Managerial/Business Economics : Macro Economics Aggregates : Concept :GNP GDP NNP : Aggregate Demand and Aggregate consumption : Gross Domestic Savings and Gross
1. CP 102: Managerial Economics
Presented to : Dr. Arup Barman
Presented by : Biswajit Bhattacharjee (19)
• Macro Economics Aggregates, Concept
GNP GDP NNP
• Aggregate Demand and Aggregate
• Gross Domestic Savings and Gross
Domestic Capital Formation
3. Introduction to Macroeconomics
That branch of economics which
determines the level of total economic
activity in any nation. For example,
macroeconomics studies the gross or
total national product, aggregate national
income, and general price level.
• The total market value of all final goods
and services produced in the economy in
• It includes payments made to all
resources in the form of wages, interest,
rent and profits.
6. National Income (cont…)
• First, it measures the market value of annual
• Second, for calculating national income
accurately all goods and services produced in
any given year must be counted only once and
not more than once
7. CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME
Gross National Product: It is the total market value of all final goods
and services produced in a year. In other words, it is total production
by factors of production owed by that nation.
• GNP at Market Prices: When the total output produced in one year is
multiplied by their market prices prevalent during that year in a
country, plus net income from abroad, it is called GNP at Market
• GNP at Factor Cost: It is the sum of the money value of the income
accruing to the various factors of production in one year in a country.
GNP at Factor Cost = GNP at market prices – Indirect Taxes + Subsidies.
8. CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME
Net National Product (NNP):
GNP – Depreciation.
NNP is GNP net of depreciation. NNP =
• NNP at Market Prices: Net value of final goods and services evaluated
at market prices: NNP at Market Prices = GNP at Market Price –
• NNP at Factor Cost: Net output evaluated at factor prices
NNP at Factor Cost = NNP at Market Prices –
Indirect Taxes + Subsidies
= GNP at Market Prices – Depreciation – Indirect taxes + Subsidies
9. CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME
• Domestic Income or Product: Income generated or
earned by the factors of production within the
country from its own resources is called domestic
income or domestic product. Domestic Income =
National Income – Net Income earned from abroad.
• Personal Income: Personal Income is the total
income received by the individuals of a country from
all sources before direct taxes. Personal Income =
National Income – Undistributed Corporate Profits –
Profit Taxes – Social Security Contributions +
Transfer Payments + Interest on Public Debt.
10. CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME
• Disposable Income: income that accrues after direct taxes have
actually been paid. Disposable Income = National Income – Business
Savings – Indirect taxes plus Subsidies – Direct Taxes on Persons –
Direct Taxes on Business – Social Security Payments + Transfer
Payments + Net Income from abroad.
• Real Income: Real income is national income expressed in terms of a
general level of prices of a particular year taken as base. Real NNP =
Current Year NNP x Base year Index / Current Year Index.
• Per Capital Income: The average income of the people of a country in a
particular year is called per capital income for that year. Per capita
income = national income / population. Real per capita income = real
national income / population.
11. METHODS OF MEASURING NATIONAL
• Product Method: Total value of final goods and services produced in a
country during a year is calculated at market prices.
• Income Method: The net income payments received by all citizens of a
country in a particular year are added up i.e. net incomes that accrue to all
factors of production.
• Expenditure Method: The total expenditure incurred by the society in a
particular year is added together- includes personal consumption
expenditure, net domestic investment, government expenditure on goods
and services and net foreign investment.
• Value Added Method: Difference between the value of material outputs and
inputs at each stage of production is the value added.
12. DIFFICULTIES IN NATIONAL INCOME
There are a number of goods and services which are difficult to be
assessed in terms of money.
The failure to distinguish properly between a final and an
Income earned through illegal activities are not included in national
Transfer payments- these earnings are a part of individual income
and also government expenditure.
Capital gains or loss to property owners excluded from GNP because
they do not result from current economic activities.
13. DIFFICULTIES IN NATIONAL INCOME
All inventory changes at original cost not replacement costs included in GNP
Depreciation valuation adjustment is full of statistical difficulties.
With price increase, monetary NI increases though production may have
gone down & with price fall monetary NI falls though production may have
Monetary NI an underestimation of real NI.
Public services cannot be estimated correctly.
14. Aggregate demand
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD)
is the total demand for final goods and
services in the economy (Y) at a given time
and price level. It is the amount of goods and
services in the economy that will be
purchased at all possible price levels. This is
the demand for the gross domestic product
of a country when inventory levels are static.
