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1. tuscarora and indian woods history

  1. 1. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University TuscaroraTuscarora andand Indian Woods HistoryIndian Woods History Department of HistoryDepartment of History
  2. 2. The Tuscarora of North Carolina:The Tuscarora of North Carolina: A Brief History Before Contact WithA Brief History Before Contact With EuropeansEuropeans
  3. 3. The PeaceThe Peace Maker and theMaker and the and Tuscaroraand Tuscarora Migration toMigration to North CarolinaNorth Carolina
  4. 4. After 1,000 AD they moved east and separatedAfter 1,000 AD they moved east and separated into what became known as the Six Nations orinto what became known as the Six Nations or Iroquois Confederacy.Iroquois Confederacy. Six Nations: 1. Mohawk 2. Oneida 3. Onondaga 4. Cayuga 5. Seneca 6. Tuscarora and their allies
  5. 5. TuscaroraTuscarora NationNation ClansClans BeforeBefore ContactContact Turtle ClanTurtle Clan Deer ClanDeer ClanBear ClanBear Clan Eel ClanEel Clan Beaver ClanBeaver Clan Snipe ClanSnipe Clan Wolf ClanWolf Clan Big Northern CitiesBig Northern Cities
  6. 6. By 1500 theBy 1500 the Tuscarora wereTuscarora were living in easternliving in eastern North CarolinaNorth Carolina and trading goodsand trading goods such assuch as “seashells” as far“seashells” as far north as Canada,north as Canada, West as KentuckyWest as Kentucky and Tennesseeand Tennessee and south asand south as Georgia.Georgia.
  7. 7. The TuscaroraThe Tuscarora and First Contact With Europeansand First Contact With Europeans 1492 - 17111492 - 1711
  8. 8. Portuguese,Portuguese, French, Dutch,French, Dutch, Swedes andSwedes and EnglishEnglish in thein the NortheasternNortheastern WoodlandsWoodlands
  9. 9. First Explorers in the AmericasFirst Explorers in the Americas 1494 to 15681494 to 1568  Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus -1492 Caribbean-1492 Caribbean  Giovanni CabotoGiovanni Caboto -1497 Newfoundland-1497 Newfoundland  Amerigo VespucciAmerigo Vespucci -1499-1501 E. South America-1499-1501 E. South America  Pedro Alvarez CabralPedro Alvarez Cabral -1500 Brazil-1500 Brazil  Vasco Nunez de BalboaVasco Nunez de Balboa -1513 Isthmus of Panama-1513 Isthmus of Panama  Juan Ponce de LeonJuan Ponce de Leon -1513 Puerto Rico and Florida-1513 Puerto Rico and Florida  Ferdinand MagellanFerdinand Magellan -1519-1522 Brazil E. South America-1519-1522 Brazil E. South America  Hernando CortesHernando Cortes -1519-1536 Mexico, California-1519-1536 Mexico, California  Giovannida VerrazanoGiovannida Verrazano -1524 NE North America-1524 NE North America  Panfilo de NarvaezPanfilo de Narvaez -1528 Gulf of Mexico-1528 Gulf of Mexico  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca -1528-1536 Texas, New Mexico,Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca -1528-1536 Texas, New Mexico, MexicoMexico
  10. 10. First Explorers in the AmericasFirst Explorers in the Americas 1531 to 1568 Continued1531 to 1568 Continued  Francisco PizarroFrancisco Pizarro -1531-1535 Western South America-1531-1535 Western South America  Jacques CartierJacques Cartier -1534-1541 Eastern Canada-1534-1541 Eastern Canada  Hernando de SotoHernando de Soto -1539-1542 SE. North America-1539-1542 SE. North America  Francisco Vasquez de Coronado -1540-1542 SW NorthFrancisco Vasquez de Coronado -1540-1542 SW North AmericaAmerica  Juan Rodriguez CabrilloJuan Rodriguez Cabrillo -1542 California-1542 California  LunaLuna -1560 SE North America-1560 SE North America  Juan PardoJuan Pardo -1566- 1568 SE North America-1566- 1568 SE North America
  11. 11. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
  12. 12. FrenchFrench Map ofMap of NortheastNortheast in 1660in 1660 mapmap
  13. 13. 1646 French1646 French map ofmap of AtlanticAtlantic coastcoast
  14. 14. French Map of Native Americans of the OhioFrench Map of Native Americans of the Ohio Valley 1632Valley 1632
  15. 15. French MapFrench Map from 1646from 1646
  16. 16. North Carolina – the firstNorth Carolina – the first area the English attemptedarea the English attempted to settleto settle The first area the EnglishThe first area the English introduced Whites (1587)introduced Whites (1587) and Africans (1586)and Africans (1586) 3333 years before Africans areyears before Africans are introduced intointroduced into Jamestown, Virginia inJamestown, Virginia in (1619)(1619) Both Africans andBoth Africans and Whites merged with theWhites merged with the Coastal Indians and theCoastal Indians and the Tuscarora to create someTuscarora to create some of the first mixed-raceof the first mixed-race people in North Americapeople in North America between 1586 and 1619between 1586 and 1619
  17. 17. Lane’s Exploration of “Virginia” for the English 1584-1586
  18. 18. Lane’s Exploration of “Virginia” for the English 1584-1586
  19. 19. Lane’s Exploration of “Virginia” for the English 1584-1586
  20. 20. Lane’s Exploration of “Virginia” for the English 1584-1586. He spreads disease and death through costal North Carolina,
  21. 21. In 1586 Sir Francis Drake releases over 300 African Maroon soldiers on Roanoke Island 33 years before the arrival of Africans to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. These Maroons most likely created Maroon Communities or were absorbed by the coastal Algonquian Indians and latter the Tuscarora 1 year before the “Lost Colony” in 1587.
