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Lecture of textile

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Lecture of textile

  1. 1. Yarn Formation TEXT-201 Lecture No 3 and 4 By Muhammad Siddique
  2. 2. VARIABLES IN YARN PRODUCTION Most generally yarns can be classified into continuous filament yarns made out of manmade raw material and short staple yarns produced from natural fibers. However within these two categories endless varieties of yarns can be produced because there are so many variables involved in yarn production. Some of the variables are listed below: • Type of Fiber (s) and / or filament(s) used in an individual yarn
  3. 3. VARIABLES IN YARN PRODUCTION • Dimensional and physical characteristics of the Fiber Or filament used in a yarn e.g. fineness, cross sectional shape, crimp, density, etc • The mechanical properties of a Fibre or filament e.g. tensile strength, tenacity, extensibility, elastic properties, etc • The general properties of a Fiber or filament e.g. frictional properties, moisture regain, thermal properties, dimensional stability, resistance to micro organisms, static properties, electrical properties, Colour ageing etc
  4. 4. VARIABLES IN YARN PRODUCTION • Chemical properties of a Fibre or filament e.g. resistance to acids, alkalis, dry cleaning agents and other chemicals. • The method of yarn production e.g. carded system, combed system, Woollen system, worsted system, etc • Method of final yarn formation e.g. ring, rotor, wrap, core, air jet & friction spinning, etc.
  5. 5. VARIABLES IN YARN PRODUCTION • Component of the yarn e.g. 100% natural fibers, 100% manmade fibers, blend of natural fibers with manmade fibers, blend of natural fibers with filaments, etc • The linear density i.e. the count of the yarn and the level of twist (twist multiplier) • Cross section of the yarn e.g. circular, elliptical, flat, textured, etc.
  6. 6. VARIABLES IN YARN PRODUCTION • Ply of the yarn whether the yarn is single plied or multi plied • As far as natural fibres are concerned, they have typical properties depending upon the group to which they belong. For example cotton, flax, jute, etc all are cellulosic fibers on the other hand wool, silk, mohair, etc all belong to Proteinic fibres.There is nothing much can be done to alter the basic properties of these fibres.These properties also vary from lot to lot within the same category • On the other hand in manmade fibers, most of the properties can be controlled to a great extent and precision. They can both occur in filament and short staple form of desired length
  7. 7. VARIABLES IN YARN PRODUCTION • Consequently the yarn properties made of natural fibres are dependent on the basic natural properties of the Fibre However in case of man made yarns properties of the fibers can be modified to meet the requirements of the end use of the yarn.
  8. 8. Topics to be covered • Cotton impurities • Blow room opening • Blow room cleaning • Blow room Mixing /Blending
  9. 9. What is cotton Impurities ?
  10. 10. COTTON IMPURITIES The impurities in cotton fibers can be classified into: • (1)Seed • (2) Chaff • (3) Dirt • (4) Micro Dust • (5) Abnormal Impurities
  11. 11. Seed Seed impurity is the largest type of impurity present in raw cotton and it includes un ginned seeds with fibers attached to it, ginned seeds and parts of seeds
  12. 12. Chaff The chaff is the vegetable fragments consisting of leaf particles, bract, shale and stalk of the cotton plant. Bract is a small type of a leaf that grows beneath the cotton boll and shale is the silvery interior lining of the cotton boll
  13. 13. Dirt The dirt impurity includes soil and sand particles that may be added from the cotton fields due to mishandling of the fibres and also the cotton fibers pick up dust and sand if they are transported by open trucks
  14. 14. Micro dust The micro dust includes very fine particles of chaff, dirt, Small Fiber fragments and spores of mildew. These particles are extremely small and are often a fraction of the Fiber diameter. They generally gets embedded around the natural wax of the cotton fiber
  15. 15. Abnormal Impurities The abnormal impurities are very rare however when found in the cotton fibers, they can cause serious problems. These • impurities include • Pieces of stones, • Pieces of iron, • Cloth fragments • Foreign fibers such as jute, polypropylene, etc (that may be included due to the bagging of cotton fibers made up of these fibers) • Grease and oil (from machine harvesting or ginning), • Small pieces of wood, etc
  16. 16. Trash The term trash is applied to all of these impurities present in the raw cotton. The total trash content of cotton fibers ranges from 1% to 10% of the total weight of the cotton fibres.The amount of trash content directly determines the amount of cleaning required.
  17. 17. What is Blow room ?
  18. 18. Blow room The blow room is the first stage or the first process in the short staple spinning. The name ‘Blow Room’ is given to this stage because of the air currents that are commonly used during the processing of fibers.
  19. 19. Flow Chart of Blow Room • Bale plucker ↓ • Metal detector ↓ • Uniclean ↓ • multimix ↓ • Condenser ↓ • Chute feed ↓ • Carding
  20. 20. Blow room Department
  21. 21. BLOW ROOM The objectives of blow room are : • Opening • Cleaning • Blending / Mixing • Even feed of Material to Card • Lap formation
  22. 22. Why opening ?
  23. 23. Why OPENING The tightly packed fiber bales received from the ginning mills have to be opened by converting the larger fiber tufts into smaller ones and ultimately converting the smaller tufts into individual fiber form .
  24. 24. BLOW ROOM OPENING • Opening is also related to cleaning as where is opening there is also cleaning. • There are two different level of opening: • Opening into Small fiber tufts(bunch of fibers) (performed in blow room) • Opening into individual fibers (performed in carding and rotor spinning)
  27. 27. BLOW ROOM OPENING Machines Bale Opening machines are of Three types • Hopper Feeder • Reciprocating Bale Plucker (Top Feeder ) • Rotary Bale Plucker
  29. 29. Working of Bale breaker • Open the material gently. • Open up to smallest tufts. • Process as many bales as possible in a single charge. • Blend fibers at the start of the process.
  30. 30. BLOW ROOM RECIPROCATING TYPE(Top Feeder) • Move over and past the bale layout and extract fibers from top to bottom
  31. 31. 2-Cleaning Why cleaning ?
  32. 32. Why cleaning ? All the natural fibers including cotton have considerable amount of impurities in them which have to be removed to produce a clean yarn.
  33. 33. BLOW ROOM CLEANING • The Cleaning machines directly gets it feed from the hopper feeders or bale opener • Different machine manufacturers have developed various types of cleaning machines. The most commonly used ones are: • Step cleaner • Dual Roller cleaner • Three roller cleaner
  34. 34. STEP CLEANER
  38. 38. Why Mixing /Blending
  39. 39. Why Mixing /Blending The properties of the cotton fibres differ from each other from bale to bale and from fibre to fiber so in order to obtain a homogenous and consistent quality yarn, they need to be thoroughly mixed together. Sometimes in order to have a desired quality at the right price high quality cotton fibers are mixed with low quality fibers • Fibers can be blended at various stages of the process Blow room, carding and drawing • To give required characteristics to end product
  40. 40. BLOW ROOM BLENDING / MIXING Machines • Types of Blending / Mixing • Bale mixing • Flock blending • Sliver blending
  41. 41. Multi mixer
  42. 42. Thanks