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  2. 2. What Do We Mean By “Motivation?”
  3. 3. What is Motivation ? Motivation is the drive from within a person to achieve something. The set of forces that  cause  people to  behave in certain ways
  4. 4. MOTIVATION IS A PROCESS Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive
  6. 6. BASIC MOTIVATION PROCESS NEEDS Created when there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. DRIVES Are set up to alleviate needs. INCENTIVES Any thing that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive.
  7. 7. MOTIVES PRIMARY MOTIVE It must be unlearned and physiologically based  Hunger  Thirst  Sleep
  8. 8. HUNGER
  9. 9. THIRST
  10. 10. SLEEP
  11. 11. MOTIVES GENERAL MOTIVE It must be unlearned but not physiologically based  Curiosity  Activity  Affection
  13. 13. ACTIVITY
  14. 14. AFFECTION
  15. 15. MOTIVES SECONDARY MOTIVE It must be learned  Power  Achievement  Affiliation  Security  Status
  16. 16. ACHEIVMENT  Doing better than the competitors  Attaining or surpassing a difficult goal  Solving a complex problem  Carrying out a challenging assignment successfully  Developing a better way to do  something
  17. 17. POWER  Influencing people to change their attitudes or behaviors  Controlling people and activities  Being in a position of authority over others  Gaining control over information & resources  Defeating an opponent or enemy
  18. 18. AFFILIATION  Being liked by many people  Being accepted as part of a group or team  Working with people who are friendly and cooperative  Maintaining harmonious relationships  avoiding conflicts  Participating in pleasant social activities
  19. 19. SECURITY  Having a secure job  Being protected against loss of income or economic disaster  Having protection against illness or disability  Being protected against physical harm or hazardous conditions
  20. 20. STATUS  Having a right car and wearing the right clothes  Working for the right company in the right job  Having a degree from the right university  Having executive privileges
  22. 22. WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES CONTENT THEORIES What motivates people at work Identifying the needs and drives of people How needs and drives are prioritized Concerned with the types of incentives and goals that people strive to attain in order to be satisfied and perform well.
  23. 23. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Offer training, creativity, promotions, employee control over jobs Offer recognition, Offer interaction status, challenges, with others, merit pay, employee participation in participation in workgroup, making decisions good relations Self Actualization with supervisors Esteem Needs Offer Belongingness Needs work Offer conditio dequate secu ntilation, Safety Needs health at, water, retire ase pay bene Physiological Needs
  24. 24. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  25. 25. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory HYGIENE FACTORS/DISSATISFIERS Salary Job Security Working Conditions Status Company Policies Quality of technical supervision Interpersonal relationships among peers and supervisors
  26. 26. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory MOTIVATORS /SATISFIERS  Achievement  Recognition  Responsibility  Advancement  The work itself  Possibility of Growth
  27. 27. ALDERFER’s ERG THEORY GROWTH Personal Development Interpersonal/ Social RELATEDNESS relationships Physiological Needs EXISTENCE
  28. 28. WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES PROCESS THEORIES Concerned with the mind related experiences that go into motivation or effort and with the way they relate to one another.
  29. 29. WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES CONTEMPORARY THEORIES Concerned with the person’s perception of inputs and outputs ratio for himself versus the ratio of what the relevant other is giving and receiving. It is also the relationship between personal perception and interpersonal behavior of the person perception.
  31. 31. MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES  Job Design  Management by Objectives (MBO)  Employee Recognition Programs  Employee Involvement Programs  Variable Pay Programs
  32. 32. Job Design JOB ROTATIONS Switching people on different jobs to reduce monotony. JOB ENLARGEMENT Expanded the number of operations performed by an individual. It is also called the horizontal loading. JOB ENRICMENT Designing jobs that includes a greater variety of work content, require higher level of knowledge & skill and give more autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing and controlling their own performance. It is also called vertical loading.
  33. 33. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO)  Set goals that are: – Tangible – Measurable – Verifiable  Converting Organizational objectives into specific objectives.  Objectives cascade down through the organization that is divisional – departmental -
  34. 34. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO)  Four ingredients of MBO programs – Goal specificity – Participative decision making – Explicit time period – Performance feedback  The objectives should be concise statements of accomplished statements.