  22. 22. Depiction of Tuscarora Attack on Ralph Lane’s Expedition on the Roanoke River in 1586.
  23. 23. Lane’s Exploration of “Virginia” for the English 1584-1586. He spreads disease and death through costal North Carolina,
  24. 24.  II. North Carolina Nations. North Carolina Nations – Eastern North Carolina Coastal Nations at first contactEastern North Carolina Coastal Nations at first contact  -the Poteskeet (northeastern North Carolina)-the Poteskeet (northeastern North Carolina) -the Pasquatank (northeastern North Carolina)-the Pasquatank (northeastern North Carolina) -the Yeopim or Weapemoc (northeastern North Carolina)-the Yeopim or Weapemoc (northeastern North Carolina) -the Chowan or Chowanoc (northeastern North Carolina)-the Chowan or Chowanoc (northeastern North Carolina) -the Roanoke or Roanoac (northeastern North Carolina)-the Roanoke or Roanoac (northeastern North Carolina) -the Moratoc (northeastern North Carolina)-the Moratoc (northeastern North Carolina) -the Hatteras or Croatoan (southeastern outer banks)-the Hatteras or Croatoan (southeastern outer banks) -the Pamlico or Pomuik (southeastern North Carolina-the Pamlico or Pomuik (southeastern North Carolina -the Neuse or Neusico (southeastern North Carolina)-the Neuse or Neusico (southeastern North Carolina) -the Coree, (southeastern outer banks)-the Coree, (southeastern outer banks) -the Woccon, (southeastern outer banks)-the Woccon, (southeastern outer banks) -the- Cape Fear (southeastern outer banks)-the- Cape Fear (southeastern outer banks) -the Machapunga and Mattamuskeet (African mix) (Secotan)-the Machapunga and Mattamuskeet (African mix) (Secotan) -the Bear (Bay) River Indian (African mix) (Pomuik)-the Bear (Bay) River Indian (African mix) (Pomuik) -the Lumbee Indians (Tuscarora and African mix)-the Lumbee Indians (Tuscarora and African mix)
  25. 25.  II. The English Establishment of theII. The English Establishment of the Southern ColoniesSouthern Colonies andand Challenges to the English in the region 1584 to 1660Challenges to the English in the region 1584 to 1660 Virginia NationsVirginia Nations  -the Powhattan Confederation (southeastern VA)-the Powhattan Confederation (southeastern VA) -the Matiponi (northern tidewater)-the Matiponi (northern tidewater) -the Pamunkey (northern tidewater)-the Pamunkey (northern tidewater)  -the Nottoway (southeastern coastal plains)-the Nottoway (southeastern coastal plains)  -the Meherrin (southern eastern coastal plains)-the Meherrin (southern eastern coastal plains)  -the Monacan (central Piedmont)-the Monacan (central Piedmont) -the Cherokee (southwestern corner)-the Cherokee (southwestern corner) -the Tutelo-Saponi (central Piedmont)-the Tutelo-Saponi (central Piedmont) -the Saponi (northern Piedmont)-the Saponi (northern Piedmont) -the Occaneechi (southern Piedmont)-the Occaneechi (southern Piedmont) -the Nahyssan (central Piedmont)-the Nahyssan (central Piedmont) -the Manahoac (northern Piedmont)-the Manahoac (northern Piedmont)
  26. 26.  I. North Carolina Nations continuedI. North Carolina Nations continued – North Carolina Piedmont Nations at first contactNorth Carolina Piedmont Nations at first contact  -the Upper and Lower Tuscarora (costal plains)-the Upper and Lower Tuscarora (costal plains) -the Shakori or Saura (northern Piedmont)-the Shakori or Saura (northern Piedmont) -the Occaneechi (northern Piedmont)-the Occaneechi (northern Piedmont) -the Keyauwee (central Piedmont)-the Keyauwee (central Piedmont) -the Sissipahaw (central Piedmont)-the Sissipahaw (central Piedmont) -the Eno (central Piedmont)-the Eno (central Piedmont) -the Haliwia (central Piedmont)-the Haliwia (central Piedmont) -the Saponi (central Piedmont)-the Saponi (central Piedmont) -the Tuetlos (northern Piedmont)-the Tuetlos (northern Piedmont) -the Waxhaw (southern Piedmont)-the Waxhaw (southern Piedmont) -the Peedee (southern Piedmont)-the Peedee (southern Piedmont) -the Waccamaw (southeast coastal Plains)-the Waccamaw (southeast coastal Plains) – North Carolina Mountain NationsNorth Carolina Mountain Nations -the Eastern Band Cherokee (southwestern mountains)-the Eastern Band Cherokee (southwestern mountains) -the Catawba (southwestern Piedmont)-the Catawba (southwestern Piedmont)
  27. 27. English map of Virginia 1677English map of Virginia 1677
  28. 28. Map of Virginia (North Carolina) in 1630 Spanish and EnglishMap of Virginia (North Carolina) in 1630 Spanish and English diseases have impacted region by the 1600s.diseases have impacted region by the 1600s.
