April 2013 – Arkansas Journal – Volume 48 – Number 1
News and Information
Award Qualifications . . . . . . . 3
Message from the President. . . . . . . 4
ArkAHPERD Board of Directors. . . . . . 5
Application of Transtheoretical Model to Address Weight Management in Adults: A Theoretical Approach - Sameera Karnik and Amar Kanekar . . . . . . 6
Effects of Wrestling Season on Body Composition, Strength, Power and Training Status in High School and Collegiate Wrestlers
- Max Wood & Timothy Baghurst . . . . . . 15
The Effect of Progressive Relaxation Techniques on State Anxiety and Free Throw Performance
-Abby Davis and Shelia L. Jackson . . . . . . 22
What Makes for Effective Leadership?
– Claudia Benavides-Espinoza. . . . . . . . 32
Teamwork Training Builds Collaboration and Cohesiveness within a Professional Family
- Deb Walter. . . . . . . . . . 36
Improving Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using the Health Belief Model and Transtheoretical Model
- Sarah Rush, Lori Turner and Sharon Hunt. . . . . 40
ArkAHPERD 2013 State Convention November 7-8
Embassy Suites Hotel
11301 Financial Centre Parkway Little Rock, AR 72211
Candidate must meet the following qualifications:
A. Be at least 30 years of age and have earned a Master’s degree or its equivalent.
B. Have served the profession for at least five years prior to the nomination.
C. Be a current member of ArkAHPERD. Former members who have retired from professional work may be exempt.
D. Be of high moral character and personal integrity who by their leadership and industry have made outstanding and noteworthy contributions to the advancement of our profession in the state of Arkansas.
To indicate leadership or meritorious contributions, the nominator shall present evidence of the nominee’s successful experiences in any two of the following categories of service:
1. Service to the association.
2. Advancement of the profession through leadership of outstanding programs.
3. Advancement of the profession through presentation, writings, or research.
Any ArkAHPERD member may submit nominations by sending six (6) copies of the candidate’s qualifications to Janet Forbess, email@example.com.
HIGHER EDUCATOR OF THE YEAR
Candidate must meet the following qualifications:
A. Have served the profession for at least three years prior to the nomination.
B. Be a member of ArkAHPERD
C. Be of high moral character and personal integrity who by their leadership and industry have made outstanding and noteworthy contributions to the advancement of teaching , research, or service in the state of Arkansas.
D. Be employed by an institution of higher education in the state of Arkansas.
Any ArkAHPERD member may submit nominations by sending a copy of the candidate’s qualifications to Stephen Burks, firstname.lastname@example.org.
TEACHER OF THE YEAR
Teacher awards are presented in the areas of elementary physical education, middle school physical education, secondary physical education, dance, and health.
Candidate must meet the following qualifications:
A. Have served the profession for at least three years prior to the nomination.
B. Be a member of AAHPERD & ArkAHPERD.
C. Be of high moral character and personal integrity who by their leadership and industry have made outstanding and noteworthy contributions to the advancement of teaching in the state of Arkansas.
D. Be employed by a public school system in the state of Arkansas.
E. Have a full time teaching contract, and have a minimum of 60% of their total teaching responsibility in the nominated area.
F. Have a minimum of five years teaching experience in the nominated area.
G. Conduct a quality program.
They must submit three letters of recommendation and agree to make complete NASPE application if selected.
Any ArkAHPERD member may submit nominations by contacting Jamie Oitker, Jamie.email@example.com.
ArkAHPERD awards four scholarships annually for students majoring in HPERD. They include the Newman McGee, Past President’s, Jeff Farris Jr., and John Hosinski scholarships. Students must possess a minimum 2.5 GPA. [See your academic advisor for details.]
Research awards of $100, $50, and $25 are awarded to undergraduate and graduate students who are members of ArkAHPERD. Students must submit an abstract and a complete paper to Will Torrence, firstname.lastname@example.org by October 1. Papers selected for the research awards must be presented by the student in an oral or poster format at the November convention.
ArkAHPERD Web Site: http://www.arkahperd.org/
I am so honored to serve the Arkansas Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Association as incoming President. I am so grateful that the professionals in the field of health, physical education, recreation, and dance felt that I could lead them. I want to serve them well. John F. Kennedy once said, “Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity”. My goal is to continue the good work of our past presidents and focus on the challenges that are before us. I want our focus to be on taking care of our membership, and maintaining the goals of this professional association. Those goals are:
1. Promote an intelligent interest in the allied fields of HPERD. 2. Promote and support quality HPERD programs throughout the state. 3. Disseminate significant information to teachers, leaders, and the general public. 4. Encourage research and experimentation in all areas promoted by the association. 5. Cooperate with other professional organizations and associations interested in the development and well-being of children, youth, and adults.
Let's continue to make strides in the fight for our professionals in the field and share in service to ArkAHPERD. Please do not hesitate to contact me (email@example.com). I hope everyone will join me at our State Convention on November 7-8, 2013 in Little Rock, AR.
