• As given in the application form by the
funding agency, university or
• Different organization will have
different format for this page,
• and even for the proposal.
• Follow the style prescribed by the style manual
suggested by the university, department or adviser.
• Should contain key words or phrases to give a clear
and concise description of the scope and nature of
Chapter 1 - Introduction
• Background and Setting
• Provide reader with necessary background and
setting to put the problem in proper context.
• Statement of the Problem
• Characteristics of properly stated problems will be
discussed; see notes. Clearly describe the problem
to be researched.
Significance of the Problem
• These arguments can be presented in the
"Background and Setting” section.
Chapter 2 - Review of Literature
• Organized and written in reference to the
specific objectives of the study
• Proposals generally do not include as a
complete review as does the report.
Chapter 3: Procedures
(Some writers call this chapter
• REPLICATION is the key word to
keep in mind when writing this
• Researchers must provide
accurate, detailed descriptions of
how the research is to be done.
• Cost of in different heads with
• Yearly or quarterly estimates.
• Permanent equipment and running
cost (operating cost)separated
• Time line for work plan and
• When to do what.
Look for application forms for grant
proposals of the following
• Higher Education Commission of
• Pakistan Science Foundation.
• International Foundation for
WHAT IS A
• A literature review is an evaluative report of
studies found in the literature related to your
• The review should;
• and clarify this literature.
• It should give a theoretical basis for the research
and help you determine the nature of your own
• Select a limited number of works that are central to
• rather than trying to collect a large number of works
that are not as closely connected to your topic area.
A literature review goes beyond the search
for information and includes the;
identification and articulation
of relationships between the
literature and your field of research.
While the form of the literature review may
vary with different types of studies, the
basic purposes remain constant:
Provide a context for the research
Justify the research
Ensure the research hasn't been done before (or
that it is not just a "replication study")
Show where the research fits into the existing
body of knowledge
• Enable the researcher to learn from
previous theory on the subject
• Illustrate how the subject has been studied
previously • Highlight flaws in previous
• Outline gaps in previous research
• Show that the work is adding to the
understanding and knowledge of the field
• Help refine, refocus or even change the
• Literature reviews are written occasionally in the
• but mostly in the sciences and social sciences;
• in experiment and lab reports, they constitute a
section of the paper.
• Sometimes a literature review is written as a
paper in itself.
Once you have the basic categories in place,
then you must consider how you will present
the sources themselves within the body of
Create an organizational method to focus this
section even further.
Organizing the materials according to when
they were published.
The review loses its focus.
The final product may loose the cohesion.
• Order your sources by publication chronology,
• then, only if the order demonstrates a more
• For instance, you could order a review of literature
on Food Technology studies of milk packing,
• if the progression revealed a change in packing
practices of the researchers who wrote and/or
conducted the studies.
• A better way to organize the above sources
chronologically is to examine the sources under
• such as the history of milk packing.
• Then your review would have subsections according
to eras within this period.
• For instance, the review might examine packing from
pre-1600-1699, 1700-1799, and 1800-1899 and so on.
• Thematic reviews of literature are organized around
a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time.
• However, progression of time may still be an
important factor in a thematic review.
• e. g. Tin packing, paper packing, lined cardboard
packing, bottle packing etc.
• More authentic thematic reviews tend to break away
from chronological order.
• Once you’ve settled on a general pattern of organization,
you’re ready to write each section.
• There are a few guidelines you should follow during the
writing stage as well.
• Writers refer to several other sources when making their
• A literature review in this sense is just like any other
academic research paper.
• Your interpretation of the available sources must be
backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying
• Select only the most important points in
each source to highlight in the review.
• The type of information you choose to
mention should relate directly to the
• whether it is thematic, methodological,
Use quotes sparingly
• Some short quotes here and there are okay,
• though, if you want to emphasize a point,
• or if what the author said just cannot be
rewritten in your own words.
• Otherwise, try to avoid.
Summarize and synthesize
• Remember to summarize and synthesize your
sources within each paragraph as well as
throughout the review.
• Synthesize it by rephrasing the study’s
significance and relating it to their own work.
Keep your own voice
• While the literature review presents others’ ideas,
• your voice (the writer’s) should remain front and
• Weave the references to other sources into their own
• but they still maintain their own voice by starting and
ending the paragraph with your own ideas and
words. The sources should support what you are
Use caution when paraphrasing
• When paraphrasing a source that is not
• be sure to represent the author’s
information or opinions accurately and in
your own words.
Revise, Revise, Revise
• Spending a lot of time revising is a wise idea,
• So check over your review again to make sure it follows
• Then, rewrite or rework the language of your review,
• so that you’ve presented your information in the most
concise manner possible.
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