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Ch 8 Sec 1 "Latin America"

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Latin America

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Ch 8 Sec 1 "Latin America"

  1. 1. Latin America
  2. 2. South America • Portugal had exclusive control on trade to the East along the sea route around Africa • This forced Spanish to find another route to China • They found the “New World” and worked to monopolize it!
  3. 3. Line of Demarcation • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand called on Pope Alexander VI (a Spaniard) to decide who could settle where. • Everything to the east of the line went to Portugal • Everything west of the line went to Spain
  4. 4. • Portugese were unpleased with this because the winds they needed to get around Africa took them into Spanish area • The Treaty of Tordesillas was established
  5. 5. • How did other nations feel about the Treaty of Tordesillas? • The French, Dutch and English explored areas anyway.
  6. 6. Treatment of the Natives • Europeans looked down on the Indians and pressured them to become more civilized (or more European) • At best, the Indians were second class citizens who were expected to perform whatever menial tasks the Europeans were unwilling to do.
  7. 7. How were they going to rule their settlements? • They were separated from their settlements by an ocean. • They wanted absolute power like they had in their home countries
  8. 8. There were 3 problems to that: 1. Couldn’t solve problems quickly because had to wait for answers to issues 2. They ignored the Creoles (Spanish or Portuguese born in Americas). – They only gave governing duties to those born in the mother country 3. Spain and Portugal determined the price, quantity, and types of goods that could be produced and sold in the colonies.
  9. 9. Portuguese Rule of the Colonies • Portugal granted control to 12 nobles called donatario – Their rule would be passed down to their sons – Had complete control of the land – Were responsible to colonize, defend and tax their territory and to send excess funds to Portugal
  10. 10. • The Roman Church would bring complaints of the colonists to the donatarios • If the complaints were ignored, the church would report back to Portugal
  11. 11. Spanish Authority in New World • Spain appointed a viceroy to rule each colony • The viceroy had to answer to the Council of the Indies (which was in Spain) • Also had an official who was in charge of each village or city.
  12. 12. Native Population • Explorers were sent as ambassadors from Spain to native South Americans • Friars and priests were sent to convert the Indians
  13. 13. • Conquistadors were rewarded with land with an Indian labor force • Many conquistadors were harsh in treatment of this labor force
  14. 14. • Bartolome de Las Casas spoke out against mistreatment • His efforts helped pass the New Laws of 1542 – Courts were established to protect the Indians and mestizos (people with Indian and Spanish parents) – Most reforms were overturned by powerful landowners
  15. 15. • Slaves were needed to take the place of dead Indians • At least 9 millions Africans were enslaved and brought to the New World
  16. 16. • Video clip – Slavery Middle Passage
  17. 17. • Silver and sugar were the two major exports of colonial Latin America • Over time, Indians became skilled labor and black slaves did hard labor of digging and loading • Today, one of most profitable resources is coffee
  18. 18. • Turn in your book to page 143