Mais conteúdo relacionado



  1.  Behaviorism  Innate Theory  Cognitive Theory  Social Development Theory  Constructivism
  2. Behaviourism
  3.  This theory implies that the learner responds to environmental stimuli without his/her mental state being a factor  The learning is demonstrated through the learner’s behaviour.  There is a disregard for the existence of any innate capacity for learning.  Children learn by imitation and exposure of the environment.  A child’s mind is like a clean slate.
  4.  Individuals learn to behave through conditioning  Two types of conditioning a. Classical Conditioning b. Operant Conditioning
  5. Imminent Behaviourists:  Ivan Pavlov  John B. Watson  B.F. Skinner
  6.  Ivan Petrovich Pavlov  ( Sept 14, 1849 -Feb 27, 1936, Russia) physiologist psychologist physician  Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research on the digestive system  An advocate of Classical Conditioning
  7. Classical Conditioning
  8. Classical Conditioning
  9. Pavlov’sDog
  10.  John Broadus Watson (Jan 9, 1878 -Sept 25, 1958 )  Born in Greenville, South Carolina  American psychologist  Established the psychological school of behaviourism
  11. LittleAlbert Experiment John Watsonand RosalieRayner
  12. Burrhus Frederic Skinner ( March 20, 1904 -August 18, 1990 , Pennsylvania)  American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform and poet.  Innovated his own philosophy of science called Radical Behaviorism  Demonstrated the idea of Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning is a reward and punishment mechanism
  13.  An operant conditioning chamber permits experimenters to study behaviour conditioning (training) by teaching a subject animal to perform certain actions (like pressing a lever) in response to specific stimuli, such as a light or sound signal. When the subject correctly performs the behaviour, the chamber mechanism delivers food or another reward. In some cases, the mechanism delivers a punishment for incorrect or missing responses. Operant conditioning is training or demonstration of behaviour through reward/punishment mechanism.
  14. Skinner’s Box
  15. Innate Theory
  16.  Founded by Chomsky  Existence of Innate capacity in human brain  Concept of ‘Universal Grammar’ “Basic rules, principles and parameters are common to all languages”
  17. Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928)  His concept of Universal Grammar and LAD (Language Acquisition Device) posed serious concerns to already established theories of Behaviourism.  According to Chompsky, there is an existence of innate understanding in infants who learn their mother tongue without instruction or any systematic guidance. He termed that inherent awareness of language in infants as Universal Grammar.  This implies in turn that all languages have a common structural basis, the set of rules known as "universal grammar".
  18. •The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a hypothetical presense of a mechanism that accounts for children's innate predisposition for language acquisition. •First proposed by Noam Chomsky in the 1960s, the LAD concept is an instinctive mental capacity which enables an infant to acquire and produce language. •This theory asserts that humans are born with the instinct or "innate facility" for acquiring language. The main argument in favor of the LAD is the argument from the poverty of stimulus, which argues that unless children have significant innate knowledge of grammar they would be unable to learn language as quickly as they do and rarely received direct instruction in their first language.
  19. Cognitive Theory
  20.  Believes that Mental Process is involved in learning  Concerned with Mental Activity  Learning depends upon the effort, aptitude and intelligence of the learner Cognitive Theory =Behaviorism + Innate Theory
  21.  The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in 1960s as the dominant paradigm.  Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind and considers it valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn.  Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored.  Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata  A response to behaviourism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking.
  22. Major Contributors in Cognitive theory Jean Piaget Howard Gardner Benjamin Bloom
  23. JeanPiaget’s Model Concrete Operational Stage Pre Operational Stage Sensory Motor Stage Formal Operational Stage
  24. Assimilation occurs when a person perceives a new object in terms of existing knowledge. Accommodation occurs when you modify existing cognitive structures based on new information. Equilibration includes both assimilation and accommodation and is considered the master developmental process.
  25. Howard Gardner proposed this model in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
  26. Multiple Intelligence verbal Logical/math ematical Spacial Kinesthetic/N on-Verbal Interpersonal Intra personal/Self smart Musical Naturalistic T H E O R Y OF M U L T I P L E I N T E L L I G E N C E
  27. Bloom's taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. ... The models were named after Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy
  28. Social Development Theory
  29.  Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to the West until it was published in 1962.  Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.  Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of Constructivism.  Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences. According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills.
  30.  THE MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER (MKO) The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers.  THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.
  31. Constructivism
  32.  Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process.  The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.  New information is linked to the prior knowledge.  Hence a new knowledge is constructed.
  33. Kolbe’s Learning Cycle
  34. Thank you!