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coal mining

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coal mining

  1. 1. Name Asad Reg # BSMT01143007 Applied Chemistry DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY MINING OF COAL
  2. 2. Prospecting and exploration
  3. 3. Prospecting and exploration The fundamental objective of coal prospecting is to discover coal resources through a search. In areas where coal mining has not been previously practiced, the search process should result in obtaining coal samples that give reasonable evidence of the existence of a coal seam. Once a seam has been discovered, considerable further work
  4. 4. MINING METHODS Coal is mined by two main methods:​ 1. Underground or 'deep' mining 2. Surface or 'open-cut' mining The choice of method is largely determined by the geology of the coal deposit, in particular the depth of the seam below the surface.​
  5. 5. What determines the type of mining?​ Underground vs. Surface Mining ● Depth of below surface​ ● Size of the ore body​ ● Shape of the ore body​ ● Grade​ ● Type of Ore​
  6. 6. Underground Mining When do we mine underground?​ The ore deposit is deep​ Ore body is steep​ Grade is high enough to cover costs​
  7. 7. Underground Mining In underground coal mining, the working environment is completely enclosed by the geologic medium, which consists of the coal seam and the overlying and underlying strata. Access to the coal seam is gained by suitable openings from the surface, There are two main methods of extracting coal by underground mining: 1. room-and-pillar and 2. long wall mining.​
  8. 8. Room-and-pillar mining underground coal is mined by the roomand pillar method, whereby rooms are cut into the coal bed leaving a series of pillars, or columns of coal, to help support the mine roof and control the flow of air.
  9. 9. Room-and-pillar mining
  10. 10. In the longwall mining method, mine development is carried out in such a manner that large blocks of coal, usually 100 to 300 metres wide and 1,000 to 3,000 metres long, are available for complete extraction A block of coal is extracted in slices Long wall mining
  11. 11. Long wall mining
  12. 12. When do you use Surface Mining?​ ● Large tonnage​ ● High rates of production​ ● Overburden (including rock) is thin Surface Mining
  13. 13. surface mining Surface mining is used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden is relatively thin In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment
  14. 14. surface mining
  15. 15. Surface coal mining sequence of operations: (1) clearing the land of trees and vegetation, (2) removing and storing the top layers of the unconsolidated soil (topsoil), (3) drilling the hard strata over the coal seam, (4) fragmenting or blasting the hard strata with explosives, (5) removing the blasted material, exposing the coal seam, and cleaning the top of the coal seam, (6) fragmenting the coal seam, as required, by drilling and blasting, (7) loading the loose coal onto haulage conveyances, (8) transporting the coal from the mine to the plant, and (9) reclaiming lands affected by the mining activity.
  16. 16. Mining operations 1. clearing the land of trees and vegetation, 2. removing and storing the top layers of the unconsolidated soil (topsoil), 3. drilling the hard strata over the coal seam, 4. fragmenting or blasting the hard strata with explosives, 5. removing the blasted material, exposing the coal seam, and cleaning the top of the coal seam, 6. fragmenting the coal seam, as required, by drilling and blasting, 7. loading the loose coal onto haulage conveyances, 8. transporting the coal from the mine to the plant, and reclaiming lands affected by the mining activity.

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