SEMINAR ON HYBRID VEHICLE / ELECTRICVEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
SHREE RAMCHANDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Lonikand, Pune – 412 216
Department of Mechanical Engineering
HYBRID VEHICAL TECHNOLOGY
Guided By : Prof. G.K. Wable
Presented By : Avinash S. Repale
(TE Mech Div-A)
Roll No. 31
Exam Seat No. T150960917
2. With the advancement in 21st Century, there has been increase in usage of Oil and
Gas leading to problems like Global Warming, climate change, shortage of crude
oil,etc. Due to these reasons Automobile Companies have started doing research
formaking Hybrid Technology usable into the daily life. The Paper starts from brief
history about Hybrid Technology and also some brief introduction on it. Paper will
also discuss the technologies used in the making of Hybrid Cars such as “Hybrid
Solar Vehicle”, “Hybrid Electric Vehicle” and “Plug in hybrid electric vehicles”.
Automobile hybridization is considered as an important step in reducing greenhouse
gases and related automotive emissions. However, current hybrid electric vehicles
are a temporary solution on the way to zero emission road vehicles. This vehicle
allows a control strategy which includes both fuel-economy and performance
modes. Recently there has been a lot of interest in the concept of hybrid electric
vehicles, which have great potential to attain higher fuel economy and efficiency.
3. What is Hybrid Vehicle ???
A hybrid vehicle is a type of vehicle which combines a conventional
internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric
propulsion system. Or in a technical way, a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is a
type of technology which indulges both mechanical drive train and
A mechanical drive consists of the Fuel tank (containing conventional
fuels like petrol/diesel/CNG), the Combustion Engine, the gear box and
transmission to the wheels.
An electric drive consists of the Battery, an electric motor and Power
Electronics for control.
4. Series Hybrid:
In a series hybrid system, the combustion engine drives an electric
generator instead of directly driving the wheels. The electric motor is the
only means of providing power to the wheels. The generator both charges a
battery and powers an electric motor that moves the vehicle. When large
amounts of power are required, the motor draws electricity from both the
batteries and the generator.
CLASSIFICATION OF HYBRID VEHICLE
Fig 1: Series Hybrid Structure
5. Weaknesses of series hybrid vehicles:
• The ICE, the generator and the electric motor are dimensioned to handle the full
power of the vehicle. Therefore, the total weight, cost and size of the powertrain
can be excessive.
• The power from the combustion engine has to run through both the generator
and electric motor. During long-distance highway driving, the total efficiency is
inferior to a conventional transmission, due to the several energy conversions.
Advantages of series hybrid vehicles:
• There is no mechanical link between the combustion engine and the wheels. The
engine-generator group can be located everywhere.
• There are no conventional mechanical transmission elements (gearbox,
transmission shafts). Separate electric wheel motors can be implemented easily.
• The combustion engine can operate in a narrow rpm range (its most efficient
range), even as the car changes speed. Series hybrids are relatively the most
efficient during stop-and-go city driving.
Example of SHEV: Renault Kangoo.
6. Parallel Hybrid:
Parallel hybrid systems have both an internal combustion engine (ICE)
and an electric motor in parallel connected to a mechanical transmission.
Weaknesses of parallel hybrid vehicles:
• complicated system.
• The ICE doesn’t operate in a narrow or constant RPM range, thus efficiency drops at
low rotation speed.
• As the ICE is not decoupled from the wheels, the battery cannot be charged at standstill.
Fig 2: Parallel Hybrid Structure
7. Advantages of parallel hybrid vehicles:
• Total efficiency is higher during cruising and long-distance highway driving.
• Large flexibility to switch between electric and ICE power compared to series
hybrids, the electromotor can be designed less powerful than the ICE, as it is
assisting traction. Only one electrical motor/generator is required.
Example of PHEV: Honda Civic.
8. Series-Parallel Hybrid or Combined Hybrid
Combined hybrid systems have features of both series and parallel hybrids.
There is a double connection between the engine and the drive axle: mechanical and
electrical. This split power path allows interconnecting mechanical and electrical
power, at some cost in complexity. Power-split devices are incorporated in the
powertrain. The power to the wheels can be either mechanical or electrical or both.
This is also the case in parallel hybrids. But the main principle behind the combined
system is the decoupling of the power supplied by the engine from the power
demanded by the driver.
Fig 4: Series-Parallel Hybrid Structure
9. Weaknesses of combined hybrid vehicles:
• Very complicated system, more expensive than parallel hybrid.
• The efficiency of the power train transmission is dependent on the amount of
power being transmitted over the electrical path, as multiple conversions, each
with their own efficiency, lead to a lower efficiency of that path (~70%) compared
with the purely mechanical path (98%).
Advantages of combined hybrid vehicles:
• Maximum flexibility to switch between electric and ICE power
• Decoupling of the power supplied by the engine from the power demanded by the
driver allows for a smaller, lighter, and more efficient ICE design.
Example of CHEV: Toyota Prius, Auris, Lexus CT200h, Lexus RX400h.
11. Technology Used in Hybrid Vehicles
The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain causing the wheels to
slow down. In return, the energy from the wheels turns the motor, which functions as
a generator, converting energy normally wasted during coasting and braking into
electricity, which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor.
Electric Motor Drive/Assist
The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in
accelerating, passing, or hill climbing. This allows a smaller, more efficient engine to
be used. In some vehicles, the motor alone provides power for low-speed driving
conditions where internal combustion engines are least efficient.
12. Automatic Start/Shutoff
Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it
when the accelerator is pressed. This prevents wasted energy from idling.
Noise And Pollution
• Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of the electric motor at
idling and low speeds, leading to roadway noise reduction with comparison to
conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles.
• Hybrid vehicles are eco-friendly, as hybrids use NiMH batteries which can be
recycled and that disposal will pose no toxic hazards and also does not release
any harmful gases that help to give green earth.
Better mileage so Financial Benefits
Improved acceleration (most of the time)
Less dependence on fossil fuels
Lower emissions so Environmentally Friendly
Higher Resale Value
Built from Light Materials
Little highway mileage increase
High initial cost
Presence of High Voltage in Batteries:
Could cost more to repair i.e. Higher Maintenance Costs
Extra maintenance items
Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of gasoline engines
and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as
improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for
electronic devices and power tools.
Hybrid Cars use no energy during idling state; they turn off and use less
energy than petrol engines at low speeds. At lower speeds, no smog is emitted
maintaining its sustainable advantage. Till lower speed, the car runs on the electric
motor and on cruising speed, it runs on IC engine. They offer greater mileage than
conventional cars. Noise pollution and emission of CO2 is considerably reduced.
But, they are more expensive than conventional cars, are more complex in
construction and working than IC engine cars, offer larger repair bills, capacity of
batteries is not much advanced.
1) Lars-Henrik Björnsson , Sten Karlsson, Frances Sprei; “Objective functions for plug-
in hybrid electric vehicle battery range optimization and possible effects on the vehicle
fleet” (ScienceDirect 2017)
2) Mingfei Gao, Jibin Hu, Zengxiong Peng; “Study on configuration of power split
hybrid electric vehicles base on systematic viewpoint”[The 8th International
Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2016 ScienceDirect]
3) Alexander Kapustin, Vyacheslav Rakov; “Methodology to Evaluate the Impact of
Hybrid Cars Engine Type on their Economic Efficiency and Environmental
Safety”[12th International Conference 28-30 September 2016, St. Petersburg, Russia]
4) Parag Kulkarni; “Review of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles”[International Journal of
Emerging Research in Management &Technology ISSN: 2278-9359
(Volume-4, Issue 3)] March 2015