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Electric car presentation 2017

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-- Graduation Project 2017
-- Faculty of engineering university , Electrical Engineering Department , Power & Machines Section
-- Our project is Electric car
-- This link of our book :
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B1-PUweW3orNc2R6YWFWSzRJeDQ/view?usp=sharing
-- This presentation contain
1- Introduction
History Of Electric Car
Difference Between Engine and Electric Car
Why Electric Car and Why not?
Types Of Electric Car
How It Works?
2. Main Components Of Electric Car
Motor
Controller
Batteries
Transmission
Braking
Steering

Publicada em: Indústria automotiva
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Electric car presentation 2017

  1. 1. Electric Car Supervisors Prof.Dr.Samir Deghedie Dr. Mohamed El-Habrouk 6th July 2017
  2. 2. Presented by : 2 Aya Mohamed Ali Mohamed Ahmed Khaled Hussin Mohamed Ahmed Abd-Elazeem El-sayed Ahmed Essam Ibrahim Rogeh Wageh Essa Karim Ragab El-sayed Mohamed Kirollos Magdy khela Lina Mohamed Mohamed Abdelsalam Mayada Aladdin Mohamed Hager Reda Mohamed Nabeh
  3. 3. Objective 3 •Spreading the field of electric cars. •Expanding knowledge of it. •Trend to renewable energy. •Reducing the use of non-renewable energy and environmental impact of it.
  4. 4. Outline 1. Introduction • History Of Electric Car • Difference Between Engine and Electric Car • Why Electric Car and Why not? • Types Of Electric Car • How It Works? 4
  5. 5. Outline 2. Main Components Of Electric Car • Motor • Controller • Batteries • Transmission • Braking • Steering 3. Electric Go Kart Prototype 5
  6. 6. Outline 1. Introduction • History Of Electric Car • Difference Between Engine and Electric Car • Why Electric Car and Why not? • Types Of Electric Car • How It Works? 6
  7. 7. 7 History Of Electric CarIntroduction
  8. 8. 8 Start of the electric carIntroduction  By the 1900s, larger secondary batteries became available.
  9. 9. 9  First commercial line in NYC Introduction The electric car of the 1970s, the Citi-car.
  10. 10. 10  Now adays Introduction A recent model of the commercial hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
  11. 11. 11  Propagation of electric cars Introduction
  12. 12. 12 Difference Between Engine and Electric Car Introduction • But the transmission system of them is the same.
  13. 13. 13 Difference Between Engine and Electric Car Introduction
  14. 14. 14 Difference Between Engine and Electric Car Introduction
  15. 15. 15 Difference Between Engine and Electric Car Introduction
  16. 16. 16 Why Electric Car & Why Not?Introduction • No Gas Required • Savings • No Emissions • Safe to Drive • Low Maintenance • Reduced Noise Pollution • Recharge Points • Short Driving Range and Speed • Battery Replacement
  17. 17. 17 Types of Electric CarIntroduction
  18. 18. 18 How It Works?Introduction
  19. 19. Outline 2. Main Components Of Electric Car • Motor • Controller • Batteries • Transmission • Braking • Steering 3. Electric Go Kart Prototype 19
  20. 20. 20 Transmission Battery Steering Braking Controller Motor Electric Car Main Components Of Electric Car
  21. 21. Main Components Of Electric Car Motors 21 • Classifications of Motors • Difference between Ac and Dc motors. • DC Motors.
  22. 22. 22 Classifications of MotorsComponents Electric Motors Alternating Current (AC) Motors Direct Current (DC) Motors
  23. 23. 23 Difference between Ac and Dc motors Components • A.C. motors are powered from alternating current (A.C.) while D.C. motors are powered from direct current (D.C.), such as batteries, D.C. power supplies or an AC-to-DC power converter.
  24. 24. 24 Difference between Ac and Dc motors Components • D.C wound field motors are constructed with brushes and a commutator, which add to the maintenance, limit the speed and usually reduce the life expectancy of brushed D.C. motors. A.C. induction motors do not use brushes.
