Competency gaps for Professional Development

Asia Master Training آسيا ماسترز للتدريب والتطوير
Asia Master Training آسيا ماسترز للتدريب والتطويرDirector of Training Development at Asia Masters Center em Asia Masters Center
Competency gaps for Professional
Development
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What is Competency?
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What do we mean when we
say “COMPETENCY” ?
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A Competency is an underlying
characteristic of a person which enables
him /her to deliver superior performance
in a given job, role or a situation.
Competencies are seen mainly as inputs.
They consist of clusters of knowledge,
attitudes and skills that affect an
individual’s ability to perform.
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Hayes (1979) –
Competencies are generic knowledge
motive, trait, social role or a skill of a
person linked to superior performance
on the job.
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Albanese (1989) –
Competencies are personal
characteristics that contribute to
effective managerial performance.
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UNIDO (2002)-
A Competency is a set of skills, related
knowledge and attributes that allow
an individual to successfully perform a
task or an activity within a specific
function or job.
What is Common in the definitions?
Competencies
• underlying characteristic of
a person’s inputs.
• clusters of knowledge,
attitudes and skills
• generic knowledge motive,
trait, social role or a skill
• personal characteristics
• set of skills, related
knowledge and attributes
Job
• superior performance in a
given job, role or a situation
• individual’s ability to
perform.
• linked to superior
performance on the job.
• contribute to effective
managerial performance
• successfully perform a task
or an activity within a
specific function or job
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Set of
SKILLS
Relates to the
ability to do,
Physical
domain
Attribute
Relates to
qualitative
aspects
personal
Characteristics
or traits
KNOWLEDGE
Relates to information
Cognitive Domain
COMPETENCY
Outstanding
Performance of
tasks or activities
Behaviour Indicators
• A Competency is described in terms of key
behaviors that enables recognition of that
competency at the work place.
• These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent
performers on-the-job much more consistently
than average or poor performers. These
characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in
that they include the key behaviors that primarily
drive excellent performance.
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Example of a Competency
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Analytical Thinking
• The ability to break problems into
component parts and consider or organize
parts in a systematic way; the process of
looking for underlying causes or thinking
through the consequence of different courses
of action.
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Key Behavior Indicators
• Independently researches for information and solutions to
issues
• Ability to know what needs to be done or find out
(research) and take steps to get it done
• Ask questions when not sure of what the problem is or to
gain more information.
• Able to identify the underlying or main problem.
• Shows willingness to experiment with new things.
• Develops a list of decision making guidelines to help arrive
at logical solutions.
What are Competencies?
• Competencies are those behaviors that excellent
performer’s exhibit much more consistently than
average performers.
• … a grouping of behaviors, that taken together,
better describe and communicate performance
expectations.
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What Competencies are Not…
• Competencies are Not…
• a “psychological construct” No single behavior
can term Conflict Management
• Not knowledge… the application of knowledge
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Antimony of a Competency
1. Title
1. One to three words titling competency
2. Definition (The WHAT)
1. Knowledge, skill and ability (KSA) statements
defining competency
3. Performance Statements (The HOW)
1. Groupings of behavioral statements describing
successful performance
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Monitor, Evaluate and Revise
– Measure progress to access what’s working and
not working.
– Make adjustments to plan as needed and address
new workforce and organizational issues.
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What makes Competency valid?
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Types of Knowledge: Tacit
• Knowledge that people carry in their heads. It is
difficult to access and most people are not even
aware of what they possess or how it is of value
to others. It provides context for ideas,
experiences, people, and places and is not easily
captured.
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Types of Knowledge: Explicit
• Structured – Data elements that are organized in
a particular way for future retrieval, e.g.
documents, databases, spreadsheets
• Unstructured – Information not referenced for
retrieval, e.g. emails, images, audio or video
selections
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Knowledge Transfer
• The process of sharing knowledge between
one person and another
• If knowledge has not been absorbed, it has
not been transferred
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Knowledge Transfer Tip #1
• Managers may have some knowledge transfer
methods already in place
• Consider using those methods as the
foundation for the knowledge transfer plan
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Knowledge Transfer / Management
Strategies
•Job Aids
•Mentoring Programs
•Process Documentation
•Best Practice Meetings or Studies
•Communities of Practice
•Retirees on Retainer
•Job Shadowing
•Expert Systems
•Critical Incident Reviews
•Electronic Performance Support
System
•Storyboards
•Storytelling
•Double fills
•Document Repositories
•Job Rotation
•Knowledge Fairs
•Knowledge Maps
•Structured On the Job Training
Monitor, Evaluate and Revise
– Measure progress to access what’s working and
not working.
– Make adjustments to plan as needed and address
new workforce and organizational issues.
Benefits of a competency
Framework
Benefits of a Competency Framework
Departments will have improved and integrated
processes for:
1. Recruitment and retention of talent
2. Assessment and selection
3. Performance communication and support
4. Leadership development
5. Succession planning
6. Career development
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Benefits of a Competency Framework
Employees will benefit from:
1. Clarity about knowledge, skill, and ability expectations
2. Improved supervisor and employee communication
3. More consistent performance appraisal feedback
4. Improved recognition for skill growth as well as
achievement
5. Clearer paths for career development
6. Supervisor’s increased ability to demystify HR processes for
employees
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Contributes To Employee
Retention
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What’s Retention?