  29. 29. 1636 map of English Colonies on Atlantic1636 map of English Colonies on Atlantic CoastCoast
  30. 30. North Carolina – the firstNorth Carolina – the first area the English attemptedarea the English attempted to settleto settle The first area the EnglishThe first area the English introduced Whites (1587)introduced Whites (1587) and Africans (1586)and Africans (1586) 3333 years before Africans areyears before Africans are introduced intointroduced into Jamestown, Virginia inJamestown, Virginia in (1619)(1619) Both Africans andBoth Africans and Whites merged with theWhites merged with the Coastal Indians and theCoastal Indians and the Tuscarora to create someTuscarora to create some of the first mixed-raceof the first mixed-race people in North Americapeople in North America between 1586 and 1619between 1586 and 1619
  31. 31. By 1500 theBy 1500 the Tuscarora wereTuscarora were living in easternliving in eastern North CarolinaNorth Carolina and trading goodsand trading goods such assuch as “seashells” as far“seashells” as far north as Canada,north as Canada, West as KentuckyWest as Kentucky and Tennesseeand Tennessee and south asand south as Georgia.Georgia.
  32. 32.  The Tuscarora of North Carolina absorbed Whites, BlacksThe Tuscarora of North Carolina absorbed Whites, Blacks and Coastal Native Americans (reduced by disease and war)and Coastal Native Americans (reduced by disease and war) from 1586 to 1619.from 1586 to 1619. TuscaroraTuscarora CoastalCoastal NativeNative AmericansAmericans absorbedabsorbed AfricansAfricans absorbedabsorbed Poor WhitesPoor Whites absorbedabsorbed
  33. 33. In 1586 Sir Francis Drake releases over 300 African Maroon soldiers on Roanoke Island 33 years before the arrival of Africans to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. These Maroons most likely created Maroon Communities or were absorbed by the coastal Algonquian Indians and latter the Tuscarora 1 year before the “Lost Colony” in 1587.
  34. 34.  The Tuscarora absorbed the Africans, Whites andThe Tuscarora absorbed the Africans, Whites and others Native Americans reduced by disease and warothers Native Americans reduced by disease and war with the English.with the English.
  35. 35. Mixed-Race Indians ofMixed-Race Indians of North Carolina andNorth Carolina and Virginia 1587 to 1711Virginia 1587 to 1711 1. Machpunga, NC1. Machpunga, NC 2. Bear River, NC2. Bear River, NC 3. Matemeskett, NC3. Matemeskett, NC 4. Chowanoc, NC4. Chowanoc, NC 5. Yeopim, NC5. Yeopim, NC 6. Hatteras, NC6. Hatteras, NC 7. Coree, NC7. Coree, NC 8. Neuse, NC8. Neuse, NC 9. Pamlico, NC9. Pamlico, NC 10. Tuscarora, NC10. Tuscarora, NC 11. Meherrin, VA11. Meherrin, VA 12. Nottoway, VA12. Nottoway, VA 13. Nanticoke, VA13. Nanticoke, VA 14. Delaware, VA14. Delaware, VA
  36. 36. The Divide between the NortheasternThe Divide between the Northeastern and Southeastern Indian Nationsand Southeastern Indian Nations and the Tuscarora War 1607 to 1713and the Tuscarora War 1607 to 1713
  37. 37. The Northeastern Woodland Nations: The Iroquois Confederacy: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora Along with the Meherrins, Nottaway, Monacans _____________________ The Southeastern Woodland Nations: (or Five Civilized Tribes) Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole Along with the Yamasee and Catawba
  38. 38. English Movement into Indian LandsEnglish Movement into Indian Lands in Virginia and the Carolinasin Virginia and the Carolinas
  39. 39. North Carolina and VirginiaNorth Carolina and Virginia Mixed-Race Peoples, 1619 - 1711Mixed-Race Peoples, 1619 - 1711  VA and NC Settlements and PlantationsVA and NC Settlements and Plantations – Indentured Servants and SlavesIndentured Servants and Slaves – WhitesWhites – BlacksBlacks – IndiansIndians  VA and NC Swamps (Great Dismal and Alligator)VA and NC Swamps (Great Dismal and Alligator) – Maroons and Mixed Indians (runaway slaves)Maroons and Mixed Indians (runaway slaves) – WhitesWhites – BlacksBlacks – IndiansIndians  Frontier SettlementsFrontier Settlements – Free Blacks, Poor Whites and IndiansFree Blacks, Poor Whites and Indians – White and Black TradersWhite and Black Traders – Runaway SlavesRunaway Slaves  Native Nations contain Mixed-Race People (Indian, Black and White heritage)Native Nations contain Mixed-Race People (Indian, Black and White heritage)