Message from the President
ArkAHPERD Board of Directors
Bennie Prince President firstname.lastname@example.org
Brett Stone President-elect email@example.com
Mitch Mathis Past-President firstname.lastname@example.org
Janet Forbess Program Coordinator email@example.com
Andy Mooneyhan Executive Director firstname.lastname@example.org
Cathryn Gaines JRFH Coordinator email@example.com
Lindsay Robinson Beaton HRH Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
Andy Mooneyhan Journal/Newsletter Editor email@example.com
Mitch Parker WEB Master firstname.lastname@example.org
Division Vice Presidents / VP-elects
Ashley Friend Athletics & Sports email@example.com
Leah Queen Health firstname.lastname@example.org
Allen Mooneyhan Recreation email@example.com
Lance Bryant General firstname.lastname@example.org
Claudia Benavides General-elect email@example.com
Cathryn Gaines Dance firstname.lastname@example.org
Pam Keese Physical Education email@example.com Codie Malloy Physical Education-elect Codie.Malloy@arkansas.gov
Section Chairs / Chair-elects
Shellie Hanna Exercise Science firstname.lastname@example.org
Kembra Mathis Athletic Training email@example.com
Dennis Perkey Athletic Training-elect firstname.lastname@example.org
John Kutko Elementary Phys Ed email@example.com
Stephen Burks Higher Education firstname.lastname@example.org Agneta Sibrava Higher Education-elect email@example.com
William Torrence Research firstname.lastname@example.org
Brett Stone Secondary Phys Ed email@example.com
Hollie Huckabee Secondary Phys Ed-elect firstname.lastname@example.org
Standing Committee Chairs
Andy Mooneyhan Constitution email@example.com
Mitch Mathis District Organization firstname.lastname@example.org
Rockie Pederson Scholarships email@example.com
Stephen Burks Higher Educator of the Year firstname.lastname@example.org
Janet Forbess Honor Award email@example.com
Angela Smith-Nix Necrology firstname.lastname@example.org
Jamie Oitker Teacher Awards email@example.com
A Peer Reviewed Article
Congratulations to our 2012 Honor Award Winner
A Peer Reviewed Article
Application of Transtheoretical Model to Address Weight Management in Adults: A Theoretical Approach
Sameera Karnik and Amar Kanekar
Obesity has become a public health concern in the United States. Data show that one third of U.S. adults are obese, hence it is a national epidemic. There are various factors causing obesity such as environmental, behavioral, genetics, drugs and diseases. Obesity can lead to various health problems like cardiac problems, type- 2 diabetes, and many other chronic conditions. One of the ways to manage weight is by regular physical activity and a balanced diet. It is crucial for individuals to manage their weight and live a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to assess the problem of adult obesity, and examine and explain the stages of change of the trans theoretical model for effective weight management interventions. The process of behavioral change as explained by the constructs of the transtheoretical model is being used to explain and examine weight management intervention in adults. The five stages of transtheoretical model will be used to alter the experiences and environment of individuals to help them move along the path of change, from intention to change, followed by adoption of healthy behavior to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Literature review shows that stages of change when effectively used in an intervention can provide beneficial behavior changes, and can motivate people to manage and maintain healthy lifestyle. There are various efforts being made by the government to address adult obesity, such as providing adults with many resources to manage their weight and lead a healthy life. Self-efficacy plays a key role in making individuals aware of their obese status and motivating them to adopt and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Obesity has become a common, serious and an expensive public health concern (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010c). It has a significant effect on quality of people’s health. In the United States, obesity has reached national epidemic proportions. It is a major risk factor for various diseases and many other health problems (CDC, 2010c). Overall, obesity has become a global epidemic. Energy imbalance is one of the factors leading to obesity in adults. Weight management is disturbed when the number of calories a person consumes does not equal the number of calories a person expends (CDC, 2011b). Weight management is not just about inducing weight loss but about having healthy weight. This healthy weight cannot be achieved by short term goals; it requires change in one’s behavior to maintain healthy weight throughout one’s life. (CDC, 2011b).
Obesity is considered to occur as a result of addictive behaviors (Corsica, & Pelchat, 2010; Liu, Von Deneen, Kobeissy, & Gold, 2010). Obese individuals face stigmatization and are discriminated due to their obese status. The stigmatized individuals have problems with their body image and show less psychosocial functioning. Stigmatization not only leads to physical problems but also many psychosocial problems such as depression, and social withdrawal leading to over eating (Bannon, Hunter-Reel, Wilson, & Karlin, 2009). Hence, there is a need for
intervention programs working towards changing individual behaviors and encouraging people to lead a healthy lifestyle.
One way that obesity can be measured is via body mass index calculation. Body mass index provides a correlation to amount of body fat in a person. According to CDC, 2010a, “an adult who has BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese” (Table 1). BMI is not a direct measure of fats, and BMI calculation gives the correlation with amount of body fat. Another measure (if the person is having higher risk of developing obesity associated problem) involves measuring the person’s waist line (CDC, 2010a). Weight management is about managing the equation of calories in, with calories out (CDC, 2011a).
There are various factors leading to obesity in adults. Some of them are:
(a) Behavioral factors: Obesity is believed to be an addictive behavior linked to over eating and binge eating.
(b) Environmental factors: People are influenced by their environment such as surroundings, communities and social networks. Surroundings such as having sidewalks, good parks encourage people to have a healthy lifestyle. Communities’ organizing fresh produce and fruit distribution and market availability help people to have healthy nutritious food options. Social networks like home setting can influence healthy weight management strategies by getting more involved in physical activity inside the house. Some of the physical environment settings such as office settings give workers more encouragement to adopt exercise routine while an additional strategy would be nutritional food availability in cafeterias (CDC, 2011a).
(c) Genetic factors: Genetics of individuals can play a crucial role in determining obesity. Disorders like Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome may contribute to causing obesity (CDC, 2011a).
(d) Other factors: Some drugs like steroids and diseases like Cushing’s disease may lead to excess weight in turn leading to obesity in individuals (CDC, 2011a).
Consequences due to obesity at the physical level are: cardiac diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, certain types of cancers, osteoarthritis, liver and gallbladder problems, and sleep and respiratory problems (CDC, 2011a). At the psychological level, stigmatization due to obesity may lead to depression and disturb the social wellbeing of an individual (Bannon, Hunter-Reel, Wilson, & Karlin, 2009).
Magnitude of the Problem
The statistics and data provided by CDC, 2012, show that obesity is common and serious and affects more than one third (35.7 %) of U.S adults. The Healthy People 2010 goal of lowering the obesity prevalence to 15 % has not been achieved by any of the states in the U.S. (CDC, 2012). Obesity prevalence has been highest in the south (29.4%), followed by Midwest (29.0%), Northeast (25.3%) and West (24.3%) (CDC, 2012). The prevalence of self-reported obesity among adults as per the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Study in the state of Arkansas is 30.9 (CDC, 2011c)
Obesity is causing a significant economic impact on obese individuals as well as the economy of the nation (CDC, 2012). Economic consequences of obesity stems from the fact that medical costs paid by obese individuals exceeds that of normal weight people. The data collected so far suggest that weight management programs for obese adults are not developed effectively and are insufficiently evaluated (Lyle et al., 2008; Morton, McElhone,& White, 2011; Sales, & Walker,
2011). Hence, there is a need for additional programs targeting not only weight management but development of healthy and sustainable lifestyles and behavior changes with proper social and emotional support. Along with this, there is a need of good obesity prevention program evaluation studies to create a lasting evidence-base for research.