  25. 25. 25 Difference between Ac and Dc motors Components • The speed of a D.C. motor is controlled by varying the armature winding’s current while the speed of an A.C. motor is controlled by varying the frequency, which is commonly done with an adjustable frequency drive control.
  26. 26. 26 Difference between Ac and Dc motors Components Dc Motor Ac Motor
  27. 27. 27 Dc motorComponents Advantages 1- Speed control over a wide range both above and below the rated speed. 2- High starting torque . 3- Quick starting, stopping, reversing and acceleration. 4- Free from harmonics. Disadvantages 1- High initial cost. 2- Increased operation and maintenance cost. 3- Cannot operate in explosive and hazard conditions due to sparking occur at brush.
  28. 28. 28 Ac motorComponents Advantages 1- produces less heat, friction and are lighter and more efficient . 2- The simple design of the AC motor results in extremely reliable, low maintenance operation. 3- Low Cost due to the simple design of the motor. Disadvantages 1- Inability to operate at low speeds 2- produce eddy currents due to the production of a back emf.
  29. 29. 29 Go Kart • In our project we decided to use a dc motor in order to avoid using an inverter to power the motor and to directly use dc voltage source and to obtain high starting torque and to have the ability to control the speed and also to reverse its direction by reversing armature current.
  30. 30. 30 DC MotorsComponents An Electric DC motor is a machine which converts electric energy into mechanical energy.
  31. 31. 31 Theory of WorkComponents • Electric motors run by electromagnetism. • The interaction of two magnetic fields happens. • These two fields result in a torque which tends to rotate the rotor.
  32. 32. 32 Types Of DC MotorsComponents 1. Brushed DC motor
  33. 33. 33 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents 1. Separately Excited.
  34. 34. 34 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents 2. Permanent Magnet.
  35. 35. 35 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents 3. Self Excited DC Motor: • Shunt wound DC motor. • Series wound DC motor. • Compound wound DC motor.
  36. 36. 36 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents • Shunt Wound DC Motor.
  37. 37. 37 • Torque speed curve
  38. 38. 38 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents • Series Wound DC Motor. The entire armature current flows through the field winding as its connected in series to the armature winding.
  39. 39. 39 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents • Torque speed curve
  40. 40. 40 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents • Reverse direction of series motor
  41. 41. 41 Types of Brushed DC MotorComponents • Compound Wound DC Motor.  Excitation can be obtained by combining the operational characteristic of both the shunt and series excited dc motor .  It contains the field winding connected both in series and in parallel to the armature winding.
  42. 42. 42 Components • The compound wound DC motor can further be subdivided into 2 major types on the basis of its field winding connection with respect to the armature winding, and they are:
  43. 43. 43 Components • Long Shunt Compound Wound DC Motor: Shunt field winding is connected in parallel across the series combination of both the armature and series field coil.
  44. 44. 44 Components • Short Shunt Compound Wound DC Motor: The shunt field winding is connected in parallel across the armature winding only. And series field coil is exposed to the entire supply current, before being split up into armature and shunt field current
  45. 45. 45 Components • The compound wound DC motor can further be sub divided into 2 types depending upon excitation.
  46. 46. 46 Components • Cumulative Compounding of DC Motor: Shunt field flux produced by the shunt winding assists or enhances the effect of main field flux, produced by the series winding.
  47. 47. 47 Components • Differential Compounding of DC Motor: -The flux due to the shunt field winding diminishes the effect of the main series winding. -The net flux produced in this case is lesser than the original flux and hence does not find much of a practical application.
  48. 48. Type speed control starting torque running torque Shunt dc constant , medium ( 125 to 200 % of FLT) Motor adjustable Series dc varying very heavy ( 300 to 350 % of FLT) Motor (0 to max ) Compound constant heavy (130 to 260 % of FLT) Dc motor
  49. 49. 49 Components
  50. 50. 51 Components 2. Brushless DC Motor
  51. 51. 53 Types of Brushless DC MotorsComponents • Inner Rotor Design The rotor is located in the center of the motor and the stator winding surround the rotor. • Outer Rotor Design The rotor surrounds the winding which is located in the core of the motor.