  40. 40. I. The Growth of English North AmericanI. The Growth of English North American Indian Slavery 1664 to 1670Indian Slavery 1664 to 1670 A. 1662 - The children followed the condition of theirA. 1662 - The children followed the condition of their mother who were enslaved for lifemother who were enslaved for life B. 1664 – All slaves serve for life; that is, slavery isB. 1664 – All slaves serve for life; that is, slavery is defined as a lifelong condition (Maryland)defined as a lifelong condition (Maryland) C. 1664 – Interracial marriage banned; any free womanC. 1664 – Interracial marriage banned; any free woman who marries a slave will serve that slave’swho marries a slave will serve that slave’s master until her husband dies, and theirmaster until her husband dies, and their children willchildren will be enslaved (Maryland)be enslaved (Maryland) D. 1667 - Slaves could be baptized without being set freeD. 1667 - Slaves could be baptized without being set free E. 1669 – No punishment is given if punished slave diesE. 1669 – No punishment is given if punished slave dies F. 1670 – Free Blacks and Indians are not allowed toF. 1670 – Free Blacks and Indians are not allowed to purchase Christian indentured servants.purchase Christian indentured servants.
  41. 41. II. The Growth of English North AmericanII. The Growth of English North American Indian Slavery 1680 to 1691Indian Slavery 1680 to 1691 A. 1670 – Indians captured elsewhere and sold as slavesA. 1670 – Indians captured elsewhere and sold as slaves to Virginia are to serve for life; thoseto Virginia are to serve for life; those captured in Virginia, until the age of 30, ifcaptured in Virginia, until the age of 30, if children, or for 12 years, if grownchildren, or for 12 years, if grown B. 1680 – In order to prevent “Negro Insurrections” : NoB. 1680 – In order to prevent “Negro Insurrections” : No Slave may carry arms or weapons; no slaveSlave may carry arms or weapons; no slave may leave his or her master without writtenmay leave his or her master without written permissions; any slave who “lifts up his hand”permissions; any slave who “lifts up his hand” against a Christian will receive thirty lashes;against a Christian will receive thirty lashes; anyany slave who runs away and resists arrestslave who runs away and resists arrest maybemaybe killed lawfullykilled lawfully C. 1682 – All servants who were “Negroes, Moors,C. 1682 – All servants who were “Negroes, Moors, Mulattoes or Indians” were to be consideredMulattoes or Indians” were to be considered slaves at the time of their purchase if neitherslaves at the time of their purchase if neither their parents nor country were Christiantheir parents nor country were Christian
  42. 42.  The English in theThe English in the Southeast:Southeast: 1. Maryland1. Maryland 2. Delaware2. Delaware 3. Virginia3. Virginia 4. North Carolina4. North Carolina 5. South Carolina5. South Carolina 6. Georgia6. Georgia
  43. 43. By 1710 large numbers of Tuscarora from eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia were being kidnapped and sold into slavery as part of the notorious “Native American Slave Trade.” This was one of the major causes of the Tuscarora War - one of the bloodiest wars in Colonial American History (1711 to 1713).
  44. 44. The Tuscarora “War Council" at the start of the war. Although only one African is pictured here there were actually two. Both were released and given their freedom. One joined with the Tuscarora during the war and the other returned to whites after the war.
  45. 45. Tuscarora War, 1711-1713.
  46. 46. The Tuscarora “War Council" at the start of the war. Although only one African is pictured here there were actually two. Both were released and given their freedom. One joined with the Tuscarora during the war and the other returned to whites after the war.
  47. 47. The Tuscarora defeat at “Fort Neyuheruke” in 1713 Cherokees, Creeks, Catawba, Yamasee and colonists killed one-third of the Nation, and took one-third as slaves. Hundreds of Tuscarora were killed and burned alive in the fort.
  48. 48. Lands Conquered by the Iroquois ConfederacyLands Conquered by the Iroquois Confederacy with Dutch and English guns 1609 to 1701with Dutch and English guns 1609 to 1701
  49. 49. Map of Iroquois Empire in 1701-MapMap of Iroquois Empire in 1701-Map made 1747made 1747
  50. 50. Cherokee Retreat from SixCherokee Retreat from Six NationsNations
  51. 51. Many of the Tuscarora settled among the Five nations and their Allies in the Ohio Valley between 1713 to 1762 they became the Sixth Nation of the “Iroquois Confederacy.” The most powerful Native Alliance in the history of North America.