• Keeping employees committed within the
company for a long period of time
• High priority within HR departments today
• Key to retention is maintaining employee
satisfaction
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Mythbusters Activity
• Myth or Fact?
– People most often leave a company for more
pay.
• Myth!
– Most commonly people will leave because of work conditions,
dissatisfaction with policies, and relationships with coworkers
and supervisors.
• Solution
– Work to improve employee involvement, recognition and
growth
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Mythbusters Activity
• Myth or Fact?
– Incentive programs produce long-term profits
and improve productivity and morale
• Myth!
– Incentives can have a negative effect when they are over-used
and people focus on speed rather than quality.
• Solution
– Keep incentives spontaneous and surprising
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Mythbusters Activity
• Myth or Fact?
– People don’t want more responsibility.
• Myth!
– Employees don’t want more work if they already have too much
on their plate, but they want more opportunities to expand
their knowledge within their job.
• Solution
– Don’t overload employees with too much work and give
opportunities to expand their knowledge within their job.
Mythbusters Activity
• Myth or Fact?
– Loyalty is dead
• Myth!
– People are changing jobs and careers more often, but if employees
are getting the training to expand their career within the company,
then they will stay loyal to them.
• Solution
– Offering opportunities to expand within their job and career for the
company.
Drivers of Retention
• Characteristics of the Employer
– Management
– Job security
– Culture and values
• Employee Relationships
– Co-worker relationships
– Supervisor support
• Job Design and Work
– Job matching
– Time flexibility
– Work/life balancing
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Drivers of Retention
• Career Opportunities
– Training and development
– Career advancement
• Rewards
– Competitive pay and benefits
– Recognition
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Managing Employee Retention
• Recognition for a job well done
• Examples
• Hand-written card
• Publish accomplishment in newsletter
• Publicly announce accomplishment
• Use non-cash items to reward employees
•Examples
•Movie tickets
•Paid vacation day
•Gift cards
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Managing Employee Retention
• Offer flexible work schedules
• Flex-time
• Telecommute
• Compressed workweeks
• Create traditions
– Holiday dinners
– Charity drives
– Fun Days
Managing Employee Retention
• Post new employee pictures and biographies in
community area with current employees
– Gives sense of belonging and chance to find someone with
similar interests
• Be prompt with rewards
– Having too much lag time between performance and recognition
can have a negative effect.
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Competency Gap
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Close the Gap
– Determine what gaps exist between our current
and projected workforce needs.
– Develop and implement strategy to close the gap.
These strategies include knowledge transfer,
recruiting, training/ retaining, restructuring
organizations, leadership development, succession
planning, technology, enhancements, etc.
– Knowledge Transfer Concepts
Take ownership of your professional
development
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Professional Development
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Benchmark Competencies
A. Knowledge & Understanding
B. Applications to Practice
C. Management and Leadership
D. Interpersonal skills
E.Ethics & Principles
Knowledge & Understanding
Maintain and Extend Sound Theoretical Approach
– Read Technical Journals
– Engage through a project involvement in new areas for development and research
– Creative and innovative Development of Engineering Technology and Continuous improvement
Systems
– Read technical publications relevant to your field of engineering
– Be a member of a professional institute relevant to your field of engineering practice
– Read Publications of relevant professional institutions
– Engage in post graduate degree level or graduate degree level studies
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B.Applications to Practice
– Apply Theoretical and practical methods to the analysis and solutions of engineering problems
– Participate in discussions to enhance knowledge and understanding
– Research, design and development
– Implement design solutions and evaluate their effectiveness
– Engage in carrying out necessary tests to evaluate
performance or to find out defects
– Engage in cost plan for a project
– Undertake engineering design
– Conduct Value Engineering exercises
– Read manufacturers literature and test data to establish understanding of a product or an
equipment
– Attend seminars
– Visit technical exhibitions
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Management and Leadership
• Plan for effective project implementation
• Budget, Organise ,direct and control task people and
resources.
• Staff management and technical development
• Manage continuous quality improvements
Interpersonal Skills
• Know and manage your own emotions, strengths and weakness
• Effectively manage your own time
• Work with others and communicate
• Present and discuss proposals
• Chair and record meetings and discussions
• Write reports , prepare letters and documents
• Deliver lectures / presentations
• Improve listening skills
• Learn languages ( English/Arabic )
• Resolve conflicts and enhance productive working atmosphere
• Be aware of the needs and concerns of others
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Ethics & Principles
• At all times uphold the dignity and reputation of your profession
• Exercise professional skills and judgement to the best of your ability
• Maintain your professional competence through systematic improvement
• Discharge your professional responsibilities with honesty.
• Do not undertake any work beyond your professional or technical competence
• Be concerned about public health and safety issues
• Be concerned about environmental policies
• Mentor, assist and guide the professional development of others
• Carryout continuing professional development necessary to maintain and enhance
competence
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Core Competencies
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51
CORE COMPETENCE
• Core competence is a bundle of skills and technologies that enables a
company to provide a particular benefit to customers’.
• For example,
• A Sony – benefit is pocketability
– core competence is miniaturization
• At Federal Express – benefit is on time delivery
– core competence is logistics management
• At Motorola– benefit is untethered communication
– core competence is wireless communication.
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52
TO BE CONSIDERED CORE COMPETENCE A SKILL MUST MEET
THREE TESTS
• Customer Value: Core competencies are the skills that enable a firm
to deliver a fundamental customer benefit.
