FILLIPPED CLASSROOM PEDAGOGGY -BEYOND DIGITAL AGE
C.ASHOK KUMAR, M.Sc., M.Phil, M.Ed., M.Phil,
Jai SaiB.Ed. College ofEducation,
Sri SaiNagar, Airport,
Pioneered by Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams, chemistry teachers at
Woodland Park High in Colorado, “flipped” classrooms invert traditional teaching
methods by delivering lectures online as “homework” and shifting engagement
activities into the classroom. By making this “flip” teachers are able to spend class
time working directly with students to provide hands-on instruction and support.
The flipped classroom is a teaching strategy that allows instructors to more
actively engage with students in the classroom. In the flipped classroom,
instructors typically assign recorded video lectures as homework, and use class
time for active learning exercises and direct engagement with students.
As Mung Chiang from Princeton said, “class time is for two-way
interactions.” Flipped classrooms help to make these two-way interactions
The flipped classroom describes a reversal of traditional teaching where
students gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or
lecture videos, and then class time is used to do the harder work of assimilating
that knowledge through strategies such as problem-solving, discussion or debates.
The purpose of flipping the classroom is to shift from passive to active learning to
focus on the higher order thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation
In flipped classrooms, students watch online lectures outside class and
participate in engaged learning activities inside class. This approach allows
instructors to more deeply engage their students with evidence-based learning
practices that can significantly improve student outcomes.
Flipped learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves
from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting
group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where
the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the
THE FOUR PILLARS OF “FLIP”
Flexible Environment (F)
Learning Culture (L)
Intentional Content (I)
Professional Educator (P)
LEARNING OPPURTUNITIES OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM
KEY ELEMENTS OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM
Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure prior to class.
Provide an incentive for students to prepare for class.
Provide a mechanism to assess student understanding.
Provide in-class activities that focus on higher level cognitive activities
FLIPPED CLASSROOMS CHARACTERISTICS
1. The in-class learning environments are highly structured (often planned down
to the minute).
2. The in-class activities involve a significant amount of quizzing, problem
solving and other active learning activities, forcing students to retrieve, apply,
and/or extend the material learned outside of class. These activities are often
slightly easier than those tackled outside of class, and are directly relevant to
the out-of-class work.
3. Students are heavily incentivized through grading, in-class activities, and
instructor expectations to complete out-of-class work and attend in-person
BASIC COMPONENTS OF A FLIPPED CLASSROOM
A blending learning of direct instruction (where the teacher supplies the
knowledge base) with constructivist learning (where the students are
ultimately responsible to construct their own knowledge). An increased
interaction between students and teacher.
An increased interaction between students and teachers.
An environment where students take responsibility for their own learning.
A classroom where the teacher is not the center of attention, but instead,
serves as a guide or facilitator of learning.
A blending of direct instruction (where the teacher supplies the knowledge
base) with constructivist learning (where the students are ultimately
responsible to construct their own knowledge).
A classroom where students who are absent due to illness or extra-curricular
activities such as athletics or field-trips, don't get left behind.
A class where the curriculum and lessons are always available for review or
A class where all students are engaged in their learning.
A place where all students can get a personalized education.
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS ROLE AND EXPECTATIONS IN THE
Students take more responsibility for their own learning and study core
content either individually or in groups before class and then apply knowledge and
skills to a range of activities using higher order thinking.
Teaching 'one-to-many' focuses more on facilitation and moderation than
lecturing, though lecturing is still important. Significant learning opportunities can
be gained through facilitating active learning, engaging students, guiding learning,
correcting misunderstandings and providing timely feedback using a variety of
There is a greater focus on concept exploration, meaning making and
demonstration or application of knowledge in the face-to-face setting.
FLIPPED CLASSROOM PRACTICES
o Need to Know
If the flipped classroom is truly to become innovative, then it must be paired
with transparent or embedded reason to know the content.
o Engaging Models
One of the best ways to create the "need to know" is to use a pedagogical
model that demands this. Whether project-based learning (PBL), game-based
learning (GBL), Understanding by Design (UbD), or authentic literacy, find an
effective model to institute in your classroom.
Since the flipped classroom is about recorded video, then obviously students
would need the technology to do this. There are many things to consider here,
video recording, pod casting, online notes, Audio tapes, etc.,
o Time and Place
If you have a blended learning environment, that of course provides a natural
time and place to watch the videos, but it will be difficult to ensure all students
watch a video as homework.