15. Aggregate demand (cont…)
AD = C+I+G+(X-M)
• C is consumption (may also be known as consumer
• I is Investment,
• G is Government spending,
• X-M is Net export,
– X is total exports, and
– M is total imports.
17. Aggregate Consumption
• Macroeconomists are interested in aggregate consumption
for two distinct reasons.
• First, aggregate consumption determines aggregate saving,
because saving is defined as the portion of income that is
• Because aggregate saving feeds through the financial system
to create the national supply of capital, it follows that
aggregate consumption and saving behaviour has a
powerful influence on an economy’s long-term productive
• Second, since consumption expenditure accounts for most
of national output, understanding the dynamics of
aggregate consumption expenditure is essential to
understanding macroeconomic fluctuations and the
18. Aggregate Consumption (Cont…)
• Microeconomists have studied
consumption behaviour for many
different reasons, using consumption
data to measure poverty, to examine
households’ preparedness for retirement.
19. Gross Domestic Saving
• Gross Domestic Saving is the Gross Domestic Product
minus final consumption.
• The saved money is either kept with the public or is
• When the money is invested back, we come to the figures
known as Capital Formation. The Ratio of saving and
investments is very important for the economic health of
• Gross Domestic Saving is different from the Gross
National Savings, which is equal to gross domestic savings
(gross domestic product minus final consumption) plus
net income and net current transfers from abroad.
20. Gross Domestic Saving (cont…)
• The Gross Domestic Saving has two parts.
• One is Public Sector, another is Private sector.
• The largest segment of Private sector is the
• Another segment of the Private sector is the
private corporate sector.
21. Gross domestic capital formation
• Capital formation means creation of physical assets
and non- physical capital consisting of public health
efficiency, visible and no visible capital.
• Gross domestic capital formation is the addition to
the capital stock within the domestic territory of a
country during a year.
• The surplus of production over consumption during a
year adds to the capital stock of a country.
22. Gross domestic capital formation (cont…)
• Gross capital formation which includes two
components such as (a) Gross domestic fixed capital
formation (b) change in stock.
• Gross domestic capital formation includes all
expenses made by household, business people and
Govt, adding new durable goods to the fixed capital
stock of a country.
• These assets are in the form of infrastructure such
as buildings, roads canals, bridges, means of
transport, machinery and other equipments.
23. Gross domestic capital formation (cont…)
• The difference between sale and purchase of
second hand physical assets from abroad is known
as the net purchase of second hand goods from
foreign countries. It is also added with the fixed
• If a country's purchase of second hand assets is
more than its sales of such assets, net purchase will
• But if the sale is more than the purchase the net
purchase is negative.
• A negative purchase of second hand assets will
reduce the gross domestic capital formation.
24. Gross domestic capital formation (cont…)
• The change in stock is a flow concept. The change
in stock means the stock of raw-materials, semifinished and finished goods with the producer
households, corporate and semi-corporate
enterprises. Charge in stock consists of inventories
with firms, charge in stock with the Govt and nonGovt. departmental undertaking, charge in live
• There is a difference between change in stocks and
fixed capital formation. Change in stocks is
determined by short term demand but fixed
capital asset is determined by long term demand.
25. Wholesale Price Index (WPI)
The wholesale price index number (WPI)
measures the relative changes in the prices of
commodities traded in the wholesale market.
The various commodities incorporated in WPI in
India are divided into three groups, viz.
(i) Primary articles which include 98 commodities
like rice, fruit, pulses, vegetables, etc. and nonfood articles like cotton, jute, materials, etc.
26. Wholesale Price Index (cont…)
(ii) Fuel, power, light and lubricants which
include 19 items like coal, petroleum
products, electricity, LPG, etc.
(iii) Manufacturing which includes 318 items
like textiles, sugar, paper, machinery,
chemicals, fertilizers, leather, etc.
27. Uses/Advantages or Importance of
Wholesale Price Index
• Forecasting Demand and Supply.
An increase in WPI is an indication of excess demand. It
is a situation in which demand is greater than supply.
A decrease in WPI implies deficient demand. It is a
situation in which demand is less than supply.
• Estimation of Monetary Value and Real Value.
The WPI can be used to estimate the monetary value
and real value of aggregates like national income,
national expenditure etc.
• Indicator of Rate of Inflation.
The WPI is applied to calculate the rate of inflation in a
28. Consumer Price Index Number (CPI)
It measures the relative amount of
money necessary to derive equal
satisfaction during two periods of time,
after taking into consideration
in the retail prices of
consumer goods during two periods. It
always relates to a specified class of
people and a specified geographical area.