  52. 52. The Tuscarora as the Sixth Nation of The Iroquois Confederacy. 1722 to 1763
  53. 53. Lands Conquered by the Iroquois ConfederacyLands Conquered by the Iroquois Confederacy with Dutch and English guns 1609 to 1701with Dutch and English guns 1609 to 1701
  54. 54. The Northeastern Woodland Nations: The Iroquois Confederacy: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora Along with the Meherrins, Nottaway, Monacans _____________________ The Southeastern Woodland Nations: (or Five Civilized Tribes) Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole Along with the Yamasee and Catawba
  55. 55. Mixed-Race Indians ofMixed-Race Indians of North Carolina andNorth Carolina and Virginia 1587 to 1711Virginia 1587 to 1711 1. Machpunga, NC1. Machpunga, NC 2. Bear River, NC2. Bear River, NC 3. Matemeskett, NC3. Matemeskett, NC 4. Chowanoc, NC4. Chowanoc, NC 5. Yeopim, NC5. Yeopim, NC 6. Hatteras, NC6. Hatteras, NC 7. Coree, NC7. Coree, NC 8. Neuse, NC8. Neuse, NC 9. Pamlico, NC9. Pamlico, NC 10. Tuscarora, NC10. Tuscarora, NC 11. Meherrin, VA11. Meherrin, VA 12. Nottoway, VA12. Nottoway, VA 13. Nanticoke, VA13. Nanticoke, VA 14. Delaware, VA14. Delaware, VA
  56. 56. I. The Growth of Mixed Race Peoples and SlaveryI. The Growth of Mixed Race Peoples and Slavery in English North America 1619 to 1723in English North America 1619 to 1723 A. 1619 - First Africans arrive as indentured servants inA. 1619 - First Africans arrive as indentured servants in Jamestown, VAJamestown, VA B. 1640 - Distinctions made between African and WhiteB. 1640 - Distinctions made between African and White indentured servantsindentured servants C. 1640 - Masters are required to arm everyone in theirC. 1640 - Masters are required to arm everyone in their households except Africanshouseholds except Africans D. 1660 - Africans were routinely enslaved for life inD. 1660 - Africans were routinely enslaved for life in coloniescolonies E. 1662 - The children followed the condition of theirE. 1662 - The children followed the condition of their mother who were enslaved for lifemother who were enslaved for life F. 1662 - Double fine charged for any Christian whoF. 1662 - Double fine charged for any Christian who commits fornication with an Africancommits fornication with an African
  57. 57. G. 1664 – All slaves serve for life; that is, slavery isG. 1664 – All slaves serve for life; that is, slavery is defined as a lifelong condition (Maryland)defined as a lifelong condition (Maryland) H. 1664 – Interracial marriage banned; any free womanH. 1664 – Interracial marriage banned; any free woman who marries a slave will serve that slave’swho marries a slave will serve that slave’s master until her husband dies, and theirmaster until her husband dies, and their children will be enslaved (Maryland)children will be enslaved (Maryland) I. 1670 – Free Blacks and Indians are not allowed toI. 1670 – Free Blacks and Indians are not allowed to purchase Christian indentured servants.purchase Christian indentured servants. J. 1670 – Indians captured elsewhere and sold as slavesJ. 1670 – Indians captured elsewhere and sold as slaves to Virginia are to serve for life; thoseto Virginia are to serve for life; those captured in Virginia, until the age of 30, ifcaptured in Virginia, until the age of 30, if children, or for 12 years, if grownchildren, or for 12 years, if grown
  58. 58. I. The Growth of Mixed Race Peoples and SlaveryI. The Growth of Mixed Race Peoples and Slavery in English North America 1619 to 1723in English North America 1619 to 1723 A. 1619 - First Africans arrive as indentured servants inA. 1619 - First Africans arrive as indentured servants in Jamestown, VAJamestown, VA B. 1640 - Distinctions made between African and WhiteB. 1640 - Distinctions made between African and White indentured servantsindentured servants C. 1640 - Masters are required to arm everyone in theirC. 1640 - Masters are required to arm everyone in their households except Africanshouseholds except Africans D. 1660 - Africans were routinely enslaved for life inD. 1660 - Africans were routinely enslaved for life in coloniescolonies E. 1662 - The children followed the condition of theirE. 1662 - The children followed the condition of their mother who were enslaved for lifemother who were enslaved for life F. 1662 - Double fine charged for any Christian whoF. 1662 - Double fine charged for any Christian who commits fornication with an Africancommits fornication with an African
  59. 59. The Enslavement of Women andThe Enslavement of Women and Children and the Origins of theChildren and the Origins of the Tuscarora WarTuscarora War 1711-17131711-1713