  52. 52. 54 Motor SelectionComponents Rolling resistance force Frr=Crrmg Aerodynamic drag Fd= .5ρACdv^2 Hill climbing force Fd= mgsin(ψ) Acceleration force Fa= ma Total tractive effort Fte= Frr+ Fd+ Fg + Fa
  53. 53. 55 Motor SelectionComponents To calculate the total torque and power of the motor  Total tractive effort Fte= Frr+ Fd+ Fg + Fa  Traction Torque T = Fte × r x Rf  Traction Speed r/s W = 𝑉 𝑟  Calculating power Power (KW) = (Torque (Nm) x Speed)
  54. 54. 56 Prototype CalculationsGo Kart • M=120 kg (car + person) • V=30 km/HR=8 m/s • Rwheel = 0.19 m • Rf =0.67 • Crr =0.012
  55. 55. 57 Prototype CalculationsGo Kart • RR=120x0.012x9.81=14.1264N • GR is neglecting for low cost • FA=120*8/5 =192N •  a = (final velocity−initial velocity)/(time)
  56. 56. 58 Prototype CalculationsGo Kart • TTE=14.1264+192=206.1264N • T (torque) = .67x.19x206.1264 =27N.m • Rpm = 8/(0.10472x.19)=400 • W=42 r/s • P=27x42=1.131 kw =1.5 HP
  57. 57. 59 Our MotorGo Kart • We choose motor 1.2 kW , rated current 100 A and 3000 rpm and we made gear box to reduce the rpm from 3000 to 400.
  58. 58. 60 Go Kart Choosing The Wire Of The Motor ** Voltage = 24 v Max current=100A Length = Cable size =
  59. 59. 61 Transmission Battery Steering Braking Controller Motor Electric Car Main Components Of Electric Car
  60. 60. Main Components Of Electric Car Controller 62 • Controller and driver • Speed Control • Chopper • Buck • H-Bridge • Closed loop Control
  61. 61. 63 Controller and Driver Function Controller is the logic that decides upon and specifies the driver's output. Driver is responsible for supplying the actual output power to the device. Components Components
  62. 62. 64 Controller of Electric Car Components Components
  63. 63. 65 Speed Control of DC Motor • By varying the supply voltage • By varying the field flux Components Components
  64. 64. 66 Speed Control of DC Motor • By varying the supply voltage • By varying the field flux Components Components
  65. 65. 67 Methods of Varying Supply Voltage • Chopper Components Components Using ON-OFF Control to change PWM of Output Voltage MOSFET ONMOSFET OFF
  66. 66. 68 Methods of Varying Supply Voltage • Chopper Components Components Components
  67. 67. 69 Methods of Varying Supply Voltage • Buck (Step Down Converter) Components Components Components Components Inductor and Capacitor store energy to keep output voltage constant MOSFET ONMOSFETOFF
  68. 68. 70 Methods of Varying Supply Voltage • Buck (Step Down Converter) Matlab Simulation Components Components
  69. 69. 71 Four Quadrant Operation of DC Motor Components Components
  70. 70. 72 Direction Control of DC Motor Components Components 1. Relays Once the coil is energized, contacts change its normal state and voltage is reversed across the motor
  71. 71. 73 Direction Control of DC Motor Components Components 2. H-Bridge (Four quadrant Chopper) Components 4 MOSFETs 4 Flywheel DiodesQ1 & Q4 ONQ2 & Q3 ONQ1 & Q2 ON Shoot-through
  72. 72. 74 Direction Control of DC MotorComponents 2. H-Bridge (Four quadrant Chopper)
  73. 73. 75 High current H-Bridge circuit Components Components • Electrical Noise • Mosfet Driver • Shoot-through • Opto-coupler • Heat sink
  74. 74. 76 Prototype ControllerGo Kart • 100A DC motor drive Module High Power motor speed Control Dual Channel H- bridge.