29. Uses or Importance of Consumer Price
Index Number (CPI)
• Formulation of price policy.
The CPI are used by the governments to frame policies.
On the basis of these indices the government decides
whether the prices are to be controlled, dual price
policy should be adopted etc.
• Wage Adjustment.
The rate of dearness allowances are decided by the
government on the basis of these indices. These indices
are also used for wage contracts and wage agreements
• Analysis of Markets.
The CPI indices are also used for analysis of the
30. WHAT CPI MEASURES?
• It measures Price changes of fixed market
basket of goods and services of constant
quality and quantity.
• It tells how much cost of living has risen or
fallen due to price changes irrespective of
changes in consumer behaviour or quality of
• It does not reflect the cost of living or in
house hold consumption expenditure as such
but only the influence of price fluctuation on
31. Selection of Markets/Outlets and Cities
• Items are selected on the basis of Family
• Markets are selected through retail and
wholesale trade survey.
• Outlets are selected on transaction value
• Cities are selected on population basis
• Stratified sampling are used for selection of
32. Limitation of CPI
1) Coverage is limited
2) Only covers Urban Centres
3) Prices may have different trend in rural &
4) Rent is computed through construction
input items index instead of rent survey.
5) It measures partially inflation not total
– A SUSTAINED RISE IN THE AVERAGE PRICE LEVEL OVER
A PERIOD OF YEARS.
– CONSUMER PRICE INDEX = CPI
35. Types of Inflation
A. DEMAND PULL
- Excess demand pulls up prices
• Often caused by increases in government
spending, such as wars
36. Types of Inflation (cont…)
B. COST PUSH
- Rising costs drive up prices
- Wage-price spiral
- Profit-push inflation
- Supply-side shocks
37. Types of Inflation (cont…)
Rising wages force companies to increase prices.
In many industries, there are only a small number of
Easy for them to raise prices to protect their profit
Dramatic and unexpected increases in the prices of
key materials, such as oil or energy in general.
38. Who is Hurt by Inflation
PEOPLE ON FIXED INCOMES
• Nominal Income
Income that has not been adjusted for inflation and
decreasing purchasing power.
• Real Income
Real income is the income of individuals or nations after
adjusting the inflation.
Anyone who income is fixed over time finds that their real
income falls at the same rate that inflation rises.
39. Who is Hurt by Inflation (cont…)
Lenders, such as banks and credit card companies, lend money to
earn a profit.
– To earn a profit, the interest they charge must cover all costs,
and be higher than the rate of inflation.
When lenders lend money, they have an expected rate of inflation at
the time of the loan.
– This expected rate of inflation is based on current rate of
inflation, plus a guess about the future.
If lenders guess right about inflation, they earn a profit.
If lenders guess wrong, they lose money.
40. Inflation: Any Winners?
Not everyone loses with low and moderate rates
- People whose income is flexible.
- Borrowers (debtors).
Borrowers win because the real value of their
loan repayments decreases at the same rate as
If their incomes rise as well, they are double
43. Consumption function
• It was developed by John Maynard Keynes.
• The Keynesian consumption function is also known
as the absolute income hypothesis, as it only bases
consumption on current income and ignores
potential future income.
• The relationship between consumption and income
is called the consumption function.
• The consumption function is a single mathematical
function used to express consumer spending.
• The function is used to calculate the amount of
total consumption in an economy.
44. John M. Keynes: Absolute Income Hypothesis
• Consumption is a linear function of disposable personal
C = C + cY
C = consumption expenditure
Y = disposable income
C = autonomous consumption (intercept of the line)
c = marginal propensity to consume (slope of the line)
45. Properties of Consumption Function
• Consumption is determined by current income
• Marginal propensity to consume (MPC = ΔC/ΔY) is
between zero and one (0<c<1)
(Proportion of a small change in the disposable income that would be
spent on consumption instead of being saved).
• Average propensity to consume (APC = C/Y) falls as
(Fraction or percentage of disposable after tax personal income
spent for consumer goods. It generally varies with the level of
47. Empirical Evidence
• High income families have a higher marginal propensity to
save (MPS = 1 – MPC)
• High income families have a higher average propensity to
save (APS = 1 – APC); APC falls with the level of income
• In the long-run, autonomous consumption falls to zero
(C = 0)
49. PROBLEMS WITH THE
KEYNESIAN CONSUMPTION FUNCTION
Why should consumption depend only on current income?
Microeconomic cross section data suggest that the average
propensity to consume falls as income goes up
Macroeconomic time series data show that the average
propensity to consume does not systematically fall with
rising income, but that it is