HERBAL TECHNOLOGY AN OVERVIEW ITS
STANDARDIZATION IN FORMULATIONS
Prof. A. Ravi Kumar M.Pharm., Ph.D
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
HERBAL TECHNOLOGY AN OVERVIEW ITS STANDARDIZATION IN FORMULATIONS
A. Skin cosmeticsA. Skin cosmetics
• Lip balmLip balm
• Lotion & LinimentLotion & Liniment
• Face packFace pack
• Deodorant & antiperspirantDeodorant & antiperspirant
• Bath preparationBath preparation
B.Hair cosmeticsB.Hair cosmetics
C. Tooth cosmetics
• Mouth wash
D. Nail preparation
E. Shaving preparations
F. Foot preparations
Definition of cosmetic:Definition of cosmetic:
Cosmetics by their intended use, as articles intended to beCosmetics by their intended use, as articles intended to be
rubbed. Poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced in to, orrubbed. Poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced in to, or
otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing,otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing,
beautifying, promoting, attractiveness, or altering thebeautifying, promoting, attractiveness, or altering the
HERBAL COSMECEUTICALS:HERBAL COSMECEUTICALS:
Cosmetics containing an active ingredient obtained from plant
To enhance the general appearance of face and other body
parts to minimize the skin defects to a considerable extent
Psychological, social and clinical application.
The main function of this covering is to protect body, eliminate
waste material & regulate body temperature.
semi-solid emulsions that is mixtures of oil and water
Uses of creamsUses of creams Ideal characteristicIdeal characteristic
Protect the skin Non toxic
Retention of moisture Easily spreads
Cleansing Remains stable
Emollient effects Not too hygroscopic
As barrier with sunscreens Easy to remove
1.1. According to emulsion phaseAccording to emulsion phase
W/O creamsW/O creams
Eg: Cold cream, Emollient cream
O/W creamsO/W creams
Eg: Shaving cream, foundation cream,
2. According to functional aspect2. According to functional aspect
• Cold & cleansing creams
• Night & Nourishing creams
• Vanishing & Foundation creams
• All –purpose cream
• Others : Anti-acne, anti-wrinkle cream
Invented by GalenGalen: Galen's cold cream was based on
beeswax and water, also containing olive oil and rose petals
for softness and scent.
It is an emulsion of water and certain fats (W/O)
Normally following base are used:Normally following base are used:
Almond oil, white bees wax
Borax (used as emulsifier),Rose water
Method of preparation:Method of preparation:
Dissolve borax in hot rose water.
Melt various waxes together keeping the temp. about 70°C.
Mix both the oil & water phase at same temp. with constant
Mix without heat for 1 hrs &when cool (45-50°C), add perfume
For example: (Red apple extract)
o/w Creamso/w Creams
When applied to the skin leave an almost invisible layer on it.
Produce emollient and moisturizing effect.
•Melt stearic acid & lanolin. Mix water, glycerine, extract & triethanolamine
&warm to same temp. as that of melted stearic acid and lanolin. Mix with
• Add preservative &perfume. Mix them thoroughly in order to obtain a
vanishing cream:vanishing cream:
Stearic acid, Glycerin, Lanolin,
Natural jojoba extract, Preservative,
It is non greasy &provides nourishment & protection to the
Aloe vera (Nourishes & moisturizes the skin)
Indian Kino tree, Ashwaganda (Protect skin from pollution & dry weather)(Protect skin from pollution & dry weather)
Gotu Kola (May increases the production of collagen)
Liquid paraffin, Glycerin,BHT,
Sodium EDTA, phenoxyethanol,
Nourishes the skin all night with revitalizers, nutrients &
It provides moisture to the skin by preventing evaporation.
Pyrus malus (Crab Apple): Cooling, Soothing and Keratolytic
Triticum sativum (Wheat): Preventing black heads.
Citrus limon (Lemon):It protects the skin
from oxidative damage
Lilium polyphyllum (White Lily): Astringent
Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato):Antioxidant
A great moisturizer for dry skin that helps heal, repair, and
maintain soft, supple skin.
Increasing skin hydration (by reducing evaporation)
Method of formulation:
Heat coconut oil & beeswax until wax melt.