• Competitor Differentiation:A capability must also be competitively
unique
power trains is a core competence at Honda which has never been so at
Ford/s.
Honda’s ability to produce some of the world’s best engines and power trains
does provide customers with highly valued benefits of superior fuel economy,
zippy acceleration, less noise and vibration.
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53
TO BE CONSIDERED CORE COMPETENCE A SKILL MUST MEET
THREE TESTS
Contd...
 Extendibility: A core competitive is truly core
when it focus the basis for entry into new
product markets.
SKF, the world’s leading manufacturer of roller bearing has
competencies in antification, precision engineering and making
perfectly spherical devices. In order to achieve extendibility, SKF
must be capable of manufacturing the round, high precision
recording heads that go inside a VCR, most of which are now
manufactured by Japanese firms.
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54
RISKS OF IGNORING CORE COMPETENCIES
• Opportunities for growth will be needlessly turned down.
• As a company divisionalies and fractures into ever smaller
business units, competencies may become fragmented
and weakened.
• The lack of core competence perspective can desensitize a
company to its growing dependence on outside suppliers
of core products.
• A company focused only on end products may fail to
invest adequately in new core competencies that can
propel growth in the future.
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55
RISKS OF IGNORING CORE COMPETENCIES
Contd...
 A company that fails to understand the core
competence basis for competition in its industry
may be surprised by new entrants who rely on
competencies developed in other end markets.
 Companies insensitive to the issue of core
competence may unwittingly relinquish valuable
skills when they divest an under-performing
business.
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56
CORE COMPETENCE PERSPECTIVE
• Identifying existing core competencies
• Establishing a core competence acquisition agenda
• Building core competencies
• Deploying core competencies
• Protecting and defending core competence
leadership
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Wyoming Core Competencies
• Leadership
– Ex: Institutional Collaboration, Vision
• Performance Management
– Ex: Change Mgt., Team Building
• Workplace
– Ex: Customer Focus, Teamwork
• Analytical
– Ex: Written Communication
• Personal Effectiveness
– Ex: Integrity, Ethics
• See More @...
Foundational Skills Sets
Workplace Performance
Skills Sets
Leadership &
Succession Planning
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Competency-Based Strategic Alignment
Agency Performance Measure
Performance
Expectations /
Appraisal /
Development
Needs
Skills /
Competencies
Needed
Input
FTE/BUDGET
Activities &
Outputs
(Nuts & Bolts)
Strategies /
Intermediate
Outcomes
Agency
Performance
Measures
Wyoming
Quality of Life
*How do you
plan on
evaluating /
developing
performance?
-Identifying skills
gap
-Communicating
skills gap
-Developing
skills gap
-Measuring
success
What critical
skills are
needed to
accomplish
identified duties
and activities?
What are the
skills of the
persons working
on the project?
What is the gap
between critical
skills needed
and skills of
persons on
project(s)?
What are the
resources need
to carry out
stated duties,
activities and
outputs?
Who are the
employee's
and/or AWEC’s
assigned to
complete the
identified duties
and activities?
What duties,
activities,
processes
and/or
procedures
have been
identified to
carry out the
strategy?
What divisions
are directly
working on this
measure?
What are their
strategies and
initial
outcomes?
What are the
goals and
objectives of this
measure?
The 10
Commitment to
residents of the
State.
Where and how
does the
performance
measure fit into
Wyoming’s
Quality of Life?
The WHATThe HOW
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Organizational Core Competencies
“Definition”
• Clusters of universally-expected, observable
behaviors
• Necessary for successful performance in the
position and in the organization
• Distinguish performance in a particular work
context
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How Core Competencies are Used
• Tell us “how” major responsibilities of a position
should be done
• Help us address how a professional can best go
about adding value for a constituent
• Help us evaluate the performance of employees
• Give us a look at what mastery performance looks
like
• Gives ideas for employee development
• Used in selection, professional development, and
career planning, performance coaching, evaluation,
promotion
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Example Core Competency
“Collaborating & Partnership”
Definition: Effectively develop relationships and
collaborate with all stakeholders; value teamwork
and apply a variety of strategies to meet the
needs of a diverse constituency.
Developing Core Competencies
1. Get a list of competencies
2. Make sure it’s complete
3. Write master-level descriptions
4. Eliminate overlaps
5. Sort the list
6. Compare individual decisions
7. Come to consensus
8. Publish and use the competency list
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Core Competencies + Job Knowledge
Utilize throughout the entire employment process:
1. Developing the PD
2. Qualifications detailed in advertising
3. Evaluating candidates
4. Interviewing candidates (behavioral questions)
5. Reference checking (behavioral questions)
6. Make job offer
7. Training and development
8. Performance evaluations
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Benchmarks Core Competencies
Foundational Competencies:
• Professionalism
• Reflective practice
• Scientific knowledge and
methods
• Relationships
• Individual and cultural
diversity
• Ethical and legal standards
and policy
• Interdisciplinary systems
Functional Competencies:
• Assessment
• Intervention
• Consultation
• Research and evaluation
• Supervision
• Teaching
• Administration
• Advocacy
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People Competencies
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66
What are competencies?
Competencies are the observable combination of
• Knowledge
• Skills
• Abilities
that contribute to individual and organizational
performance
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67
Why do we have competencies?