Explanation about Transtheoretical Model
This model was constructed by James O. Prochaska and colleagues (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008). It has a wide range of applicability in health conditions such as HIV/AIDS, obesity, alcohol, substance abuse, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, cancer screening, and medication compliance (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008). It is a model of intentional behavior change. The stages of change in this model describe how people adopt a healthy behavior change or modify health risk behaviors (DiClemente, Salazar, & Crosby, 2012). The constructs of this model are called stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance and in case of smoking and substance abuse, termination (DiClemente, Salazar, & Crosby, 2012).
In the precontemplation stage, individuals have no intention to change their behavior and may not be even aware that the behavior they are engaging in is a problem. Individuals determined to change their behavior then proceed to the contemplation stage. In this stage individuals are asked to make a decision by weighing the pros and cons of adopting the change. This stage is followed by the preparation stage in which individuals are given a plan of action which includes guidance and counseling along with information and knowledge, by joining health education related classes or workshops or by meeting with a physician. They are then encouraged to move forward to the action stage. When individuals decide to change the problem behavior they proceed to the action stage where they actually take visible efforts to modify their behavior. This stage is followed by maintenance stage where individuals try to maintain their behavior change and avoid relapse. This stage in some cases like substance abuse behaviors is followed by the termination stage. In this stage there is no temptation to go back to the problem behavior and good self-efficacy for the particular behavior is observed (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008).
Application of Transtheoretical Model
In the current hypothetical scenario as shown in Fig 1, processes of change, explained by the constructs of the transtheoretical model, are being used to improve physical activity and fruits and vegetable consumption for managing weight among adults. ‘Stage tailoring’ will be used to demonstrate the tailoring of activities to the readiness stage of the participants (Simons-Morton, Mcleroy, & Wendel, 2012).The five stages of the transtheoretical model will be used to alter the experiences and environment of an individual to help him/her move along the path of change from intention to change, followed by adoption of healthy behavior to maintain a healthy lifestyle (Dishman, Vandenberg, Motl, & Nigg, 2010). A sample of 100 adults enrolled in a weight management program will be asked to complete and sign an informed consent form. The structure of this program will be evaluating the process for change based on transtheoretical model over a 6 month period.
Although the authors presume this to be applicable to groups, for this scenario stage tailoring at an individual basis will be discussed. A questionnaire will be provided to the participant which asks questions related to demographics and constructs of the transtheoretical model. The precontemplation stage of the transtheoretical model will assess if the participant wants or has an intention to lose weight (Seals, 2007). Questions like ‘how many servings of fruits and vegetable
do you take daily? How much time do you spend exercising?’ will be asked (Chung, Hoerr, Levine, & Coleman, 2006). This process will be reinforced by ‘raising consciousness’ (one of the processes of change) of the participant to lose weight or manage weight and adopt a healthy behavior (Dishman, Vandenberg, Motl, & Nigg, 2010; Simons-Morton, Mcleroy, & Wendel, 2012). ). If the participant is positive about managing weight then he/ she can proceed to the contemplation stage or if they are taking recommended action to manage weight then they will be encouraged and asked to maintain their regimen. The participant will be encouraged to weigh the pros and cons of weight management and make a decision to change the behavior within 6 months or in the near future. Here, the participant will be encouraged to reinforce benefits and overcome barriers of weight loss (Seals, 2007). This will be facilitated by the interventionist by educating him/her about the benefits of weight management for example positives of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, telling success stories and counseling and reinforcing the importance of change in behavior.
The participant will then move to the preparation stage; in this stage the participant will be provided with social support, with guidelines to follow a recommended exercise regime and strategies to manage weight. Goals to lose weight will be reinforced and the participant will now move to next stage of action. In this stage , the participant will be applying strategies (such as consuming recommended fruits and vegetable intake and performing recommended exercise) to reach his/her set goal (Seals, 2007). The action stage will be monitored by keeping a daily log about the intake of fruits and vegetables and amount of time spent on physical activity as recommended by the interventionist. This stage will also be guided by self-reevaluation, and self-efficacy will be encouraged by support groups, for example taking a walk with the participant (Dishman, Vandenberg, Molt, & Nigg, 2010). This stage will be followed by the stage of maintenance where the participant will be encouraged to maintain his/her goal and a healthy lifestyle. This multi stage program will help and support the participant to achieve his/her weight management goal with adequate information and educational support.
One of the goals of this study is to relate the application of processes of change to the consumption of fruits and vegetables, and to assess the participant’s readiness to change with regards to their fruits and vegetable intake along with engagement in physical activity. A study conducted among college women concluded that health educators should stress more on weight management and explain the good benefits of consuming enough fruits and vegetables (Chung, Hoerr, Levine, & Coleman, 2006).
Another study whose objective was to review literature regarding application of the transtheoretical model with respect to use of specific skills or tools for pedometer based interventions to explain the process of change of behavior for weight management, concluded that pedometer based interventions have a significant impact on physical activity interventions to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This study suggested that public health impact can be attained by the interventionist using a theory based intervention to help people reach and maintain healthy lifestyles and good health (Lutes & Steinbaugh, 2010).
Another interesting study demonstrated how nurse practitioners can use the stage specific intervention based on the transtheoretical model to manage weight loss in obese and overweight adults. This study incorporated behavioral aspects along with the physiological aspects in managing weight in obese and overweight adults. The study concluded that nurse practitioners with the help of a multidisciplinary team were able to manage the weight of obese and
overweight adults by successfully and safely implementing stage specific model intervention. It is seen that a lifelong commitment and motivation is required by an individual to maintain normal weight (Seals, 2007).
In a study which examined the relationship of lifestyle and stages of change of the transtheoretical model with respect to weight management, a significant relationship was seen between lifestyle attributes and various components of the transtheoretical model. This study concluded that focusing on positive aspect of weight loss to gain recognition helps to maintain positive change plan for weight loss. (Stoltz, Reysen, Wolff, & Kern, 2009).
