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early childhood (2)

  1. Young children’s understanding of people, objects, and situations increases rapidly. During early childhood, their understanding is limited to where babies.
  2.  Because of their inability to comprehend the whys and wherefores of moral standards, young children must learn moral behavior in specific situations.  Children may be told not to do something one day, but the next day or even the day after that, they may have forgotten what they were told not to do.
  3. Morality by Constraint by Piaget: Children obey rules automatically, without using reason or judgment. Preconventional Morality by Kholberg: In the first stage, children are obedience and punishment oriented in the sense that they judge gets as right or wrong in terms of the physical consequences of these acts. Discipline in Early Childhood Its goal is to let children know what behavior is approved and what is disapproved and to motivate them to behave in accordance with these standards.
  4. Types of Discipline Used in Early Childhood Authoritarian Discipline Parents and other caretaker establish rules and inform children that they are expected to abide by them. Permissive Discipline Children would learn from the consequences of their acts how to behave in a socially approved way. Democratic Discipline Emphasize the rights of a child to know why rules are made and have to an opportunity to express their opinion.
  5. Interest in Religion Religion concepts of young children are realistic in the sense that they interpret what they hear and see in terms of what they already know. Interest in Human Body Young children express their interest in the body by commenting on the various parts and by asking questioning about them.
  6. Interest in Self Once young children begin to play with their peers, interest in self gradually gives way to increased interest in peers and their activities. Interest in Sex However, because many parents regard sex play and masturbation as naughty, if not actually wicked, such activities are usually carried out in private. Interest in Clothes Children discover that their clothing attracts attention.
  7.  Young children are subjected to indirect methods. They are kept from having opportunities to learn to behave in what those responsible for their training regard as sex-inappropriate behavior.  Berstein explained: “sexism starts with kindergarten activities in which little girls are directed to the housekeeping corner, while boys are steered toward blocks and trucks...Schools thus provide a shrinking of alternatives instead of an expansion.
  8. Parent-Child Relationship Because young children depend more on their parents for feelings of security and for happiness than on anyone else, for relationships with their parents have a devastating effects. This is especially true when the poor relationship is with the mother, the parent on whom most young children are especially dependent. Sibling Relationship Young children learn to evaluate their own behavior as other do. Older siblings serve as role models to imitate. Whether the siblings are older or younger, they contribute emotional security and teach young children how to show affection for others.
  9. Relationships with Relatives Many families today live in areas remote from other family members. Young children’s relationships with their relatives are often infrequent and brief. Of all relatives, the most frequent contacts are those between the child and the maternal grandmother because it is she who is the most often called on to help in an emergency, or to look after the young child if the parents are unable to get or afford a baby-sitter when they want to be away from home.
  10. Conditions Shaping the Self-Concept in Early Childhood Child-Training Child training method used in the home shaping the young child’s developing concept of self. Aspirations Aspirations parents have for their children play an important role in their developing self-concepts.
  11. Ordinal Position Ordinal position of children in a family has an effect on their developing personalities. This influence may be explained in part by the past that each child in the family learns to play a specific role. Environmental Insecurities Whether due to death, divorce, separation, or social mobility, affects young children’s s elf-concepts unfavorably because they feel insecure and different from their peers.
  12. Physical Hazards Mortality Deaths in early childhood are often the result of accidents than of illness, and because boys have more accidents than girls, deaths in early childhood are more frequent among boys than among girls. Illness Young children are highly susceptible to all kinds of illness, though respiratory illness is the most common. Accidents Most young children experience cuts, infections, burns, broken bones, strained muscles, o similar minor disturbances resulting from accidents. Others have more serious that disable them temporarily or permanently. As what pointed out above, boys have more accidents than girls, and the accidents tend to be more serious.
  13. Unattractiveness Children become increasingly unattractive, reaching a low point as they emerge into late childhood. The less attractive appearances of young children added to their changed behavior makes them less appealing to their parents and other adults than they were when they were babies. Left-Handedness There are other reasons why being left-handed is regarded as a hazard during the early childhood years. When young children attempt to learn a skill from a right-handed person, they are likely to become confused about how to imitate the model. Left-handedness can affect children’s educational success and, later, their vocational success or their social adjustments.
  14. Psychological Hazards Speech Hazards Because speech is a tool for communication is essential to social belonging, children who, unlike their age-mates, cannot communicate with others will be socially handicapped, and this will lead to feelings of inadequacy and inferiority. Emotional Hazards The major emotional hazard on early childhood is the dominance of the unpleasant emotions, especially anger. If young children experience too many of the unpleasant and too few of the pleasant ones, it will distort their outlook on life and encourage the development of an unpleasant disposition. Social Hazards Social development of young children is parental encouragement to spend proportionally too much time with other children and proportionally too little time alone.
  15. Moral Hazards Too much emphasis on punishment for misbehavior and too little emphasis on rewards for good behavior can lead to unfavorable attitude toward those in authority. Family-Relationship Hazards Deterioration in any human relationship is hazardous to good personal and social adjustments. Threats to good parent-child relationships in early childhood are working mothers and step-parents. When mothers work outside the home, the care of the children must be turned over to relatives or paid caretakers or they must be sent to a day-care center.Deterioration in relationships with relatives comes when relatives are expected to play the roles of surrogate parents.
  16. Children’s happiness depends mainly on how the different members of their families treat them and on what they believe family member thinks of them. The basic ingredients that make children happy during childhood seem to be the same ones that help them to become happy adults: a secure relationship with parents gives the base to confidently explore the world and develop a sense of mastery and recognition, all important components in the recipe for happiness. However, in the short term, the new toy might provide a smile too!