• Move NIH in a direction away from tasks and toward
observable behaviors
• Changing workforce/industry
• Succession planning
• Leadership development programs
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68
Why Introduce
Competencies?
Competencies:
• Highlight the value of the organization
• Provide clear guidelines of success
• Provide practical tools for performance management
• Target training needs for development of staff
• Provide a better fit between employees and their job
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69
What Do Competencies
Look Like?
Each competency has a definition and level of proficiency. For Example:
Results Orientation
Definition:
The desire or drive to achieve or surpass identified goals. Establishes performance
objectives and measures to continuously improve performance and standards of
excellence in the organization. Includes innovative or entrepreneurial behaviours
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70
Results Orientation
Levels of proficiency and complexity
1. Wants to do the job well
2. Works to achieve goals
3. Sets own standards to improve performance
4. Sets and strives to meet higher standards of performance
5. Conducts Cost - Benefit Analyses
6. Takes Calculated Entrepreneurial risks
What Do Competencies
Look Like?
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Types of Competencies
• Behavioral Competency: Behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities, and other
characteristics that contribute to individual success in the organization
– Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be specific to a job
family, career level or position
– e.g., teamwork and cooperation, communication
– Focus on the person
• Technical Competency: Specific knowledge and skills needed to be able to perform
one’s job effectively
– Job specific and relate to success in a given job or job family
– e.g., knowledge of accounting principles, knowledge of human resource
law and practice
– Focus on the job
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Competencies – Job Redesign
• Technical competencies
– Are part of the job description
– Describe what a person needs for the job
– Generally a phrase or statement
• Behavioral competencies
– Are not part of the job description
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Behavioral Competencies
Key Characteristics:
• Observable and measurable
• Relate to the core purpose and values of an organization
• Focus on the person
– Contribute to improved employee performance
– Contribute to individual success within an organization
• Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be specific to a
job family, career level, or position
• Are not part of the job description
Drive organizational performance
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Types of Behavioral Competencies
Statewide Competencies
Core Competencies
(all employees)
Leadership Competencies
(people managers & other leaders)
Customer Service
Teamwork and Cooperation
Results Orientation
Accountability
Judgment and Decision Making
Talent Management
Transformers of Government
Additional Behavioral Competencies
Communication
Conflict Management
Creativity and Innovation
Cultural Awareness
Flexibility
Initiative
Negotiation and Influence
Professional Development
Project Management
Teaching Others
Team Leadership
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Creates integrated value,
Competencies that Generate Growth
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Integrated Competency-Based HR
• Strategic Planning
– Translates the organization's vision and goals into expected employee
behavior
• Workforce Planning
– Links competencies to the agency’s mission, vision, & goals
– Assess and target skill and competency gaps
– Identify where to best focus training dollars
– Help determine what competencies are needed for today as well as the future
– Identify gaps between present skill sets & future requirements
– Identify gaps at the agency level
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Integrated Competency-Based HR
• Performance Management
– Provides consistency in performance expectations and
measurement
– Helps identify which behaviors most impact performance and
success
– Used in individual development plans to target gaps and identify
development opportunities
– Helps distinguish exceptional individuals that contribute to
organizational success
– Provides feedback to individuals to move them toward exemplary
performance
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Integrated Competency-Based HR
• Succession Planning
– Helps clarify characteristics required for targeted position(s)
– Focuses training and development plans to address competency gaps
– Allows an organization to measure its “bench strength”
– Helps target the agency’s investment of both time and money for
developmental purposes
– Helps provide a method for assessing readiness for the role
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Integrated Competency-Based HR
• Recruiting/Selection/Onboarding
– Ensures a more systematic interview process
– Provides a complete picture of job requirements
– Increases the likelihood of hiring people who will
succeed in the organization
– Can prescreen job applicants
– Make selection decisions based on demonstrated
ability to perform or evidence of results
– Reduce hiring costs and absenteeism / turnover
rates
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Integrated Competency-Based HR
• Workforce Training and Development
– Provides the ability to focus on the skills,
knowledge, and characteristics that have the most
impact on effectiveness
– Ensures that training and development
opportunities are aligned with organizational
values and strategies
– Recognizes that most efforts to build
competencies occurs through work experiences
– Helps individuals to discover their own
competencies
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Developing Organizational Capability
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Organization Development Defined
A planned system wide effort, managed
from the top with the assistance of a
change agent, that uses behavioural
science knowledge to improve
organizational effectiveness.
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Organizational Development: How
Effective Is It?
20
30
40
50
PercentageofStudiesShowingPositiveChanges
Individual
outcomes
(e.g., job
satisfaction)
Organizational
outcomes
(e.g., profit)
(23.55)
(48.70)
Organizational outcomes
more often benefited from
OD interventions than did
individual outcomes
(Source: Porras and Robertson, 1992.)
Establish
Client-
Consultant
Relations
Disengage
Consultant’s
Services
Action Research Process
Diagnose
Need for
Change
Introduce
Change
Evaluate/
Stabilize
Change
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Organization
Parallel
Structure
Parallel Structures
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Discovery
Discovering
the best of
“what is”
Dreaming
Forming
ideas about
“what might
be”
Designing
Engaging in
dialogue
about “what
should be”
Delivering
Developing
objectives
about “what
will be”
Appreciative Inquiry Process
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Organization Development Concerns
• Cross-Cultural Concerns
– Linear and open conflict
assumptions different from values in
some cultures
• Ethical Concerns
– Management power
– Employee privacy rights
– Employee self-esteem
– Consultant’s role
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Competency gaps for Professional Development

  • 1. Competency gaps for Professional Development © www.asia-masters.com
  • 2. What is Competency? © www.asia-masters.com
  • 3. What do we mean when we say “COMPETENCY” ? © www.asia-masters.com
  • 4. A Competency is an underlying characteristic of a person which enables him /her to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or a situation.