WEB TOOLS FOR FLIPPED CLASSROOMS
Below is a simple list designed to help get any educator, administrator,
student, or parent a bit more familiar with some of the most popular web tools for
a. Wiki spaces
b. Poll everywhere
d. Screen cast
f. Drop box
i. Ever note
j. Teaching channel
COMPARISON BETWEEN NORMAL AND FLIPPED CLASSROOM
Non Flipped Classroom
Students assigned something to
Students guided through learning
module that asks and collects
Instructor prepares lecture.
Instructor prepares learning
Students have limited information
about what to expect.
Students have specific questions
in mind to guide their learning.
Instructor makes general Instructor can anticipate where
assumption about what is helpful. students need the most help.
Students try to follow along.
Students practice, performing the
skills they are expected to learn.
An instructor tries to get through
all the materials.
Instructor guides the process
with feedback and mini-lectures.
Students attempt the homework,
usually with delayed feedback.
Students continue applying their
knowledge skills after
clarification and feedback.
Instructor grades past work.
Instructor posts any additional
explanations and resources as
necessary and grades higher
Students want confirmation about
what to study.
Students are equipped to seek
help where they know they need
Instructor often repeats what was
Instructor continues guiding
students toward deeper
FLIPPED CLASSROOM BENEFITS TO BOTH STUDENTS AND
Improved educational outcomes:
Studies have shown that flipped classrooms and blended learning
environments can significantly improve educational outcomes when compared to
Lecturing and assignment grading are time-intensive activities. The long-run
time savings from automating some of the repetitive lecture and grading activities
allow faculty members to spend more time on active learning activities, teaching
problem solving, and giving students personal attention and individual help.
Similarly, auto graded assignments allow instructors to quickly and efficiently
evaluate each student’s understanding of learned concepts.
Instructors are able to intersperse in-video quizzes throughout their lectures,
making the student lecture experience more interactive, dynamic, and personalized
than traditional lectures.
Instructors are also able to implement elements that would be difficult to
incorporate into traditional lectures, such as animations, simulations, interviews
with distinguished individuals in the field, etc.
Data and analytics:
In blended learning environments, educators are able to collect such data on
student performance, giving opportunities to target their lessons and address gaps
in student comprehension while refining their teaching strategies for subsequent
offerings of the course. This is particularly useful for those employing
Despite the great variance of student learning styles and ability that exist in
classrooms, traditional lectures are often one-size fits all. Video lectures, on the
other hand, put students in the driver’s seat, and allow them to engage with the
material at their own pace, review confusing concepts, or break the lectures into
easily-digestible chunks. More generally, flipped classrooms allow instructors to
more easily implement a variety of differentiated instruction techniques.
In mastery learning, students are encouraged to master each concept before
proceeding to the next.
Some other Benefits
More time for interaction between teachers and students.
Students can review content at their own pace and as frequently as they
Active classroom leads to more engaged students.
More flexibility to accommodate learning differences.
ADVANTAGES OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM
Active vs. Passive Learning
Moving lectures out of the classroom, students are able to become active
Participants in the learning process through learning activities delivered during the
Lectures are available on online 24/7, students are able to learn at the pace
that best suits them. They can stop and rewind explanations of concepts they find
difficult and refer back to past lectures to review older content.
Multiple learning styles
Different students learn in different ways, so by delivering instruction in
multiple forms, the likelihood for engagement and retention are improved.
It offering instruction in multiple forms, students are likely to remain
motivated throughout the learning process.
It added class time for collaborated activities, social interaction promoted
amongst the students and student and teacher.
Using technology for educational purposes at an early age develops
technical skill and provides student with the working knowledge at 21st century
tools and resources.
DISADVANTAGES OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM
All students are capable of accessing online instructions cannot possible at
home this can set them back in the learning process and limit their progress.
Additional time and effort
It creating online lessons and coming up with encaging learning activity for
on entire requires a significant amount of additional time and effort that some or
not willing is able to commit.
o Bergmen, J. and Smith, A. (2012) Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every
Student in Every Classroom, Every Day. International Society for
o Green, G. (2012). My View: Flipped classrooms give every student a chance
to succeed Retrieved from.
o Michaelsen, L.K., Knight, A.B., & Fink, L.D. (2004). Team-Based
Learning:A transformative use of small groups in college teaching. Sterling,
VA: Sylus Publishing.