. First Normal Form (1NF)
• The values in each column of a table are
• Each table has a primary key.
• There are no repeating groups.
10. Second Normal Form (2NF)
• Should be in 1NF.
• Remove subsets of data that apply to multiple
rows of a table and place them in separate
• Create relationships between tables.
11. Third Normal Form (3NF)
• should be 2NF.
• Has no transitive functional dependencies.
• Remove columns that are
not dependent upon the primary key.
• To convert 2NF to 3NF, we again divide tables.
12. Boyce-Codd Normal Form(BCNF)
• Should be 3NF.
• Every determinant must be a candidate key.
• All tables can have only one primary key
• Candidate Key:
Any attribute or a set of attributes together that
has the eligibility to become a primary key.
13. What is ddl?
• DDL (Data definition language) defines your
database structure. CREATE and ALTER
are DDL statements as they affect the way
your database structure is organized.
14. What is dml?
• DML (Data Manipulation Language) lets you
do basic functionalities like INSERT,
UPDATE, DELETE and MODIFY data in
15. What is dcl?
• DCL (Data Control Language) controls you
DML and DDL statements so that your data
is protected and has consistency. COMITT and
ROLLBACK are DCL control statements.
DCL guarantees ACID fundamentals of a
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