  • 5. Competencies are seen mainly as inputs. They consist of clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skills that affect an individual’s ability to perform. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 6. Hayes (1979) – Competencies are generic knowledge motive, trait, social role or a skill of a person linked to superior performance on the job. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 7. Albanese (1989) – Competencies are personal characteristics that contribute to effective managerial performance. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 8. UNIDO (2002)- A Competency is a set of skills, related knowledge and attributes that allow an individual to successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job.
  • 9. What is Common in the definitions? Competencies • underlying characteristic of a person’s inputs. • clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skills • generic knowledge motive, trait, social role or a skill • personal characteristics • set of skills, related knowledge and attributes Job • superior performance in a given job, role or a situation • individual’s ability to perform. • linked to superior performance on the job. • contribute to effective managerial performance • successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job © www.asia-masters.com
  • 10. Set of SKILLS Relates to the ability to do, Physical domain Attribute Relates to qualitative aspects personal Characteristics or traits KNOWLEDGE Relates to information Cognitive Domain COMPETENCY Outstanding Performance of tasks or activities
  • 11. Behaviour Indicators • A Competency is described in terms of key behaviors that enables recognition of that competency at the work place. • These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on-the-job much more consistently than average or poor performers. These characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in that they include the key behaviors that primarily drive excellent performance. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 12. Example of a Competency © www.asia-masters.com
  • 13. Analytical Thinking • The ability to break problems into component parts and consider or organize parts in a systematic way; the process of looking for underlying causes or thinking through the consequence of different courses of action. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 14. Key Behavior Indicators • Independently researches for information and solutions to issues • Ability to know what needs to be done or find out (research) and take steps to get it done • Ask questions when not sure of what the problem is or to gain more information. • Able to identify the underlying or main problem. • Shows willingness to experiment with new things. • Develops a list of decision making guidelines to help arrive at logical solutions.
  • 15. What are Competencies? • Competencies are those behaviors that excellent performer’s exhibit much more consistently than average performers. • … a grouping of behaviors, that taken together, better describe and communicate performance expectations. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 16. What Competencies are Not… • Competencies are Not… • a “psychological construct” No single behavior can term Conflict Management • Not knowledge… the application of knowledge © www.asia-masters.com
  • 17. Antimony of a Competency 1. Title 1. One to three words titling competency 2. Definition (The WHAT) 1. Knowledge, skill and ability (KSA) statements defining competency 3. Performance Statements (The HOW) 1. Groupings of behavioral statements describing successful performance © www.asia-masters.com
  • 18. Monitor, Evaluate and Revise – Measure progress to access what’s working and not working. – Make adjustments to plan as needed and address new workforce and organizational issues. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 19. What makes Competency valid? © www.asia-masters.com
  • 20. Types of Knowledge: Tacit • Knowledge that people carry in their heads. It is difficult to access and most people are not even aware of what they possess or how it is of value to others. It provides context for ideas, experiences, people, and places and is not easily captured. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 21. Types of Knowledge: Explicit • Structured – Data elements that are organized in a particular way for future retrieval, e.g. documents, databases, spreadsheets • Unstructured – Information not referenced for retrieval, e.g. emails, images, audio or video selections © www.asia-masters.com
  • 22. Knowledge Transfer • The process of sharing knowledge between one person and another • If knowledge has not been absorbed, it has not been transferred © www.asia-masters.com
  • 23. Knowledge Transfer Tip #1 • Managers may have some knowledge transfer methods already in place • Consider using those methods as the foundation for the knowledge transfer plan © www.asia-masters.com
  • 24. Knowledge Transfer / Management Strategies •Job Aids •Mentoring Programs •Process Documentation •Best Practice Meetings or Studies •Communities of Practice •Retirees on Retainer •Job Shadowing •Expert Systems •Critical Incident Reviews •Electronic Performance Support System •Storyboards •Storytelling •Double fills •Document Repositories •Job Rotation •Knowledge Fairs •Knowledge Maps •Structured On the Job Training
  • 25. Monitor, Evaluate and Revise – Measure progress to access what’s working and not working. – Make adjustments to plan as needed and address new workforce and organizational issues.