Stir & cool
slowly add theslowly add the aloe veraaloe vera gel a drop at a time.gel a drop at a time.
Continue stirring & when the mixture thickens,
add the vitamin oil & chamomile extract.
Aloe vera gel
It acts as a superficial disease that affects the hair follicles and
oil secreting glands of the skin.
Lens culinaris(Lentil) Reduce inflammation
Silk cotton tree Astringent
Vitex negundo Anti-inflammatory
Sunscreen cream are those topical preparations which
protect the skin by harmful sunlight either by scatter
sunlight or to absorb erythemogenic radiations.
Fat-soluble walnut extract
Hydrogenated ricinus oil
It delays wrinkles and smoothes fine lines.
Regular use prevents oxidative skin damage.
Aloe vera antibacterial &
Papaver rhoeas emollient
Vitis vinifera nourish the skin
Solanum lycopersicum antioxidant
Santalum album alleviate itching and
It inhibits the formation of melanin.
It reduces pigmentation.
Rosa centifolia improves complexion
Citrus reticulata removes blemishes
Aloe vera moisturizes and softens skin.
Rubia cordifolia reduces freckles
Santalum album reduces irritation
Sympiocos racemosa lightens color
It prevents chapping, drying & cracking of the lips.
It contains a natural UV filter and Vit.E which nourishes, tones
and softens the lips.
Ricinus communisrelieve various inflammatory
conditions of the skin & mucus
Cocos nucifera emollient (softening the lips)
Triticum sativum prevents loss of moisture from
the skin (vit.E)
Anti bacterial , astringent
Daucus carota sunscreen & fragrance
A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity, topical preparation
intended for application to unbroken skin; creams and gels
have a higher viscosity. It is applied without friction.
Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions.
Lotions can be used for the delivery to the skin of medications such as:
Antibiotics ,Antiseptics ,Antifungal ,Corticosteroids ,Anti-acne agents
Soothing, smoothing, moisturizing or protective agents.
Various types of lotions are
Hand and body lotions
Skin toning lotions
The raw materials used in making the lotion includesThe raw materials used in making the lotion includes
Natural gums (family- Leguminosae)
Gum acacia (Acacia arabica)
Guar gum (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus)
Tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer)
Witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)
Rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Haldi (Curcuma longa)
Menthol (Mentha piperata)
Water, Glycerin and other
It stimulates the blood circulation, tone the muscles and
maintain the elasticity of the skin.
Also they draw out impurities from the pores.
Azadirachta indica antibacterial ,
helps in controlling
acne and pimples
Fuller's earth anti-inflammatory
Curcuma longa antiseptic
COSMETICS FOR HAIR
Shampoo: liquid, creamy or gel-like
• Cleansing of hair without leaving the hair greasy & dry.
• Not produce irritation in eye, Contain an effective
germicide, fungicide or antiseptic, Easy to remove
• Reduce the degree of itching, scaling and inflammation
Ingredients use in shampoos:
Anionic surfactants superior foaming properties and
low cost E.g Alkyl benzene sulphonates
Cationic surfactants- They produce good foam, leave
hair lustrous and have good. E.g. Cetyl pyridinum salts
Amphoteric surfactants-E.g. n-alkyl amino acids
good cleansing and foaming properties
B) Conditioning agent: Mineral oil, lanolin
C) Viscosity modifiers: NaCl, Natural gums
– Thickening of shampoo
D) Opacifying agents: TiO2
E) Sequestering agent: EDTA
F) Preservatives: Methyl/propyl parabens
H) Antimicrobials- Thymol
Classified according to function as:
– Protein shampoo
– Anti dandruff shampoo
– Conditioning shampoo
• Shikakai and ushira- soften the hair
• Musk roof- promotes hair growth
• Soapnut- hair from excessive oil secretion, dirt, dust
• Fenugreek- provide natural proteins
Acacia concinna (shikakai) 47.60 mg
Vetiveria zizanioids (ushira) 6.95 mg
Nardostachys jatamansi (musk
Sapindus mukorossi (soap nut) 2.08 mg
Water up to 1 ml
Significance of each extract:
• Rusmari- destroys dandruff
• Neem- protects from germs
• Tulsi- protects from germs
• Shikakai- cleanses and conditions hair
• Amla- strengtns hair, Henna- provides rich and healthy shine
Rosmarinus officinalis (rusmari) 103 mg
Azadirachta indica (neem) 5.15 mg
Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) 5.15 mg
Acacia concinna (shikakai) 5.15 mg
Phylsanthus emblica (amla) 5.15 mg
Lawsonia inermis (henna) 5.15 mg
Water up to 5 ml
To enhance untangling of wet hair and improve
manageability of both wet and hair.
