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A water supply system or water supply
network is a system of engineered hydrologic
and hydraulic components which provide
A water supply system typically includes:
A drainage basin
A raw water collection point (above or below ground)
where the water accumulates, such as a lake, a river,
or groundwater from an underground aquifer.
Water purification facilities.Treated water is transferred
using water pipes (usually underground).
Water storage facilities such as reservoirs, water tanks,
or water towers.Tall buildings may also need to store water
locally in pressure vessels in order for the water to reach the
Additional water pressurizing components such as pumping
A pipe network for distribution of water to the consumers.
Connections to the sewers (underground pipes, or
TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION
DIRECT PUMPING SYSTEM
OVERHEAD TANK SYSTEM
HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
DIRECT PUMPING SYSTEM
Tanks must be sufficiently elevated to
achieve required pressure. For proper
operation of the system, the gravity tank is
located at least 30 ft or 10 m above the
highest outlet or consumer. In tall buildings
it's necessary to use pressure reducing
valves in the lowest floors before the
Extreme simplicity : There are no complicated or
Most Reliable : It is the only system which has a available in
the event of the power or water supply failure
Economical: Operating costs are much less and capital is
usually no higher than other systems.
Minimum maintenance: Only requirement beyond terms is
periodic cleaning and possible repainting of the tank.
Fewer pressure regulating valves are required for the
Provides additional reserve capacity for fire protection while
domestic water is available in addition to the fire reserve.
Use less energy
The tank must be elevated. Provision must be made on
the roof of the building to support the tank. A tank on the
roof is unslightly and if it is enclosed and dressed up,
there is additional architectural expense.
The weight of the water and the tank can increase the
Tanks require maintenance, periodic cleaning and
painting Is required.
If the tank ruptures. A large quantity of water is released
which may cause damage.
OVERHEAD TANK SYSTEM
Overhead tanks ensure both water pressure and
water supply in case of power failure.
This solution requires pressure reduction valves
on each floor in order to avoid undesired high
static pressures at the tap, which creates
unacceptable noise while tapping.
In this model the upper six floors require a
separate booster system in order to create
The static pressure there is too low due to the
insufficient geometric height to the roof tank.
Only one discharge from booster set to top
Less sensitive to electricity fall-outs
Water is pumped past where it’s required
Insufficient pressure on the uppermost floors
Excessive pressure on the lowest floors
Pressure reduction valves have to be fitted
Need for higher pressure grade of pipe work
Space requirement for tank
Risk of microbiological growth in roof tank
HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
Is a modernization of the older gravity tank
method of water supply. Its main purpose is
to control or boost a limited supply
pressure to a higher or more uniform value
so that a continuous and satisfactory water
supply will be available at all fixtures within
Does not have to be elevated
Can be located anywhere in the building.
Can save valuable space by being located outside the building
It is not exposed to the outer elements.
Inside corrosion of tank and piping is danger due to addition of
air in the tank.
A pressure variation of 20 psi is normal in the system pressure.
Pumps of higher head are required.
Higher initial and operating costs than gravity system due to
pressure vessel type tank, higher head pumps and more
May take valuable space in the basement or other area.
Hot water System
Solar Heating System Local Heating System
"Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe
disposal of human urine and feces.The word 'sanitation' also refers to the
maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection
and wastewater disposal.“
WHAT IS SANITATION?
To achieve this aim a drainage system shall satisfy the following
a) rapid and efficient removal of liquid wastes without leakage;
b) prevention of access of foul gases to the building and provision for their
escape from the system.
c) adequate and easy access for clearing obstructions;
d) prevention of undue external or internal corrosion, or erosion of joints and
protection of materials of construction;
e) avoidance of air locks, proneness to obstruction, deposit and damage.