  • 26. Benefits of a competency Framework
  • 27. Benefits of a Competency Framework Departments will have improved and integrated processes for: 1. Recruitment and retention of talent 2. Assessment and selection 3. Performance communication and support 4. Leadership development 5. Succession planning 6. Career development © www.asia-masters.com
  • 28. Benefits of a Competency Framework Employees will benefit from: 1. Clarity about knowledge, skill, and ability expectations 2. Improved supervisor and employee communication 3. More consistent performance appraisal feedback 4. Improved recognition for skill growth as well as achievement 5. Clearer paths for career development 6. Supervisor’s increased ability to demystify HR processes for employees © www.asia-masters.com
  • 29. Contributes To Employee Retention © www.asia-masters.com
  • 30. What’s Retention? • Keeping employees committed within the company for a long period of time • High priority within HR departments today • Key to retention is maintaining employee satisfaction © www.asia-masters.com
  • 31. Mythbusters Activity • Myth or Fact? – People most often leave a company for more pay. • Myth! – Most commonly people will leave because of work conditions, dissatisfaction with policies, and relationships with coworkers and supervisors. • Solution – Work to improve employee involvement, recognition and growth © www.asia-masters.com
  • 32. Mythbusters Activity • Myth or Fact? – Incentive programs produce long-term profits and improve productivity and morale • Myth! – Incentives can have a negative effect when they are over-used and people focus on speed rather than quality. • Solution – Keep incentives spontaneous and surprising © www.asia-masters.com
  • 33. Mythbusters Activity • Myth or Fact? – People don’t want more responsibility. • Myth! – Employees don’t want more work if they already have too much on their plate, but they want more opportunities to expand their knowledge within their job. • Solution – Don’t overload employees with too much work and give opportunities to expand their knowledge within their job.
  • 34. Mythbusters Activity • Myth or Fact? – Loyalty is dead • Myth! – People are changing jobs and careers more often, but if employees are getting the training to expand their career within the company, then they will stay loyal to them. • Solution – Offering opportunities to expand within their job and career for the company.
  • 35. Drivers of Retention • Characteristics of the Employer – Management – Job security – Culture and values • Employee Relationships – Co-worker relationships – Supervisor support • Job Design and Work – Job matching – Time flexibility – Work/life balancing © www.asia-masters.com
  • 36. Drivers of Retention • Career Opportunities – Training and development – Career advancement • Rewards – Competitive pay and benefits – Recognition © www.asia-masters.com
  • 37. Managing Employee Retention • Recognition for a job well done • Examples • Hand-written card • Publish accomplishment in newsletter • Publicly announce accomplishment • Use non-cash items to reward employees •Examples •Movie tickets •Paid vacation day •Gift cards © www.asia-masters.com
  • 38. Managing Employee Retention • Offer flexible work schedules • Flex-time • Telecommute • Compressed workweeks • Create traditions – Holiday dinners – Charity drives – Fun Days
  • 39. Managing Employee Retention • Post new employee pictures and biographies in community area with current employees – Gives sense of belonging and chance to find someone with similar interests • Be prompt with rewards – Having too much lag time between performance and recognition can have a negative effect. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 41. Close the Gap – Determine what gaps exist between our current and projected workforce needs. – Develop and implement strategy to close the gap. These strategies include knowledge transfer, recruiting, training/ retaining, restructuring organizations, leadership development, succession planning, technology, enhancements, etc. – Knowledge Transfer Concepts
  • 42. Take ownership of your professional development © www.asia-masters.com
  • 44. Benchmark Competencies A. Knowledge & Understanding B. Applications to Practice C. Management and Leadership D. Interpersonal skills E.Ethics & Principles
  • 45. Knowledge & Understanding Maintain and Extend Sound Theoretical Approach – Read Technical Journals – Engage through a project involvement in new areas for development and research – Creative and innovative Development of Engineering Technology and Continuous improvement Systems – Read technical publications relevant to your field of engineering – Be a member of a professional institute relevant to your field of engineering practice – Read Publications of relevant professional institutions – Engage in post graduate degree level or graduate degree level studies © www.asia-masters.com
  • 46. B.Applications to Practice – Apply Theoretical and practical methods to the analysis and solutions of engineering problems – Participate in discussions to enhance knowledge and understanding – Research, design and development – Implement design solutions and evaluate their effectiveness – Engage in carrying out necessary tests to evaluate performance or to find out defects – Engage in cost plan for a project – Undertake engineering design – Conduct Value Engineering exercises – Read manufacturers literature and test data to establish understanding of a product or an equipment – Attend seminars – Visit technical exhibitions © www.asia-masters.com
  • 47. Management and Leadership • Plan for effective project implementation • Budget, Organise ,direct and control task people and resources. • Staff management and technical development • Manage continuous quality improvements
  • 48. Interpersonal Skills • Know and manage your own emotions, strengths and weakness • Effectively manage your own time • Work with others and communicate • Present and discuss proposals • Chair and record meetings and discussions • Write reports , prepare letters and documents • Deliver lectures / presentations • Improve listening skills • Learn languages ( English/Arabic ) • Resolve conflicts and enhance productive working atmosphere • Be aware of the needs and concerns of others © www.asia-masters.com