Formulation of conditioning shampoo
Cicer arietinumCicer arietinum (Chick pea)(Chick pea) 60 mg
Sapindus mukorossiSapindus mukorossi (Ritha)(Ritha) 60 mg
Jasminum officinaleJasminum officinale (Jasmine)(Jasmine) 40 mg
Eclipta albaEclipta alba (Thistle)(Thistle) 15 mg
Hair dye should possess following characteristics:
It should be non-injurious to the hair shaft
It should possess no systemic toxic effect or irritation when
applied to the hair
It should have affinity for hair keratin
Some herbs used to color the hair include:
•Eclipta alba: Whole plant extract is useful for hair nourishment and dyeingWhole plant extract is useful for hair nourishment and dyeing
•Juglans regia:Leaves and haul of fruits for hair dyeing
•Lawsonia inermis (henna),
•Emblica officinalis (amla)
To prevent and control of teeth disorders, which
include dentifrices and mouthwash
The basic requirements of a dentifrice are-
1. To remove food debris, plaque and stain.
2. It should leave the mouth with a fresh, clean sensation.
3. It should be harmless, pleasant and convenient to use.
Azadirachta indica (Neem) Protects gums from bacteria
Eugenia caryophyllus(Laung) Clove oil is used as analgesic
in tooth pain
Glycyrrhiza glabra(mulethi) It cures mouth ulcers
Cinnamon oil is used as
Mentha piperita(pudina) flavoring agent and has mild
Various botanicals used in preparation of
To remove adherent soiling matter from a hard surface with
INGREDIENTS QUANTITY % ROLE
Calcium pyrophosphate 38 abrasive
stannous pyrophosphate 2 abrasive
Stannous fluoride 0.4 fluoride
Glycerin 25 humectant
Sorbitol 12.5 humectant
Irish moss 1.5 Binders
Sodium saccharin 0.05 Sweetners
Sodium lauryl sulphate 2 Surfactners
Water 100 Solvent
Flavor Qs flavour
METHOD OF FORMULATION
•The hydration of the gelling agent
•Dispersion of the abrasive in gel
•To add the active ingredients late in the mixing cycle
•Add the surface active agent
•Flavor last of all.
For example –
1. Herbal toothpaste1. Herbal toothpaste
Calcium carbonate,sorbitol, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare),clove
bud (Eugenia caryophyllus),Neem leaf(azadirachta indica),and
neem bark,peppermint (mentha piperita),essential oils,ascorbic
acid (vitamin C)
To give a healthier and fresher mouth and to provide some
assurance of good breath odour.
certified organic aloe barbadensis gel,
super critical extracts of mentha piperata,
azadirachta indica leaf and bark,
ascorbic acid, xylitol, potassium sorbate
Solvent, like toluene
Pigments: minerals or organic lakes
Plasticizer like DEP, camphor
Resin for film strength and flexibility: Toluene Sulfonamide
Nails can become brittle due to dehydration. Nail creams contain an
emmolient like olive oil and lanolin
A good shaving cream should have following
It must give an abundant lather
It must remain soft in tube
It must tacky to adhere to both brush & face
Stearic acid, Mineral oil, Beeswax, Menthol, Soap flakes,
After shave preparations
To relieve slight irritation after shaving.
To recover injury after shaving.
Humectants and emollientsHumectants and emollients-like glycerol and sorbitol etc
Cooling effect of skin is achieved by adding menthol
Astringency is achieved by adding witch hazel extract and zincwitch hazel extract and zinc
Nivea after shave lotionNivea after shave lotion
chamomilechamomile, vitamin E, and provitamin B5. Calms skin helps
to prevent irritations.