  35. 35. EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION PROGRAMS (ERP)  Recognition is a powerful motivator  Multiple sources recognizing both individual and group accomplishments.  Cost effective
  36. 36. EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION PROGRAMS (ERP)  Commonly used ERPs in organizations – Employee of the month” – Employee of the year – Appreciation Letters – Acknowledgement of jobs well done publicly, in person, monthly staff meetings, company newsletter – Attendance awards monthly, quarterly or annually – Get tog ethers, time off. – Voice mail / email messages – Personally congratulating – Suggestions from employees
  37. 37. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMS (ERP)  EIP Programs encourage – Employee Participation – Workplace Democracy – Empowerment – Employee Ownership  Uses the entire capacity of employees and Designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success.
  38. 38. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMS (ERP)  EIPs make employees – More committed – More motivated – More productive – More satisfied  Commonly used ERPs in organizations – Participative management – Representative management – Quality Circles
  39. 39. VARIABLE PAY PROGRAMS  Based on some individual or organizational measure of performance.  Target based compensation and earnings fluctuate up and down as per achievements.  Tied to performance, low performers stagnates their compensation whereas high performers enjoy pay increases with their contributions.
  40. 40. VARIABLE PAY PROGRAMS  Widely used variable pay programs in vogue: – Piece rate wages – Bonuses & Commissions – Stock Options – Profit sharing plans – Gain sharing
  42. 42. SET THE TONE FOR THE DAY  Spend first moments with staff upon your arrival.  Smile. Walk tall and confidently  Walk around your workplace and greet people  Share the goals and expectations for the day  It starts with you. You can make their day
  43. 43. USE SIMPLE AND POWERFUL WORDS  Start using simple, powerful and motivational words like “Please" “Thank you" and “You're doing a good job.“  Demonstrates that you value people.
  44. 44. MAKE SURE PEOPLE KNOW WHAT YOU EXPECT  Clearly communicate your requirements and expectations towards a task, project, or deadlines.  Share the goals and reasons for doing the task or project.  Make sure to also communicate any change in the middle of the job or project.  Receive feedback from the employee so you know he understands what you need.  Otherwise the employee will receive a different message.
  45. 45. PROVIDE REGULAR FEEDBACK  Provide feedback about how employees are doing at work.  Share the outcomes of the task/project as it will clarify their success or failure.  Set up a daily or weekly schedule and make sure feedback happens.
  46. 46. RECOGNITION & CONSEQUENCES  Provide employees rewards and recognition for their positive contributions.  Share the consequences of failure and react to the un addressed problems proactively.  People need to know what they can expect from you
  47. 47. IT IS A DISCIPLINE, BE CONSISTENT  Treat this as a discipline.  Be consistent as it is an ongoing process.  Adhere to what you know about employee motivation.  The challenge is to incorporate this into your skill set and do them consistently - every day.
  48. 48. CONTINUE LEARNING AND TRYING OUT NEW IDEAS  Use whatever access you have to education and training.  Encourage innovation and new ideas from your employees.  The ability to continuously learn is what will keep you moving in your career.
  49. 49. MAKE TIME FOR PEOPLE  Spend time daily with each person you supervise.  Key employee work motivation factor is spending positive interaction time with the supervisor.  Schedule one-to-one on a public calendar so people can see when they can expect some quality time and attention from you.
  50. 50. FOCUS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE  Encourage experimentation and taking reasonable risk to develop employee skills.  Get to know them personally.  Ask what motivates them.  Ask what career objectives they have and are aiming to achieve.  The performance development meeting is your opportunity to formalize plans for people. You can make their career.
  51. 51. SHARE THE GOALS AND THE CONTEXT  Share the goals and direction of your work group.  Hold regular meetings to share information and gain ideas for improvement.  Promote problem solving and process improvement teams.  To effectively lead a workgroup, unit or department you must take responsibility for your actions, the actions of the people you lead and the accomplishment of the goals .
  53. 53. THANK YOU