The transtheoretical model will help to better define the problem of obesity. An individual’s response to this tailored approach for obesity management along with preparation to accept the situation and work towards adopting the desired change of action can be well explained in the transtheoretical model. In this theory based intervention, an individual’s self-efficacy will be channelized to help him/her gain health benefits by managing weight. The individual will be supported with various tools like counseling, education, and psychosocial support from their families and friends. These tools can inspire, motivate and guide them through the path of taking action and maintaining the adopted healthy lifestyle.
The transtheoretical Model has been criticized pointing to its (a) arbitrary and discrete stages of classifying individuals, (b) lack of predictive potential particularly when applied to substance abuse behavior where it’s descriptive rather than predictive and (c) insufficient parsimony of constructs.
Some of the limitations of using the transtheoretical model applicable to this study are (a) it will not weigh the severity of the problem (b) An effective intervention will be required in the precontemplation stage to motivate people to change and understand their problem (c) The participants have to be self-motivated to adapt to this change and (d) the decisional balance counseling should be effective to motivate the participants to take action to manage their weight.
Governmental Actions for Managing Weight
Although the application of the transtheoretical model is effective on an individual based level, on ecological levels obesity management should be approached by programs at community, government and policy levels. The government is making every effort to increase awareness about eating healthy and increasing physical activity. The officials are guiding people to take small steps to improve daily routine like engaging in daily physical activity for at least 30 minutes (U.S Food and Drug Administration, 2009). They are trying to encourage people to make a healthy choices by proving effective leadership and collaborating with organizations to design healthy programs and campaigns. These programs include various strategies to encourage healthy lifestyles including education, communication, intervention, diet and nutrition, physical activity and fitness. The Obesity Working Group (OWG) is making efforts to promote and protect public health (FDA, 2009). They have conducted workshops, public meetings and collaborating with other governmental agencies.
The government, nonprofit organizations and industries are working together to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables through the National Fruits and Vegetable Program. This program supports efforts to provide education and increase access to fruits and vegetables. This
program focuses on several aspects like community capacity and infrastructure to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables (CDC, n.d.).
The government has recommended community strategies to prevent obesity, such as improving availability of healthier food and beverages, encouraging local farm production and distribution of healthy food, and enhancing infrastructure supporting physical activity (CDC, 2009). It has also provided people with website tools to guide them through healthy lifestyle changes depending on age, and sex of that individual. Choosemyplate.gov has provided recommendations and recipes to alter diet and activity with tools like super tracker (United States Department of Agriculture, n.d.).
Regardless of the governmental policies and efforts, obesity rates are increasing. At present the government is asking people to pay increased health insurance premiums due to their obese status. There is an imminent need for health insurance to be the same for all individuals and it is the duty of the government to understand the reasons behind rising obesity rates. The government should make its policies more stringent in determining provisions for a health insurance. Obese people should be asked to adopt healthy lifestyles by a mandatory involvement in programs and interventions for managing healthy weight, instead of being penalized economically. Instead of singling out and stigmatizing obese individuals, and in turn disturbing their psychosocial wellbeing, the government should encourage healthy behavior by giving them incentives to enroll in healthy programs (Harvard School of Public Health, 2012). Health professionals should emphasize the importance of a healthy lifestyle at each patient visit to prevent obesity.
Every individual has to make a conscious decision to adopt and implement these healthy lifestyle approaches for themselves, their families, their communities and the nation. People can get involved and take advantage of various programs, interventions and workshops conducted by the government and communities to improve nutrition and physical activity. Every person needs to be motivated to adopt a healthy lifestyle and can directly or indirectly encourage others through their communities to take an initiative to a healthier tomorrow. If governmental efforts are backed by general public efforts to make a lifestyle change, a healthy nation will emerge.
Acknowledgements This review was conducted without any funding sources and there are no conflicts of interests involving the authors. The primary author, a graduate student, was involved in conceptualizing, researching literature related to and writing the paper. The second author assisted in revising some sections of the paper including the abstract and editing the paper to meet the journal manuscript guidelines.
Bannon, K. L., Hunter-Reel, D., Wilson, G., & Karlin, R. A. (2009). The effects of causal beliefs and binge eating on the stigmatization of obesity. International Journal Of Eating Disorders, 42(2), 118-124.
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2009). Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 58(RR07), 1-26. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5807a1.htm
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2010a). Overweight and obesity, defining overweight and obesity .Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2010b).Overweight and obesity, defining overweight and obesity .Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html (Table1)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010c). Vital signs. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/AdultObesity/LatestFindings.html
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2011a). Overweight and obesity, causes and consequences. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/causes/index.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011b). Healthy weight- it’s not a diet, it’s a lifestyle! Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/index.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011c). Overweight and Obesity, adult obesity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (2012). Overweight and obesity, data and statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables every day. Retrieved from http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov/qa/index.html
Chung, S. J., Hoerr, S., Levine, R., & Coleman, G. (2006). Processes underlying young women’s decisions to eat fruits and vegetables. J Hum Nutr Dietet, 19, 287–298.
Corsica, J.A., & Pelchat, M.L. (2010). Food addiction: True or False? Current opinion in Gastroenterology, 26 (2), 165-169.
DiClemente, R. J., Salazar, L.F., & Crosby, R.A. (2012). Health behavior theory for public health. Burlington, MA: Jones& Bartlett Learning.
Dishman, R. K., Vandenberg, R. J., Motl, R. W., & Nigg, C. R. (2010). Using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model to predict classes of change in regular physical activity: A Multi- Ethnic Longitudinal Cohort Study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 150-163. doi: 10.1007/s12160-010-9196-2
Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Harvard School of Public Health (2013). Survey finds public support for legal interventions to fight obesity, non-communicable diseases. Retrieved from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/survey-finds-public-support-for-legal- interventions-to-fight-obesity-noncommunicable-diseases/
Liu, Y., Von Deneen, K., Kobeissy, F.H., & Gold, M.S. (2010). Food addiction & obesity: Evidence from bench to bedside. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(2), 133-145.