  60. 60. -South Carolina Nations-South Carolina Nations  -the Waccamaw (northeastern South Carolina)-the Waccamaw (northeastern South Carolina) -the Santee (northeastern South Carolina)-the Santee (northeastern South Carolina) -the Seewee (northeastern South Carolina)-the Seewee (northeastern South Carolina) -the Wando (eastern South Carolina)-the Wando (eastern South Carolina) -the Stono (south eastern South Carolina)-the Stono (south eastern South Carolina) -the Combahee (south eastern South Carolina)-the Combahee (south eastern South Carolina) -the Yamasee (south eastern South Carolina)-the Yamasee (south eastern South Carolina) -the Cusso (southern South Carolina)-the Cusso (southern South Carolina) -the Westo (southern South Carolina)-the Westo (southern South Carolina) -the Ashepoo (south eastern South Carolina)-the Ashepoo (south eastern South Carolina) -the Edisto (south eastern South Carolina)-the Edisto (south eastern South Carolina) -the Kiawah (eastern South Carolina)-the Kiawah (eastern South Carolina) -the Peedee (northeastern South Carolina)-the Peedee (northeastern South Carolina) -the Cheraw (northern South Carolina)-the Cheraw (northern South Carolina) -the Waxhaw (northern South Carolina)-the Waxhaw (northern South Carolina) -the Wateree (central South Carolina)-the Wateree (central South Carolina) -the Congaree (central South Carolina)-the Congaree (central South Carolina)
  61. 61. Many of the Tuscarora settled among the Five nations and their Allies in the Ohio Valley between 1713 to 1762 they became the Sixth Nation of the “Iroquois Confederacy.” The most powerful Native Alliance in the history of North America.
  62. 62. Chiefs of the Six NationsChiefs of the Six Nations
  63. 63. Large numbers of Tuscarora from eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia were also kidnapped and sold into slavery as part of the notorious “Native American Slave Trade.” This was one of the major causes of the Tuscarora War one of the bloodiest in Colonial American History it lasted from 1711 to 1713.
  64. 64. The Expansion of White settlements in Eastern North Carolina following the Tuscarora War.
  65. 65. In 1715 the Tuscarora were pushed out of Eastern North Carolina and into the Piedmont and Mountains of Virginia and North Carolina when North Carolina ordered: “the entire destruction of ye said nation of Indians as if there had never been a peace made with them.” Enslavement and slaughter followed.
  66. 66. After the Tuscarora War in 1715 the Tuscarora were forced to leave Eastern North Carolina or be killed or enslaved. Many Settled in the Piedmont of North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland until 1722. Others settled in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Louisiana and Canada. They would later move to West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois and Oklahoma.
  67. 67. The Tuscarora established communities from South Carolina to Canada that harbored runaway slaves and helped smuggle African, Indian and Mixed slaves out of Virginia and the Carolinas. The Five Nations Noted after the war that the Tuscarora were scattered : “like smoke in the wind.“
  68. 68. Tuscarora Present Wampum Belt toTuscarora Present Wampum Belt to “Five Nations” and Become“Five Nations” and Become the “Sixth Nation” of thethe “Sixth Nation” of the Iroquois ConfederacyIroquois Confederacy
  69. 69. II. The Growth of English North American SlaveryII. The Growth of English North American Slavery 1705 to 17231705 to 1723 A. 1705 – Mulatto is defined as “the child of an Indian,A. 1705 – Mulatto is defined as “the child of an Indian, the child, grandchild, or great grandchild of athe child, grandchild, or great grandchild of a negro”negro” B. 1705 – Africans, mulattoes, and Indians areB. 1705 – Africans, mulattoes, and Indians are prohibited from holding office or giving grandprohibited from holding office or giving grand jury testimonyjury testimony C. 1705 – Slaves are forbidden to own livestockC. 1705 – Slaves are forbidden to own livestock D. 1711-1713 –The Tuscarora War & their enslavementD. 1711-1713 –The Tuscarora War & their enslavement E. 1722 – William Byrd draws dividing line between VA &E. 1722 – William Byrd draws dividing line between VA & NC separating Northeastern Indians fromNC separating Northeastern Indians from Southeastern IndiansSoutheastern Indians
  70. 70. North Carolina and VirginiaNorth Carolina and Virginia Tuscarora, 1715 - 1722Tuscarora, 1715 - 1722  VA and NC Settlements and PlantationsVA and NC Settlements and Plantations – Used Tuscarora as SlavesUsed Tuscarora as Slaves  VA and NC Swamps (Great Dismal and Alligator)VA and NC Swamps (Great Dismal and Alligator) – Tuscarora settle with Maroons (run away slaves) and MixedTuscarora settle with Maroons (run away slaves) and Mixed Indians in swamps and mountains (Mingos)Indians in swamps and mountains (Mingos)  VA and NC Frontier SettlementsVA and NC Frontier Settlements – Tuscarora settle with other Indians, Free Blacks and WhiteTuscarora settle with other Indians, Free Blacks and White Traders and settlersTraders and settlers  NC and VA Native NationsNC and VA Native Nations – Tuscarora settle with Five Nations (Mohawk, Oneida,Tuscarora settle with Five Nations (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondagas, Cayuga and Seneca) and their allies (Delaware,Onondagas, Cayuga and Seneca) and their allies (Delaware, Shawnee, Nanticoke, Mingo, Monacan)Shawnee, Nanticoke, Mingo, Monacan)