  75. 75. 77 Prototype ControllerGo Kart • The module use 8 MOSFETs for dual H-Bridge • MOSFET model is irfb3077
  76. 76. 78 Prototype ControllerGo Kart IR2110 High and low MOSFET driver
  77. 77. 79 Prototype ControllerGo Kart • LM2576 3.0 A, 15 V, Step−Down Switching Regulator
  78. 78. 80 Prototype ControllerGo Kart • HCPL-2631 Dual Channel, High Speed Optocouplers f = 1 MHz
  79. 79. 81 Open Loop Speed Control Components Components
  80. 80. 82 Closed Loop Speed Control Components Components
  81. 81. 83 Closed Loop DC Motor Speed Control Components Components Matlab Model • Circuit Diagram
  82. 82. 84 Closed Loop DC Motor Speed Control Components Components Matlab Model • DC Motor Subsystem Components
  83. 83. 85 Closed Loop DC Motor Speed Control Components Components Matlab Model • Speed and Current Graphs T = 0.5 n.m Components
  84. 84. 86 Closed Loop DC Motor Speed Control Components Matlab Model • Speed and Current Graphs T = 3.6 n.m
  85. 85. 87 Closed Loop DC Motor Speed Control Components Current Feedback Components • Current feed back is used to Control Motor Current Besides Speed Control
  86. 86. 88 Closed Loop DC Motor Speed Control Components PID Control ComponentsComponents • Adjust Kp to control rising and settling time • Adjust Ki to eliminate steady state error
  87. 87. 89 Transmission Battery Steering Braking Controller Motor Electric Car Main Components Of Electric Car
  88. 88. Main Components Of Electric Car Batteries (rechargeable batteries) 90 • Its Function In Electric Car. • Battery Construction. • Battery Specifications . • Different Types Of Batteries For Electric Car.
  89. 89. 91 Function In Electric CarComponents The heart of an electric car is its battery. Unlike the batteries in most cars, which primarily serve to start the engine and run accessories like the radio or air conditioner, the battery in an electric car runs everything. Most importantly, it runs the electric motor or it runs a controller which in turn runs the electric motor ,So it needs to be powerful and long lasting enough to take drivers where they need to go with a minimum of recharging.
  90. 90. 92 Battery ConstructionComponents 1. Cover 2. Container 3. Terminal 4. Safety Valve 5. Negative Plate 6. Separator 7. Positive Plate
  91. 91. 93 Components SOC= 𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 DOD=1-SOCDepth of discharge Nominal Capacity (Ah) Cycle life Nominal Voltage (V) State of discharge Battery Specifications Self discharge
  92. 92. 95 Components Different Types Of Batteries For Electric Car Lead acid Lithium–ion Cost Inexpensive Expensive Self discharge 5% per month 1–2% per month Cycle life Lower Long cycle life Weight Higher Light weight Pack Available in pack Form Available only in cell form (3.7 v) Electrolyte Can be liquid or solid No liquid electrolyte
  93. 93. 96 Lead Acid BatteriesComponents  Nominal voltage  2.1 v/cell  Discharge curve (for 12v lead acid battery)
  94. 94. 97 Components 97 Components Types of Lead acid batteries Construction Sealed (Dry) (VRLA) Flooded (Wet) Type Deep cycle Starting, lighting and ignition (SLI)
  95. 95. 99 Prototype BatteriesGo Kart • Type: sealed lead acid • Nominal voltage : 12 v • Capacity : 70 Ah • Number of batteries : 2 • Connection : series
  96. 96. Main Components Of Electric Car Charging system 100 • Introduction • Levels of charging • Types of Charging • How to stop Charging process?
  97. 97. 101 IntroductionComponents
  98. 98. 102 Levels Of ChargingComponents
  99. 99. 103 Types of ChargingComponents 1. Conductive charging
  100. 100. 104 Types of ChargingComponents 2. Wireless Charging  Main concept • Wireless power is transferred via electromagnetic waves. • Electromagnetic wave is mainly divided into electric and magnetic waves.
