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Similar a Rice-Wheat cropping system, its prevalence and its presentation.pptx(20)


Rice-Wheat cropping system, its prevalence and its presentation.pptx

  1. RICE-WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM, ITS PREVALENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE INDIAN ECONOMY Avick Kumar Kundu Department of Agronomy (School of Agriculture), Lovely Professional University AGR 529: Agronomy of Major Cereals and Pulses Dr Rubina Gill
  2. INTRODUCTION •Rice wheat is the dominant double cropping system in south Asian countries. •This system is prevalent in Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) and is predominant in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh etc. •It is pivotal in the country’s food self sufficiency •This system is the backbone of Indian farming. •Mounting pressure on natural resources has brought fatigue to this system in recent years •But continuous adoption of the Rice wheat cropping system in northwest India has resulted in major challenges and stagnation. •It has brought forth several implications threatening its sustainability
  4. IMPORTANCE AND KEY FEATURES OF RWCS IN INDIA • Rice crop needs waterlogged or stagnant water conditions whereas wheat crop is having requirement of well-pulverizes soil balanced with moisture, air and thermal regime. Because of this, a main key feature of the rice-wheat cropping system is the annual conservation of soil from aerobic to anaerobic and then back to aerobic conditions. • In the last few decades, high growth rates for food grain production (wheat 3.0% and rice 2.3%) in India have kept pace with population growth. Rice productivity increased from ~1,000 kg ha−1 in 1960 to 3,420kgha−1 in 2018–19 in Haryana and 4,370 kg ha−1 in Punjab. Similarly, wheat productivity increased from 1,200 kg ha−1 in 1960–61 to 4,850 kg ha−1 in 2018–19 in Haryana and 5,080 kg ha−1 in Punjab.. • Green fodder is easily available in rice-wheat cropping system and this in turns helps to support large livestock population.
  5. FACTORS AFFECTING YIELDS OF RICE – WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM  Delayed planting of wheat and transplanting of Rice  Energy, labour and other input shortage  Resistance of the weed Phalaris minor to isoproturon; and crop residue burning have contributed to the stagnating or declining production, productivity and sustainability of this system.  Continuous cropping of rice-wheat system for decades as well as contrasting edaphic needs of these two crops have resulted in increased pest pressure, nutrient mining.  In many areas, yields have stagnated at below potential level  The input use efficiency is low  Soil organic matter content has reduced.
  6. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES FACED BY THE RWCS IN INDIA  Soil Health Depletion: The RW system has not only resulted in the mining of major nutrients (N, P, K, and S) from the soil but also has created a nutrient imbalance, leading to deterioration in soil quality. Deficiencies of N, P, and K are most extensive.  Disposal of crop Residues: Haryana and Punjab together produce 28.1mt of paddy straw (2018 estimates) out of which 40% (11.3mt) is burnt in the fields, and 60% is managed through soil incorporation and other measures. Particulate air pollution from crop residue burning affects the local population and downwind communities.  Herbicide resistance: The continuous use of a single herbicide in rice for the control of Echinochloa spp. resulted in the emergence of new hardy weeds like Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis. Due to the monocropping of the RWCS, the infestation of Phalaris minor Retz. has increased in wheat, as paddy cultivation provides favorable conditions for the germination of P. minor.  Depletion of the Groundwater: The continuous adoption of the RWCS resulted in a decline in the water table, which ultimately affected crop, land, and water productivity. The Haryana and Punjab states in northwest parts of India are producing rice at the cost of their natural resources, which have been dwindling very fast. The conventional system of rice cultivation is a high-water demanding system.  Economics: Rice is a labour-intensive crop, and both Punjab and Haryana are largely dependent on migrant labour for their cultivation. From 2005–06 to 2018–19, both states’ labour costs had increased exponentially from USD 1.27 to 3.78 per day in Haryana, and USD 1.35 to 3.22 per day in Punjab, respectively
  7. CONCLUSION  There is a need to shift from the conventional RWCS to conservation agriculture and adopt the need-based practices for the sustainable production of crops.  More emphasis should be given to developing high-yielding and short-duration rice varieties, which can help in reducing evapotranspiration loss and produce less residue load at harvest.  The inclusion of short-duration legumes, like mung bean, can greatly help in increasing the cropping system rice equivalent yield. Less water-demanding crops, such as maize, in place of rice also need to be explored for sustainable agriculture production.  Automation of irrigation methods can help in addressing the emerging challenges of the inefficiency of water use in agriculture. Scaling of sustainable intensification technologies (DDSR and zero-till wheat) by strategically leveraging suitable varieties, creating more awareness of improved management practices by strengthening the existing extension system, and attracting policy support are needed to achieve an enhanced farm income and sustainability in northwest India.

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