Lutes, L. D., & Steinbaugh, E. K. (2010). Theoretical models for pedometer use in physical activity interventions. Physical Therapy Reviews, 15(3), 143-153. doi:10.1179/1743288X10Y.0000000002
Lyle, D., Hobba, J., Lloyd, K., Bennett, D., George, T., Giddings, N., Griffin, N., Chew, P., Harris, M., & Heading, G. (2008). Mobilising a rural community to lose weight: Impact evaluation of the Welling Tonne Challenge. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 16(2), 80-85.
Morton, D., McElhone, S., & White, H. (2011). The impact of weight loss competition in workplace. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, 24(3), 295-296.
Sales, S., & Walker, N. (2011). A systematic review of the effectiveness of weight management interventions in adults with learning disabilities. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, 24(3), 303.
Seals, J. (2007). Integrating the transtheoretical model into the management of overweight and obese adults. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19(2), 63-71. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2006.00196.x
Simons-Morton, B., Mcleroy, K.R., & Wendel, M.L. (2012). Behavior Theory in Health Promotion Practice and Research. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Stoltz, K. B., Reysen, R. H., Wolff, L. A., & Kern, R. M. (2009). Lifestyle and the stages of change in weight loss. Journal of Individual Psychology, 65(1), 69-85.
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U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). (n.d.). Choose My Plate.gov. Retrieved from http://www.choosemyplate.gov/index.html
Table I Body Mass Index for overweight and obesity (CDC, 2010b)
Height Weight Range BMI Considered
124 lbs. or less Below 18.5 Underweight
5' 9" 125 lbs. to 168 lbs. 18.5 to 24.9 Healthy weights
169 lbs. to 202 lbs. 25.0 to 29.9 Overweight
203 lbs. or more 30 or higher Obese
Fig. 1. Conceptual Framework of application of Trans theoretical Model (Stages of change) for Weight Management
CONTEMPLATION BENEFITS OF WEIGHT
WEIGHING PROS & CONS SUCCESS STORIES, REINFORCEMENT
PREPARATION SOCIAL SUPPORT
GUIDELINES & STRATEGIES GOALS REINFORCEMENT
ACTION SELF-EFFICACY & SELF-REEVALUATION
MAINTENANCE INCREASED FRUITS & VEGETABLES INTAKE
MAINTAINING HEALTHY LIFESTYLE
How many servings of fruits and vegetable do you take daily?
How much time do you spend exercising?
NO TEMPTATION FOR
A Peer Reviewed Article
Effects of Wrestling Season on Body Composition, Strength, Power and Training Status in High School and Collegiate Wrestlers
Max Wood & Timothy Baghurst
Although there is some documented evidence that a wrestler is physically impacted by the rigors of a season, findings for characteristics such as body composition, strength, and power in collegiate and high school wrestlers vary widely. Despite significant weight losses, some authors report increases in performance, others find decreases, and some no changes at all. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the extant literature and provide a rationale for the differences in wrestler strength-to-weight (STW) ratios and physical effects of weight loss. The review suggests that there are alternative explanations for decreases in performance found in the literature such as overtraining and a lack of quality strength and conditioning programming. To that end, it is recommended that coaches implement well-designed nutritional and strength and conditioning plans to maximize their athletes’ performance.
It is common practice for wrestlers to lose weight in order to compete in lower weight classes. Before the Wrestling Weight Certification Program was established in 1998, collegiate wrestlers regularly lost upwards of 10% of their bodyweight before a competition (Buford, Rossi, Smith, O'Brien, & Pickering, 2006). Because fat mass and water weight are the primary losses, performance should be preserved, thereby increasing the athletes’ strength-to-weight (STW) ratio. This has been well documented (Buford, Smith, O'Brien, Warren, & Rossi, 2008; Eckerson, Housh, Housh, & Johnson, 1994; Utter, Stone, O'Bryant, Summinski, & Ward, 1998). However, others refute this theory (Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, J. R., Kraemer, W. J., Ross, R. E., Tranchina, C. P., Rashti, S. L., Faigenbaum, A. D. 2012; Roemmich & Sinning, 1996; Roemmich & Sinning, 1997).
Although there is some documented evidence that a wrestler is physically impacted by the rigors of a season, findings have varied. With respect to body composition, for instance, some studies show that overall there is a decrease in total bodyweight, with the majority of the reduction occurring in body fat (Buford et al., 2008). Other studies show that some wrestlers lose both fat mass and fat-free mass (Utter et al., 1998). A small number of studies show that some wrestlers actually gain weight over the course of a season (Shriver, Betts, & Payton, 2009). Thus, it remains unclear how a season physically impacts a wrestler.
Creating a calorie deficit through severe dietary restriction seems to be the single, most prevalent factor for making weight in wrestling (Shriver et al., 2009), although measures taken to reduce body weight are often dangerous (Baghurst, 2012). The current literature indicates that whenever athletes train and compete in calorie deficits, it is reasonable for them to expect a drop in their performance (Ratamess et al., 2012; Roemmich & Sinning, 1996; Roemmich & Sinning, 1997). Although losing performance may occur through weight loss strategies, an athlete’s STW ratio may still increase. Put another way, even if an athlete’s overall strength decreases, his or
her performance in a lower weight class may be better than if he or she had stayed in his or her natural weight class due to the increase in STW ratio.
According to the current literature, a wrestler’s performance in characteristics such as strength and power decreases over the duration of a wrestling season. These decreases are correlated with the weight cutting these athletes undergo in an attempt to increase performance, which is contrary to the desired outcome of weight cutting. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to (a) report the current findings on body composition in wrestlers, how changes in body composition affect strength and power, and the effects that severe dietary restriction have on a wrestler’s performance and training status; and (b) to offer an alternative perspective of what may be happening in regards to a wrestler’s performance that may lead to future research.
Weight class rules for wrestling established in 1998 have made it impossible for wrestlers to compete if their body fat is under 7% in high school or 5% in college (Contreras, 1998; Ratamess et al., 2012). However, there is a general consensus in the body of research that says this is an extreme minimum, and optimal wrestling performance will occur around a body fat level of 8- 9%. Yet methods for measuring body composition vary widely. Skinfold measurement, dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), underwater weighing (UWW), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were all used as methods of assessing body composition in the reviewed studies (Buford et al., 2008; Eckerson et al., 1994; Kordi, Nourian, Rostami, & Wallace, 2012; Ratamess et al., 2012; Roemmich & Sinning, 1996; Roemmich & Frappier, 1993; Roemmich & Sinning, 1997; Shriver et al., 2009; Utter et al., 1998). Thus, gaining a true measure of ideal body fat remains unclear.