  101. 101. 105 Wireless Power transferComponents  Principle of operation
  102. 102. 106 WPT TechniquesComponents WPT Reactive Near Field Radiative Far Field IPT CPT EM-WPT Non R-WPT µ- waves LaserR-WPT
  103. 103. 107 WPT Techniques (IPT)Components • Depends on the magnetic coupling between 2 coils. Field can be guided within safety limits.  Non R-WPT • Used in the short range transfer (< 10 cm). • Ex: Cordless tooth brush and charging pads.  R-WPT • Coils are operating with their resonant frequency. • Transfer range is extended to few meters.
  104. 104. 108 WPT Techniques (CPT)Components • Depends on the capacitive coupling between two electrodes. • Limited to low-power applications; as high voltage on electrodes can be hazardous. • It is simpler in design and lower in cost than IPT systems. • It can be used in wireless battery charger and transferring power between substrate layers in integrated circuits.
  105. 105. 109 WPT Techniques (EM-WPT)Components • It is based on the electromagnetic field radiation in the far field region. • It can transmit high power for long distances. • It requires a clear line of sight to transfer power, also there is NO safety through this line.  Microwaves radiation: It uses high energy microwave source to transfer power from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna.  Laser radiation: It uses high intensity laser beam to transfer power from laser source to photovoltaic cells.
  106. 106. 110 Types of ChargingComponents 3. Battery Swapping
  107. 107. 111 How to stop Charging process?Components • Timer • Temperature cut off • Temperature change rate • Minimum current • Voltage limit • Voltage change rate
  108. 108. 112 Prototype method to Charge batteries Go kart
  109. 109. 113 Transmission Battery Steering Braking Controller Motor Electric Car Main Components Of Electric Car
  110. 110. 114 Transmission SystemComponents 1. Clutch 2. Gearbox 3. Driveshaft 4. Differential
  111. 111. 115 1. ClutchComponents Types of clutch Friction Electromagnetic vacuam centerfiugal
  112. 112. 116 Friction clutchComponents
  113. 113. 117 1. ClutchComponents Types of clutch Friction Electromagnetic vacuam centerfiugal
  114. 114. 118 Electromagnetic clutchComponents
  115. 115. 119 Prototype ClutchGo Kart • To make clutch in our prototype we used a clutch of 12 volt air conditioner compressor.
  116. 116. 120 2. Gear boxComponents
  117. 117. 121 Prototype GearboxGo Kart
  118. 118. 122 3. Propeller shaftComponents
  119. 119. 123 Prototype TransmissionGo Kart High efficiency
  120. 120. 124 4. DifferentialComponents
  121. 121. 125 Prototype Transmission systemGo Kart
  122. 122. 126 Transmission Battery Steering Braking Controller Motor Electric Car Main Components Of Electric Car
  123. 123. Main Components Of Electric Car Braking System 127 • Introduction. • Basic structure. • Types of braking systems
  124. 124. 128 IntroductionComponents Braking depends mainly on friction to convert kinetic energy to heat energy and stop the vehicle . • Main components of any braking system a) Moving part around its axis b) Fixed part mounted to the vehicle body
  125. 125. 129 IntroductionComponents Leverage it multiplies the force of the leg several times before transmitting it to the braking fluid
  126. 126. 130 IntroductionComponents Hydraulic system ,its main aim that the force applied at a point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid
  127. 127. 131 IntroductionComponents  Friction It measures how hard to move an object  Factors affecting friction • The condition of the surfaces in contact • The weight of an object
  128. 128. 132 Different Types of Mechanical Braking Components Disc Drum Bike Vehicles drawn by horses
  129. 129. 133 Basic StructureComponents • Brake Pedal. • Master Cylinder. • Disk Brake. • Drum Brake.