Efficient and an economical plumbing system can be achieved by planning
the toilets in compact grouping with the layout of the bathrooms and
observing the following guidelines:
a) Placing of plumbing fixtures around an easily accessible pipe shaft; in high rise
buildings the pipe shafts may have to be within the building envelope and easy
provision for access panels and doors should be planned in advance, in such cases.
b) Adopting repetitive layout of toilets in the horizontal and vertical directions.
c) Avoiding any conflict with the reinforced cement concrete structure by avoiding
embedding pipes in it, avoiding pipe crossings in beams, columns and major structural
d) Identifying open terraces and areas subject to ingress of rainwater directly or
indirectly and providing for location of inlets at each level for down takes for disposal
at ground levels.
e) Avoiding crossing of services of individual property through property of other
f) Planning to avoid accumulation of rain water or any backflow from sewers
particularly in planned low elevation areas in a building.
g) Soil and waste stacks in a building having more than 10 branch intervals shall be
provided with a relief vent at each tenth interval counting from the top floor.
TYPES OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
i. single stack system,
ii. one‐pipe system,
iii. two‐pipe system.
SINGLE STACK SYSTEM
1)The single stack system (without any vent
pipe) is ideal when the toilet layouts are
repetitive and there is less space for pipes
on the wall.
2) In any system so selected there should
be not more than two toilet connections
3)The system requires minimum 100 mm
diameter stack for a maximum of five
floors in a building.
SAFEGAURD OF SINGLE STACK
a) as far as practicable, the fixtures on a floor shall be connected to stack in order of
increasing discharge rate in the downward direction;
b) the vertical distance between the waste branch (from floor trap or from the individual
appliance) and the soil branch connection, when soil pipe is connected to stack above the
waste pipe, shall be not less than 200 mm;
c) depth of water seal traps from different fixtures shall be as follows:
Water closets 50 mm
Floor traps 50 mm
Other fixtures directly connected to the
1) Where attached to branch 40 mm
waste pipes of 75 mm dia
2)Where attached to branch 75 mm
waste pipes of less than
75 mm dia
d) branches and stacks which receive discharges fromWC pans should not be less
than 100 mm, except where the outlet from the siphonic water closet is 80 mm, in
which case a branch pipe of 80 mm may be used. For outlet of floor traps 75 mm dia
pipes may be used;
e) the horizontal branch distance for fixtures from stack, bend(s) at the foot of stack
to avoid back pressure as well as vertical distance between the lowest connection
the invert of drain
f) for tall buildings, ground floor appliances are
recommended to be connected directly to
1)This system is suitable for buildings
where the toilet layouts and the shafts are
repetitive. It requires less space, and is
2) Continuous flow of water in the pipe
from waste appliances makes it less prone
to blockage and makes the system more
3)The system eliminates the need for a
gully trap which requires constant
4)The system is ideal when the main pipes
run at the ceiling of the lowest floor or in
a service floor.Two-pipe system may
present space and crossing problems
which this system eliminates.
1)This system is ideal when the location of
toilets and stacks for the WCs and waste
fittings is not uniform or repetitive.
2) In large buildings and houses with open
ground and gardens the sullage water
from the waste system can be usefully
utilized for gardening and agriculture.
3) In larger and multi-storied buildings, the
sullage is treated within the building for
re-use as makeup water for cooling towers
for air conditioning system and is also used
for flushing water-closets provided it has
absolutely no connection with any water
supply line, tank or system used for
domestic and drinking supply.
Septic tank(s) discharging into either a subsurface disposal field or one or more seepage
pits shall be required for the approval of drainage and sanitation plans for the places
where public sewers are not available.
that can be easily
collected from the
raw waste water
before they damage
or clog the pumps
and skimmers of
clarifiers (trash, tree
limbs, leaves, etc.). It
Fat and grease
consists of temporarily
holding the sewage in
a quiescent basin
where heavy solids can
settle to the bottom
while oil, grease and
lighter solids float to
the surface. The
settled and floating
removed and the
remaining liquid may
be discharged or
treatment is typically
organisms in a
provides a final
treatment stage to the
effluent quality to the
desired level .
Non Potable water Tank for
Fishing & Irrigation
Over Flow to Municipal
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation
and deposition of rainwater for reuse on-
site, rather than allowing it to run off.
The rainwater collected can be stored for
direct use or can be recharged into the
underground aquifers its uses include
water for gardens, livestock, domestic
use with proper treatment, and indoor
heating for houses etc.