  • 49. Ethics & Principles • At all times uphold the dignity and reputation of your profession • Exercise professional skills and judgement to the best of your ability • Maintain your professional competence through systematic improvement • Discharge your professional responsibilities with honesty. • Do not undertake any work beyond your professional or technical competence • Be concerned about public health and safety issues • Be concerned about environmental policies • Mentor, assist and guide the professional development of others • Carryout continuing professional development necessary to maintain and enhance competence © www.asia-masters.com
  • 51. 51 CORE COMPETENCE • Core competence is a bundle of skills and technologies that enables a company to provide a particular benefit to customers’. • For example, • A Sony – benefit is pocketability – core competence is miniaturization • At Federal Express – benefit is on time delivery – core competence is logistics management • At Motorola– benefit is untethered communication – core competence is wireless communication. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 52. 52 TO BE CONSIDERED CORE COMPETENCE A SKILL MUST MEET THREE TESTS • Customer Value: Core competencies are the skills that enable a firm to deliver a fundamental customer benefit. • Competitor Differentiation:A capability must also be competitively unique power trains is a core competence at Honda which has never been so at Ford/s. Honda’s ability to produce some of the world’s best engines and power trains does provide customers with highly valued benefits of superior fuel economy, zippy acceleration, less noise and vibration. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 53. 53 TO BE CONSIDERED CORE COMPETENCE A SKILL MUST MEET THREE TESTS Contd...  Extendibility: A core competitive is truly core when it focus the basis for entry into new product markets. SKF, the world’s leading manufacturer of roller bearing has competencies in antification, precision engineering and making perfectly spherical devices. In order to achieve extendibility, SKF must be capable of manufacturing the round, high precision recording heads that go inside a VCR, most of which are now manufactured by Japanese firms. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 54. 54 RISKS OF IGNORING CORE COMPETENCIES • Opportunities for growth will be needlessly turned down. • As a company divisionalies and fractures into ever smaller business units, competencies may become fragmented and weakened. • The lack of core competence perspective can desensitize a company to its growing dependence on outside suppliers of core products. • A company focused only on end products may fail to invest adequately in new core competencies that can propel growth in the future. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 55. 55 RISKS OF IGNORING CORE COMPETENCIES Contd...  A company that fails to understand the core competence basis for competition in its industry may be surprised by new entrants who rely on competencies developed in other end markets.  Companies insensitive to the issue of core competence may unwittingly relinquish valuable skills when they divest an under-performing business. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 56. 56 CORE COMPETENCE PERSPECTIVE • Identifying existing core competencies • Establishing a core competence acquisition agenda • Building core competencies • Deploying core competencies • Protecting and defending core competence leadership © www.asia-masters.com
  • 57. Wyoming Core Competencies • Leadership – Ex: Institutional Collaboration, Vision • Performance Management – Ex: Change Mgt., Team Building • Workplace – Ex: Customer Focus, Teamwork • Analytical – Ex: Written Communication • Personal Effectiveness – Ex: Integrity, Ethics • See More @... Foundational Skills Sets Workplace Performance Skills Sets Leadership & Succession Planning © www.asia-masters.com
  • 58. Competency-Based Strategic Alignment Agency Performance Measure Performance Expectations / Appraisal / Development Needs Skills / Competencies Needed Input FTE/BUDGET Activities & Outputs (Nuts & Bolts) Strategies / Intermediate Outcomes Agency Performance Measures Wyoming Quality of Life *How do you plan on evaluating / developing performance? -Identifying skills gap -Communicating skills gap -Developing skills gap -Measuring success What critical skills are needed to accomplish identified duties and activities? What are the skills of the persons working on the project? What is the gap between critical skills needed and skills of persons on project(s)? What are the resources need to carry out stated duties, activities and outputs? Who are the employee's and/or AWEC’s assigned to complete the identified duties and activities? What duties, activities, processes and/or procedures have been identified to carry out the strategy? What divisions are directly working on this measure? What are their strategies and initial outcomes? What are the goals and objectives of this measure? The 10 Commitment to residents of the State. Where and how does the performance measure fit into Wyoming’s Quality of Life? The WHATThe HOW © www.asia-masters.com
  • 59. Organizational Core Competencies “Definition” • Clusters of universally-expected, observable behaviors • Necessary for successful performance in the position and in the organization • Distinguish performance in a particular work context © www.asia-masters.com
  • 60. How Core Competencies are Used • Tell us “how” major responsibilities of a position should be done • Help us address how a professional can best go about adding value for a constituent • Help us evaluate the performance of employees • Give us a look at what mastery performance looks like • Gives ideas for employee development • Used in selection, professional development, and career planning, performance coaching, evaluation, promotion © www.asia-masters.com
  • 61. Example Core Competency “Collaborating & Partnership” Definition: Effectively develop relationships and collaborate with all stakeholders; value teamwork and apply a variety of strategies to meet the needs of a diverse constituency.