  130. 130. 134 1. Force pedal boosterComponents At normal conditionWhen releasing the vacuum pumpWhen motors stops
  131. 131. 135 2. Master cylinderComponents
  132. 132. 136 3. Disk brakeComponents
  133. 133. 137 4. Drum brakeComponents
  134. 134. 138 Drum VS Disc Brake SystemComponents
  135. 135. 139 Why do we use disc brakes in front and drum brakes in rear? Components Disk brakes have a higher overall capacity, and drum brakes are cheaper and take less hydraulic force to activate. When you stop your car most of the braking is done by the front brakes because of weight transfer
  136. 136. 140 Parking brakeComponents
  137. 137. 141 Anti lock braking system(ABS)Components • Each wheel speed is measured • This process is done over than 20 times /second
  138. 138. 142 Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD) Components Load sensor is used to determine where is the most load and gives orders to the master cylinder.
  139. 139. 143 Braking by wireComponents • Electro mechanical braking • Electro hydraulic braking
  140. 140. 144 Braking by wireComponents • It is able to react more quickly • It is totally silent and don’t have vibration through the pedal due to absence of mechanical parts • It takes up less space than mechanical parts • It is less damaging to environment
  141. 141. 145 Transmission Battery Steering Braking Controller Motor Electric Car Main Components Of Electric Car
  142. 142. Main Components Of Electric Car Steering system 146 • Introduction • Types of steering
  143. 143. 147 IntroductionComponents The steering system converts the rotation of the steering wheel into a swiveling movement of the road wheels in such a way that the steering-wheel rim turns a long way to move the road wheels a short way.
  144. 144. 148 Types of steeringComponents 1. Rack-and-pinion steering is the most common type of steering on cars, small trucks and SUVs. 2. Recirculating ball steering is the most commonly used steering system in heavy vehicles, trucks and the larger/heavier SUVs.
  145. 145. 149 Prototype SteeringGo Kart • The rack-and-pinion system
  146. 146. 150 The rack-and-pinion systemComponents
  147. 147. 151 Steering structureComponents • Tie Rod. • Steering Arm. • Rack steering . • Pinion steering. • Steering shaft . • Steering wheel.
  148. 148. 152 The rack-and-pinion systemComponents • At the base of the steering column there is a small pinion (gear wheel) inside a housing. Its teeth mesh with a straight row of teeth on a rack - a long transverse bar. • Turning the pinion makes the rack move from side to side. The ends of the rack are coupled to the road wheels by track rods.
  149. 149. 153 The rack-and-pinion systemComponents
  150. 150. Outline 2. Main Components Of Electric Car • Motor • Controller • Batteries • Transmission • Braking • Steering 3. Electric Go Kart Prototype 154
  151. 151. 155 Go Kart control system and its features Go Kart
  152. 152. 156 System Interconnect Diagram (SID) Go Kart
  153. 153. 157 Car MCU (motor control unit)Go Kart
  154. 154. 158 Go Kart MechanismGo Kart
  155. 155. 159 Car MotherboardGo Kart
  156. 156. 160 Motor direction controlGo Kart
  157. 157. 161 FeaturesGo Kart 1. Voltage measurement (voltmeter) Vout = R2/(R1+R2)* Vbattery
  158. 158. 162 FeaturesGo Kart 2. Prototype Pedal (potentiometer)
  159. 159. 163 FeaturesGo Kart 3. Speed sensor (encoder)
  160. 160. 164 FeaturesGo Kart 4. Temprature sensor
  161. 161. 165 FeaturesGo Kart 5. Monitoring (LCD)
  162. 162. 166 FeaturesGo Kart 6. Current limiter(fuse)
  163. 163. 167 FeaturesGo Kart 7. Wireless communication(bluetooth)
  164. 164. 168 General FeaturesGo Kart 8. Dimensions 150*90 cm 9.Automatic clutch 10.Weight about 70 kg 11.Can withstand a person weight till 70 kg 12.Secured with a key to open the system 13.Can reach speed of 20 km/hr at the rated weight
  165. 165. 169 Auto-parking techniqueGo Kart 1. sensor (encoder) 1-ultrasonic sensor 2-Electromagnetic sensors
  166. 166. 170 Auto-parking techniqueGo Kart 2. Our prototype (perpendicular algorithm)
  167. 167. 171 Auto-parking techniqueGo Kart
  168. 168. Thank you

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