  71. 71. NativeNative AmericanAmerican and Whites.and Whites. Tuscarora Were Taken as Slaves by Indians and Whites 1711 to 1713 Cherokees Tuscarora Diaspora Creeks Yamasee Catawbas White Slavers SC, NC & VA Many scatted into the Swamps of eastern North Carolina and the Piedmont of North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland Others enslaved
  72. 72. NativeNative AmericanAmerican and Whites.and Whites. The Tuscarora Settle Among and Mix with all of the Five Nations and their Allies 1713 to 1722 Seneca Tuscarora Diaspora Cayuga Onondagas Oneidas Mohawks Tri-racial Isolates 6th Nation Mingo Delaware ShawneeNanticokeMonacan
  73. 73. NativeNative AmericanAmerican and Whites.and Whites. The Tuscarora Diaspora 1713 to 1722 Seneca Tuscarora Diaspora Cayuga Onondagas Oneidas Mohawks Tri-racial Isolates 6th Nation Lack DutchRed Legs Lumbee Jackson WhitesMelungeonsCreoles Black Dutch Protégée
  74. 74.  IV.IV. The “Seven Nations” of Canada or Seven VillagesThe “Seven Nations” of Canada or Seven Villages  ––in alliance with the Frenchin alliance with the French The Seven VillagesThe Seven Villages NationsNations  A. Jeune-Lorette (Wendake) -1673A. Jeune-Lorette (Wendake) -1673 HuronHuron  B. Becancour (Wolinak) -1600B. Becancour (Wolinak) -1600 AbenakiAbenaki  C. Odanak -1725C. Odanak -1725 AbenakiAbenaki  D. Kanesetakse -1716D. Kanesetakse -1716 Mohawk, *AnishinaabegMohawk, *Anishinaabeg  E. Kahnawake -1690sE. Kahnawake -1690s MohawkMohawk  F. Akwesasne -1750sF. Akwesasne -1750s MohawkMohawk G. Oswegatchie -1749G. Oswegatchie -1749 OnondagaOnondaga Anishinaabeg -(Algonquin and Nipissing mix)
  75. 75. After the Tuscarora War in 1715 the Tuscarora were forced to leave Eastern North Carolina or be killed or enslaved. Many Settled in the Piedmont of North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland until 1722. Others settled in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Louisiana and Canada. They would later move to West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois and Oklahoma.
  76. 76. After the Tuscarora War and Colonial Order the Tuscarora were forced to leave North Carolina on the “Tuscarora Trail” or “Death Trail.” Hundreds die. They also take runaway slaves with them. Beginning of the “Underground Railroad” in 1715
  77. 77. Northeastern Woodland Nations: The Iroquois Confederacy: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora Along with the Meherrins, Nottaway, Monacans *Non Slave Holding Indians _____________________ Southeastern Woodland Nations: (or Five Civilized Tribes) Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole Along with the Yamasee and Catawba *Slave Holding Indians
  78. 78. In 1722 To stop the fighting between the Iroquois Confederacy and the Cherokee, Creek, and Catawba William Byrd of Virginia drew the dividing line between the two groups. The current border between North Carolina & Virginia and Tennessee & Kentucky.
  79. 79. Native Americans Settle and continue to fight in the Great Appalachian Valley: 1. Mohawk 2. Oneida 3. Onondaga 4. Cayuga 5. Seneca 6. Tuscarora 7. Shawnee 8. Delaware ----Against----- 1. Cherokee 2. Creek 3. Catawba
  80. 80. Tuscaroras, Cherokees and other Natives in the Appalachian Mountains mix with Scotch-Irish and Germans settlers in the 1700s: 1. Pennsylvania 2. Maryland 3. Virginia 4. North Carolina 5. Tennessee 6. South Carolina
  81. 81. Peoples PossiblyPeoples Possibly connected to theconnected to the “Tuscarora“Tuscarora Diaspora”Diaspora” 1. Melungeons1. Melungeons 2. Lumbees2. Lumbees 3. Jackson3. Jackson WhitesWhites 4. Creoles4. Creoles 5. Brass Ankles5. Brass Ankles 6. Red Legs6. Red Legs 7. Black Dutch7. Black Dutch 8. Redbones8. Redbones 9. Portuguese9. Portuguese
  82. 82. Native Americans AfricansEuropeans THE TUSCARORA AND THETHE TUSCARORA AND THE CREOLIZATION OF AMERCIACREOLIZATION OF AMERCIA
  83. 83. Indian Woods ReservationIndian Woods Reservation Established in 1717Established in 1717
  84. 84. Indian Woods:Indian Woods: Bertie County, North CarolinaBertie County, North Carolina
  85. 85. Bertie County, North Carolina
  86. 86. Indian Woods ReservationIndian Woods Reservation Established in 1717Established in 1717
  87. 87. Indian Woods, 1717-1803.