  • 62. Developing Core Competencies 1. Get a list of competencies 2. Make sure it’s complete 3. Write master-level descriptions 4. Eliminate overlaps 5. Sort the list 6. Compare individual decisions 7. Come to consensus 8. Publish and use the competency list © www.asia-masters.com
  • 63. Core Competencies + Job Knowledge Utilize throughout the entire employment process: 1. Developing the PD 2. Qualifications detailed in advertising 3. Evaluating candidates 4. Interviewing candidates (behavioral questions) 5. Reference checking (behavioral questions) 6. Make job offer 7. Training and development 8. Performance evaluations © www.asia-masters.com
  • 64. Benchmarks Core Competencies Foundational Competencies: • Professionalism • Reflective practice • Scientific knowledge and methods • Relationships • Individual and cultural diversity • Ethical and legal standards and policy • Interdisciplinary systems Functional Competencies: • Assessment • Intervention • Consultation • Research and evaluation • Supervision • Teaching • Administration • Advocacy © www.asia-masters.com
  • 66. 66 What are competencies? Competencies are the observable combination of • Knowledge • Skills • Abilities that contribute to individual and organizational performance © www.asia-masters.com
  • 67. 67 Why do we have competencies? • Move NIH in a direction away from tasks and toward observable behaviors • Changing workforce/industry • Succession planning • Leadership development programs © www.asia-masters.com
  • 68. 68 Why Introduce Competencies? Competencies: • Highlight the value of the organization • Provide clear guidelines of success • Provide practical tools for performance management • Target training needs for development of staff • Provide a better fit between employees and their job © www.asia-masters.com
  • 69. 69 What Do Competencies Look Like? Each competency has a definition and level of proficiency. For Example: Results Orientation Definition: The desire or drive to achieve or surpass identified goals. Establishes performance objectives and measures to continuously improve performance and standards of excellence in the organization. Includes innovative or entrepreneurial behaviours © www.asia-masters.com
  • 70. 70 Results Orientation Levels of proficiency and complexity 1. Wants to do the job well 2. Works to achieve goals 3. Sets own standards to improve performance 4. Sets and strives to meet higher standards of performance 5. Conducts Cost - Benefit Analyses 6. Takes Calculated Entrepreneurial risks What Do Competencies Look Like? © www.asia-masters.com
  • 71. Types of Competencies • Behavioral Competency: Behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that contribute to individual success in the organization – Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be specific to a job family, career level or position – e.g., teamwork and cooperation, communication – Focus on the person • Technical Competency: Specific knowledge and skills needed to be able to perform one’s job effectively – Job specific and relate to success in a given job or job family – e.g., knowledge of accounting principles, knowledge of human resource law and practice – Focus on the job © www.asia-masters.com
  • 72. Competencies – Job Redesign • Technical competencies – Are part of the job description – Describe what a person needs for the job – Generally a phrase or statement • Behavioral competencies – Are not part of the job description © www.asia-masters.com
  • 73. Behavioral Competencies Key Characteristics: • Observable and measurable • Relate to the core purpose and values of an organization • Focus on the person – Contribute to improved employee performance – Contribute to individual success within an organization • Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be specific to a job family, career level, or position • Are not part of the job description Drive organizational performance © www.asia-masters.com
  • 74. Types of Behavioral Competencies Statewide Competencies Core Competencies (all employees) Leadership Competencies (people managers & other leaders) Customer Service Teamwork and Cooperation Results Orientation Accountability Judgment and Decision Making Talent Management Transformers of Government Additional Behavioral Competencies Communication Conflict Management Creativity and Innovation Cultural Awareness Flexibility Initiative Negotiation and Influence Professional Development Project Management Teaching Others Team Leadership
  • 76. Creates integrated value, Competencies that Generate Growth © www.asia-masters.com
  • 77. Integrated Competency-Based HR • Strategic Planning – Translates the organization's vision and goals into expected employee behavior • Workforce Planning – Links competencies to the agency’s mission, vision, & goals – Assess and target skill and competency gaps – Identify where to best focus training dollars – Help determine what competencies are needed for today as well as the future – Identify gaps between present skill sets & future requirements – Identify gaps at the agency level © www.asia-masters.com
  • 78. Integrated Competency-Based HR • Performance Management – Provides consistency in performance expectations and measurement – Helps identify which behaviors most impact performance and success – Used in individual development plans to target gaps and identify development opportunities – Helps distinguish exceptional individuals that contribute to organizational success – Provides feedback to individuals to move them toward exemplary performance © www.asia-masters.com
  • 79. Integrated Competency-Based HR • Succession Planning – Helps clarify characteristics required for targeted position(s) – Focuses training and development plans to address competency gaps – Allows an organization to measure its “bench strength” – Helps target the agency’s investment of both time and money for developmental purposes – Helps provide a method for assessing readiness for the role © www.asia-masters.com
  • 80. Integrated Competency-Based HR • Recruiting/Selection/Onboarding – Ensures a more systematic interview process – Provides a complete picture of job requirements – Increases the likelihood of hiring people who will succeed in the organization – Can prescreen job applicants – Make selection decisions based on demonstrated ability to perform or evidence of results – Reduce hiring costs and absenteeism / turnover rates © www.asia-masters.com
  • 81. Integrated Competency-Based HR • Workforce Training and Development – Provides the ability to focus on the skills, knowledge, and characteristics that have the most impact on effectiveness – Ensures that training and development opportunities are aligned with organizational values and strategies – Recognizes that most efforts to build competencies occurs through work experiences – Helps individuals to discover their own competencies © www.asia-masters.com
  • 83. Organization Development Defined A planned system wide effort, managed from the top with the assistance of a change agent, that uses behavioural science knowledge to improve organizational effectiveness. © www.asia-masters.com
  • 84. Organizational Development: How Effective Is It? 20 30 40 50 PercentageofStudiesShowingPositiveChanges Individual outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction) Organizational outcomes (e.g., profit) (23.55) (48.70) Organizational outcomes more often benefited from OD interventions than did individual outcomes (Source: Porras and Robertson, 1992.)
  • 85. Establish Client- Consultant Relations Disengage Consultant’s Services Action Research Process Diagnose Need for Change Introduce Change Evaluate/ Stabilize Change © www.asia-masters.com
  • 87. Discovery Discovering the best of “what is” Dreaming Forming ideas about “what might be” Designing Engaging in dialogue about “what should be” Delivering Developing objectives about “what will be” Appreciative Inquiry Process © www.asia-masters.com
  • 88. Organization Development Concerns • Cross-Cultural Concerns – Linear and open conflict assumptions different from values in some cultures • Ethical Concerns – Management power – Employee privacy rights – Employee self-esteem – Consultant’s role © www.asia-masters.com