Skinfold measurement is the most common method of body composition assessment in the literature due to its portability and cost effectiveness. With a trained and experienced individual administering the assessment, error can be minimized. The DEXA scanner is very accurate and simple to use as a measure of both body fat and bone mineral density. Underwater weighing, like DEXA, is used for its high accuracy. Bioelectrical impedance utilizes an electrical current to assess total body water, which is used to calculate fat-free mass. The difference between body mass (BM) and fat-free mass represents body fat.
Most of the studies reviewed found that BM does decrease over the course of a season; however, there were three studies that found either no change or an increase in BM of the wrestlers (Buford et al., 2008; Kelly et al., 1978; Shriver et al., 2009). Shriver et al. (2009) reported an overall increase in BM over the season. Eckerson et al. (1994) measured a group of wrestlers that chose to cut against a group which did not. The group that chose not to lose weight actually gained weight over the course of the season, while the other group saw significant changes coming only from fat mass (FM).
Of the studies that saw a drop in BM, two studies saw significant reductions in both fat-free mass (FFM) and FM, with more weight loss coming from FM (Ratamess et al., 2012; Utter et al., 1998). Ratamess et al. (2012) found that FFM recovers over the course of the season, while Utter et al. (1998) found the opposite: as the season goes on FFM decreases. In both studies, however, FM decreased more than FFM accounting for 67% and 56% of the weight lost, respectively. Other studies found weight loss in wrestlers occured in FM only (Eckerson et al., 1994; Kelly et al., 1978; Roemmich & Sinning, 1996; Roemmich & Sinning, 1997).
Interestingly, the group that saw weight loss in both FFM and FM was composed of collegiate wrestlers only, while the group that preserved FFM and lost mostly FM was composed
predominantly of adolescents. This finding suggests that experience in weight cutting may not be the determinant factor in amount of weight cut, and whether weight cut comes from FFM or FM. Also, Ratamess et al. (2012) studied Division III wrestlers while Utter et al. (1998) investigated Division I wrestlers. Thus, wrestlers who are in theoretically better wrestling programs may not necessarily fare better when cutting weight or perhaps cut more weight in an effort to be able to wrestle in more or even lower weight classes.
Strength and Power
Maximizing STW ratio is the driving factor for cutting weight in wrestlers. Generally, a wrestler in a higher weight class possesses greater levels of strength and power than other wrestlers in the weight classes below him or her, when comparing natural weights. So, if performance can be maintained (or if decreases in performance can be minimized) while dropping to a lower weight class, the wrestler develops an advantage over his or her opponent. As cutting weight is such a widely practiced aspect of wrestling (Kordi et al., 2012; Oppliger, Nelson Steen, & Scott, 2003; Shriver et al., 2009), it would seem that wrestlers who do not cut weight are at a disadvantage, since they have not tried to maximize their STW ratio. In an effort to test the validity of this theory, many researchers have examined the effects that a single wrestling season has upon the strength and power of wrestlers, using various methods such as isokinetic dynamometry and grip strength dynamometry for testing strength and Wingate and vertical jump for testing power.
The differences found between the studies can be placed into two groups: decreases and no change. The decrease group found reductions in many variables. For example, Ratamess et al. (2012) found decreases in grip strength, vertical jump peak power, and Wingate peak power that were all correlated with a decrease in BM and body fat percentage in collegiate wrestlers. Although they found an improved fatigue rate for the Wingate test, this does not offset the overall decrease in performance. Eckerson et al. (1994) found similar decreases in Wingate peak power, and they also found decreases in torque production of the forearm and leg in adolescent wrestlers. Roemmich and Sinning (1996; 1997) found that strength and power in adolescent wrestlers are adversely affected by the effects of a wrestling season.
The no-change group found very interesting results compared to the previous group. All three studies found either no decrease in performance, or slight, non-significant increases in performance (Buford et al., 2008; Utter et al., 1998). Since Utter et al. (1998) found decreases in bodyweight without measuring decreases in performance, their findings indicate that it is possible to increase STW ratio, which is the desired outcome for wrestlers at any level of the sport. Buford et al. (2008) did not report any significant differences in BM or peak torque over the course of their study. However, at the end of the study, they measured an 11.5% increase in peak torque relative to body mass. The end of their study coincided with the end of the regular season, indicating that the athletes became stronger over the course of the season and thus increased their STW ratio.
Overreaching and Overtraining
In their joint consensus statement, the European College of Sports Science (ECSS) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) defined overreaching and overtraining as follows:
1. Overreaching: an accumulation of training and/or non-training stress resulting in short- term decrement in performance capacity with or without related physiological and
psychological signs and symptoms of maladaptation in which restoration of performance capacity may take from several days to several weeks.
2. Overtraining: an accumulation of training and/or non-training stress resulting in long- term decrement in performance capacity with or without related physiological and psychological signs and symptoms of maladaptation in which restoration of performance capacity may take from several weeks to months. (Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Foster, C., Fry, A., Gleeson, M., Nieman, D., Urhausen, A., 2013)
These states are achieved whenever training overload is not accompanied by adequate recovery (Meeusen et al., 2013). This point becomes very pertinent in the context of wrestlers, as severe dietary restriction can be the greatest contributor to the weight loss process in wrestlers (Shriver et al., 2009). It is possible that wrestlers never achieve adequate recovery from their workouts during the season because they maintain a state of caloric restriction throughout the season. As such, they may be in a recurring state of overreaching, and some may crossover into a state of overtraining. This is a possible alternative explanation – aside from purely decreases in body weight – that may account for the reductions in performance seen by researchers.
