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Organoleptic (lit. impression on the organs) refers to
evaluation by means of the organs of sense and
includes the macroscopic appearance of the drug,
its odour and taste, occasionally the sound or snap of
its fracture and the feel of the drug to touch.
For convenience of description the macroscopic
characteristics of a drug maybe divided into
Shape and size
Odour and taste
SHAPE AND SIZE OF CRUDE DRUGS
Crude drugs can be of different shapes etc.
Sub cylindrical (Podophyllum)
SIZE OF CRUDE DRUGS
Size of crude drugs may vary because their length,
diameter and width is different. Size of crude
drugs can be measured by vernier callipers in cm &
External colour of crude drugs is mostly greyish
brown and internal colour is whitish yellow,
external colour maybe yellowish grey, yellowish
brown, reddish orange to brown black. It is often
more or less grey from clay dust.
There are three types of fracture.
Complete fracture :
the drug breaks completely when pressure is
the drug does not break completely when
fracture is applied.
the drug breaks with a snap sound when
pressure is applied.
Nature of fracture
Nature of fractured surface is as important as fracture.
Even: smooth surface
Uneven: irregularly broken surface
Granular : grain like appearance
Hard: a compact surface
Horny: Horn like surface
Powdered: powdery surface
Resinous: smooth glossy surface
Conchodial : a resinous surface having the surfaces
curved in convex and concave form.
How the drug looks externally. They may be classified as
Furrows: alternate ridges and valleys due to shrinkage of
internal parts caused by drying
Wrinkles: fine or delicate furrows
Annulations: transverse ring like markings on exterior
Fissures: splits extending into tissues
Nodule: rounded outgrowth on surface
Scars: produced due to injury or cut
It is a very sensitive criteria based on individual
perception. Odor may be divided into two main classes
Distinct odor e.g. camphor and clove
depending upon the amount of volatile constituents
the drug possesses.
The different odors may include
1. Aromatic odor
4. Spicy etc.
Usually crude drugs cannot be tasted because some may
be poisonous or may cause allergic reactions. But some
tastes which are known are:
Sweet taste e.g. liquorice, honey
Acidic/sour taste e.g. lemon
Saline/salty taste e.g. kashar
Acrid taste : unpleasant and irritating e.g. Jalap
A handbook of pharmacognosy by V.E, Tyler
Evaluation of crude drugs, mono or polyherbal formulation
www.pharmatutor.org/.../evaluation of crude drugs
EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS|authorSTREAM
Evaluation of crude drugs – OpenStudy .com