The harvested water can also be used as
drinking water, longer-term storage and
for other purposes such as groundwater
The Central Ground Water Authority
(CGWA) has made rainwater harvesting
mandatory in all institutions and
residential colonies in notified areas
(South and southwest Delhi and adjoining
areas like Faridabad, Gurgaon and
Ghaziabad). This is also applicable to all
the buildings in notified areas that have
tube wells. The CGWA has also banned
drilling of tube wells in notified areas.
Importance of Rainwater Harvesting
The importance of developing rainwater
harvesting system are briefly given below in
The gathered rainwater can be used for
agricultural purposes. The environment may
be helped to get rid of the tendency to
The requirement of water for feeding the
live-stocks can be met.
The ever-increasing demand for water can
The quantity of the subterranean water can
Wastage of water flowing through drain,
gutter, or any water-cause can be stopped
and damage to water-course of any type
may be stopped.
Water-logging on roads and thoroughfares
can be checked and localities can be saved
from being inundated.
The quantity of water can be raised and soil
erosion can be checked.
Formula for calculating amount of water
Total quantity of water to be collected (cuM) = [Roof Top
Area (sqM) x Average Monsoon Rainfall (M) x 0.8]
Surface Runoff Harvesting:-
In this method the rainwater is accumulated
in a small constricted area like pits, wells,
trenches, shafts etc. and infiltrated under the
soil through them. This is the indirect method
of rainwater harvesting so there is no direct
gain but in long-term this is the best method
of making water available sufficient under the
ground. This method of rainwater harvesting
is also called recharging ground water
There are different methods of
recharging ground water aquifers. Some
of them are:-
Recharging of bore holes
Recharging through wells
Recharging through pits
Recharging through trenches
Recharging through shafts
Recharging making percolation tanks
Process of Surface Runoff Harvesting:-
Well is constructed in such a place that maximum rainwater accumulate to
that area or it can be chosen among the abandoned wells for the recharging
or even wells can be constructed to recharge the drainage (storm) water i.e.
connecting the drainage pipes to the wells.
But before water enters to the well it is very necessary to filter the water so
that clean water gets recharged and no more sediments will settle inside the
well. For this near the well the filter media is constructed and then the
filtered water is only allowed to enter into the well.
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting
Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting is the
technique through which rain water is
captured from the roof catchments
and stored in reservoirs.
Harvested rain water can be stored in
sub-surface ground water reservoir by
adopting artificial recharge techniques
to meet the household needs through
storage in tanks.
The Main Objective of rooftop rain
water harvesting is to make water
available for future use. Capturing
and storing rain water for use is
particularly important in dryland, hilly,
urban and coastal areas.
This method is less expensive and
very effective and if implemented
properly helps in augmenting the
ground water level of the area.
Components of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting
A roof top rainwater harvesting
system consists of:
Rain water/ Storm water
Storage Tanks/ Pits/ Sumps.
Ground Water recharge
structures like pit, trench,
tube well or combination of
ADVANTAGES OF RWH
Simple Construction - The construction of rainwater collection
systems is not complicated and most people can easily build their
own system with readily available materials.
Ease of Maintenance - The operation and maintenance of a
household rainwater collection system is controlled by the
individual without having to rely upon the maintenance practices
of a municipally controlled water system
Water Quality - Rainwater is generally one of the better sources
of an alternate water supply when compared with other sources of
water that may be available.
Convenience - Rainwater collection provides a convenient
source of water at the immediate place where it will be used or
Systems are Flexible and Adaptable - Rainwater collection
systems can be adapted to suit most individual circumstances
and to fit most any household’s budget.
DISADVANTAGES OF RWH
High Initial investment Costs - The main cost of a rainwater
collection system generally occurs during the initial construction
phase and no benefit is derived until the system is completed.
Regular Maintenance - Regular maintenance, cleaning and
repair will be required for the operation of a successful rainwater
Vulnerable Water Quality - The quality of rainwater can be
affected by air pollution, insects, and dirt or organic matter. The
type and kind of construction materials used can also adversely
affect water quality.
Water Supply is Climate Dependent - Droughts or long periods
of time with little or no rain can cause serious problems with your
supply of water.
Storage Capacity Limits Supply - The supply of water from a
rainwater collection system is not only limited by the amount of
rainfall but also by the size of the collection area and your storage