Interestingly, some have posited that overtraining may be a better explanation than weight cutting for a decrease in performance, and that decreases in BM are only correlations to this explanation. Roemmich and Sinning (1996, 1997) assert that an overtraining effect may take some responsibility for changes in muscular performance, suggesting that “[m]any of the symptoms observed in overtrained individuals have been documented in wrestlers” (p.98). Shriver et al. (2009) argue that inadequate carbohydrate consumption leads to increased protein utilization, indicating a state of depleted glycogen. Whenever glycogen is depeleted, recovery is impaired, making it difficult for the body to continue to meet the demands being placed upon it (Eckerson et al., 1994). These are signigicant findings, as only 16% of the 741 collegiate wrestlers that were surveyed by Oppliger et al. (2003) reported that they do not cut weight for competition. This would mean that the vast majority of wrestlers are cutting weight in ways that are not conducive to preserving performance.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The results of the no-change group were impressive in and of themselves, with results indicating that it is indeed possible to increase an athlete’s STW ratio by reducing BM. In the case of Utter et al. (1998), this is true even if the athletes show a marked decrease in FFM. Even in the decrease group, the results, while at first seeming a little discouraging, may still be supportive of the notion that cutting weight helps wrestlers perform better, even if overall performance is decreased. Hypothetically, if a 150 lb. athlete can bench press 200 lb., he or she has a STW ratio of 1.25 (bench press/BM). If that athlete was to drop down to the 139 lb. weight class, but only loses 5 lb. on his or her bench press, the STW goes up to 1.4. These decreases were similar to percentages found in the studies which reported decreases in performance following a weight cutting regimen. However, because the authors only released the means and not the individual data points with the published studies, it is difficult to calculate if this is what is actually happening.
Ratamess et al. (2012) believe that strength and conditioning programs may play a large role in preserving performance. In the aforementioned study, the authors mention that a lack of heavy lifting could possibly have contributed to decreases in performance in high school wrestlers. To support this notion, two studies (Buford et al., 2008; Utter et al., 1998) mention specifically that
they tailored strength and conditioning programs for their collegiate athletes in order to offset the expected decreases in performance associated with the wrestling season. Both of these studies are from the no-change group, which saw the greatest changes in STW ratio.
It is also worth noting that the three studies in the no-change group used exclusively collegiate wrestlers in their samples. Colleges often have access to resources that high schools do not, such as strength and conditioning coaches. The four studies in the decrease group were composed of three samples of adolescent wrestlers, and one sample of collegiate wrestlers. However, the study with the collegiate sample in the decrease group admitted that strength and conditioning had been lacking over the course of the season. Thus, a well-designed strength and conditioning program may contribute to a diminished detraining effect in wrestlers over the course of a season, as does year-round training. This may be because the athletes are maintaining higher levels of fitness and lower levels of body fat, which in turn decreases the severity of the weight cuts they have to endure to stay competitive.
Future topics for research could include examining the effects of different strength and conditioning protocols on the performance of adolescent and college wrestlers, examining weight cutting and its effects on individual wrestler records (i.e., are the wrestlers who cut the most weight the ones who win the most?), examining overtraining and its effects on wrestlers’ records or performance (wrestlers who are meeting certain criteria for being diagnosed with Overtraining Syndrome), and examining heavyweight wrestlers and their performance over a season as compared to lower weight classes.
In the meantime, it seems that wrestling coaches should continue encouraging their athletes to cut weight in order to stay competitive in their sport. However, several precautions should be taken. Wrestlers should be monitored to ensure that they do not reach overtraining status. This would entail that the athletes are encouraged to consume a diet that promotes recovery from workouts while still allowing weight loss, or at least minimizing fat gain. Next, coaches should implement strength and conditioning into their athletes’ training regimen, in order to diminish any detraining effects that wrestlers might encounter during the season. Coaches should consult qualified professionals for these two recommendations if they are not qualified in these areas. These two applications of the research, based on the findings of this article, may help wrestlers better maximize their performance.
Call for Presentations
For anyone wanting to present at the 2013 State Convention, the proposal form is on the ArkAHPERD web page.
Baghurst, T. (2012). Wrestlers. In J. Reel (Ed.), Eating disorders: An encyclopedia of causes,
treatment and prevention. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Buford, T. W., Rossi, S. J., Smith, D. B., O'Brien, M. S., & Pickering, C. (2006). The effect of a competitive wrestling season on body weight, hydration, and muscular performance in collegiate wrestlers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 682-692.
Buford, T. W., Smith, D. B., O'Brien, M. S., Warren, A. J., & Rossi, S. J. (2008). Seasonal changs in body mass, body composition, and miscular performance in collegiate wrestlers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3, 176-184.
Contreras, P. (1998). Wrestling Minimum Weight Certification Program information. Retrieved from University Interscholastic League: http://www.uiltexas.org/wrestling/page/wrestling- minimum-weight-certification-program-information
Eckerson, J. M., Housh, D. J., Housh, T. J., & Johnson, G. O. (1994). Seasonal changes in body composition, strength, and muscular power in high school wrestlers. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 39-52.
Kordi, R., Nourian, R., Rostami, M., & Wallace, A. (2012). Percentage of body fat and weight gain in participants in the Tehran High School Wrestling Championship. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(2), 119-125.
Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Foster, C., Fry, A., Gleeson, M., Nieman, D., Urhausen, A. (2013). Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: Joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). European Journal of Sport Science, 13(1), 1-24.
Oppliger, R. A., Nelson Steen, S. A., & Scott, J. R. (2003). Weight loss practices of college wrestlers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13, 29-46.
Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, J. R., Kraemer, W. J., Ross, R. E., Tranchina, C. P., Rashti, S. L., Faigenbaum, A. D. (2012). Effects of a competitive wrestling season on body composition, endocrine markers, and anaerobic exercise performance in NCAA collegiate wrestlers. European Journal of Applied Physiology. doi:10.1007/s00421-012-2520-8
Roemmich, J. N., & Frappier, J. P. (1993). Physiological determinants of wrestling success in high school athletes. Pediatric Exercise Science, 5, 134-144.
Roemmich, J. N., & Sinning, W. E. (1996). Sport-seasonal changes in body composition, growth, power, and strength of adolescent wrestlers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17(2), 92-99.