  88. 88. The Historic Importance of theThe Historic Importance of the “Tuscarora” and “Indian Woods”“Tuscarora” and “Indian Woods” to Native-American, African-to Native-American, African- American, American andAmerican, American and North Carolina HistoryNorth Carolina History
  89. 89. Tuscarora (Native American) AfricanEuropean MIXED RACE OR CREOLIZED PEOPLESMIXED RACE OR CREOLIZED PEOPLES OF “INDIAN WOODS”OF “INDIAN WOODS”
  90. 90. V. The Growth of English North American SlaveryV. The Growth of English North American Slavery 1705 to 17231705 to 1723 A. 1705 – Mulatto is defined as “the child of an Indian,A. 1705 – Mulatto is defined as “the child of an Indian, the child, grandchild, or great grandchild of athe child, grandchild, or great grandchild of a negro”negro” B. 1705 – Africans, mulattoes, and Indians areB. 1705 – Africans, mulattoes, and Indians are prohibited from holding office or giving grandprohibited from holding office or giving grand jury testimonyjury testimony C. 1705 – Slaves are forbidden to own livestockC. 1705 – Slaves are forbidden to own livestock D. 1705 – “Christian white” servants cannot be whippedD. 1705 – “Christian white” servants cannot be whipped nakednaked E. 1711-1713 –The Tuscarora War & their enslavementE. 1711-1713 –The Tuscarora War & their enslavement F. 1715 – Slavery Legalized in North CarolinaF. 1715 – Slavery Legalized in North Carolina F. 1722 – William Byrd draws dividing line between VA &F. 1722 – William Byrd draws dividing line between VA & NC separating Northeastern Indians fromNC separating Northeastern Indians from Southeastern IndiansSoutheastern Indians G. 1723 –Free Blacks explicitly excluded from militiaG. 1723 –Free Blacks explicitly excluded from militia H 1723 – Free Blacks denied the right to voteH 1723 – Free Blacks denied the right to vote
  91. 91. Some Tuscarora family names in NY, NJ, NC, IL, IN, OH, MD, PENN, SC, GA, TN. OK,TN, LA, TX MISS, ALa  Gibson Freeman Bond  Cherry Lowery Locklear  Payne Chavis Williams  Goins Mullins Moore  Bunch Walton Collins  Jacob Outlaw Jenkins  Taylor Miller Johnson  Weaver Hunter Mitchell  Jones Newsome Cooper  Rascoe Speight Pierce
  92. 92. Indian Woods Baptist Church as an Iroquois Longhouse.”
  93. 93. The “Gospel Oak” a trading post for the Tuscarora remaining in Indian Woods after 1717 and site of the “Great Slave Conspiracy” of 1802.
  94. 94. The Rascoe sistersThe Rascoe sisters From Indian WoodsFrom Indian Woods and some other families:and some other families: 1. Rascoe1. Rascoe 2. Bond2. Bond 3. Freeman3. Freeman 4. Allen4. Allen 5. Brown5. Brown 6. Smallwood6. Smallwood 7. Mitchell7. Mitchell 8. Pugh8. Pugh 9. Cherry9. Cherry 10. Outlaw10. Outlaw 11. Walton11. Walton 12. Manning12. Manning 13. Jones13. Jones 14. White14. White
  95. 95. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University TuscaroraTuscarora andand Indian Woods HistoryIndian Woods History Department of HistoryDepartment of History

Notas do Editor

  • The extent of Tuscarora trade, travel and influence over the Southeastern woodlands from 1585 to 1713.
  • The second Roanoke Voyage was led by Sir Richard Grenville, 1585-86. It included Ralph Lane, Lt. Governor, Philip Amadas, Admiral, John White, who painted and mapped the region, Thomas Harriot, a historian who recorded discoveries, and Wanchese and Manteo, who were sent ahead to explore the region.
  • The voyage was attacked by the Tuscarora Indians while exploring the Roanoke River. The Indians pursued the expedition to Roanoke Island, where they encountered 300 Africans and West Indian Maroons brought by Sir Francis Drake in 1586. All disappeared as did the “Lost Colony” in 1587.
  • The extent of Tuscarora trade, travel and influence over the Southeastern woodlands from 1585 to 1713.
  • The Tuscarora killed white men, women and children, while allowing Africans to go free.
  • Cultures of Eastern, North Carolina – English, African and Native American by 1735.
  • Virginia and North Carolina slave trading routes from 1730 to 1803.
  • This map shows Tuscarora migration and the beginning of the “Underground Railroad.” 1715.
  • Indian Woods, 1717-1803. The Tuscarora Reservation in Bertie County, North Carolina harbored runaway slaves, intermarried with Africans, and on slave plantations, taught Africans how to cook with and make medicines from plants and vegetables, particularly the “three sisters.”

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