Roemmich, J. N., & Sinning, W. E. (1997). Weight loss and wrestling training: effects on nutrition, growth, maturation, body composition, and strength. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(6), 1751-1759.
Shriver, L., Betts, N., & Payton, M. E. (2009). Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19, 424-432.
Utter, A., Stone, M., O'Bryant, H., Summinski, R., & Ward, B. (1998). Sport-seasonal changes in body composition, strength, and power of college wrestlers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 12(4), 266-271.
Summary of Literature Findings
Body Comp Assessment
Buford, Smith, O'Brien, Warren, and Rossi
Isokinetic torque and power
↔BM, ↔FM, ↑T, ↑T/BM
Eckerson, Housh, Housh, and Johnson
Isokinetic torque, Wingate
↓BM, ↓FM, ↔ FFM, ↓T, ↓PP, ↔MP
Kelly, Gorney, and Kalm
Isokinetic torque and endurance, VO2 max
↓BM,↓FM, ↔ FFM, ↓T, ↑ END
Ratamess et al.
Grip strength, vertical jump, modified Wingate (1 min)
↓BM, ↓FM, ↓FFM, ↓PP, ↔MP, ↓Grip
Roemmich and Sinning
Grip strength, isokinetic torque and power, Wingate
↓BM,↓ FM, ↔FFM, ↓T, ↔PP, ↔MP, ↔Grip
Roemmich and Sinning
↓ BM, ↓FM, ↔FFM, ↓T
Shriver, Betts, and Payton
↑ BM, ↔ FM
Utter et al.
Skinfold, UWW, BIA
Isometric clean pull, vertical jump
↓BM, ↓FM, ↓FFM, ↔T, ↔PP
BM = body mass, FM = fat mass, FFM = fat free mass, T = torque, PP = Peak power, MP = Mean power, Grip = Grip strength, END= muscular endurance, ↑ = increase, ↓= decrease, ↔= no change
Call for Papers
The Research Section of ArkAHPERD invites members to present their research at the 20132 State Convention. Submit a one page abstract with title and author(s) to William Torrence, firstname.lastname@example.org
A Peer Reviewed Article
The Effect of Progressive Relaxation Techniques on State Anxiety and Free Throw Performance
Abby Davis and Shelia L. Jackson
The effect of progressive muscle relaxation techniques to reduce state anxiety and increase free throw performance was studied. Six college students identified at a Hoops for Heart free throw contest as having high state anxiety as measured by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, Jacobs, 1983) volunteered to participate in the study. Their state anxiety and free throw shooting performance was measured during two free throw contests pre- and post their participation in six to nine progressive muscle relaxation sessions. Two separate Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks t-tests were used to determine significance (p = .05). Results of pre- and posttests indicated that state anxiety significantly decreased and free throw performance significantly increased.
Can athletes perform significantly better at their sport without added physical workouts? Can relaxation significantly enhance muscle rehabilitation? Can chronic and acute pain be managed without medical intervention? Can listening to a tape reduce the anxiety and physiological stress experienced by surgical patients? These questions were the focal point of research to help people take control of their own bodies, and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) techniques was the answer (Carroll & Seers, 1998a, 1998b; Dehdari, Heidarnia, Ramezankhani, Sadeghian, & Ghofranipour, 2009; Fraser, Steffen & Elfessi, 2001; Griffiths, Steel, Vaccaro, & Karpmen, 1981; Jansen, Windau, Bonutti, & Brillhart, 1996; Ko & Lin, 2012; Lanning & Hisanaga, 1983; Lin, Hsieh, Hsu, Fetzer, & Hsu, 2011).
Much of the research in sport psychology is associated with performance and the inverted-U hypothesis proposed by Yerkes and Dodson (1908). According to the inverted-U hypothesis, there is an optimal level of arousal needed for maximal performance. Any amount of arousal above or below that level will result in inferior performance. As a result, progressive relaxation techniques were introduced to help control over-arousal and anxiety levels prior to and during competition. Most progressive relaxation techniques are variations of a technique outlined by Jacobson (1938).
The goal of applied sport psychology is to bring theory and research into practice by educating coaches, athletes, and parents on how to facilitate optimal sport involvement and performance. This usually involves individual and/or group consulting and/or counseling. Specific concepts, such as goal setting, relaxation, imagery, etc., may be utilized, but the primary goal is to teach the mental skills necessary for athletes to reach their full potential both as individuals in society and as athletes (Association for Applied Sport Psychology website, retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.appliedsportpsych.org/About/about-applied-sport-psych).
With these factors in mind, the study was undertaken to determine if progressive relaxation technique sessions would reduce state anxiety levels in participants of a free throw competition and, therefore, improve performance.
Review of Related Literature
According to the inverted-U hypothesis, every type of behavior has an optimal level of arousal that produces a maximum performance. Another aspect of the hypothesis is that as complexity of the skill increases, the optimum level of arousal decreases. Therefore, fine motor skills require a lesser degree of arousal than gross motor skills. Furthermore, arousal levels above or below the optimum level produce inferior performance (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). The inverted-U hypothesis has been supported by a significant amount of empirical evidence (Cook, Gansneder, Rotella, Malone, Bunker, & Owens, 1983; Klavora, 1979; Murphy, Woolfolk, & Budney, 1988; Sonstroem & Bernardo, 1982). All of these researchers found a relationship between the levels of arousal and performance.
The inverted-U hypothesis is based on state anxiety arousal. Martens (1977) defined state anxiety as “an existing or current emotional state characterized by feelings of apprehension and tension and associated with activation of the organism” (p. 4). Many researchers in sport psychology have used state anxiety, also known as competition anxiety, to attempt to explain why individuals made errors during competition (Abenza, Alarcón, Piñar, & Ureña, 2009; Cook, Gansneder et al. 1983; Bird & Horn, 1990; Gould, Petlichkoff, Simons, & Vevera, 1987; Griffiths, Steel et al. 1981; Horikawa & Yagi, 2012; Sonstroem & Bernardo, 1982; Weinberg & Genuchi, 1980).
From research evidence, scientific literature, and empirical observation Oxendine (1979) made the generalization that a high level of arousal was needed for optimal performance in gross motor activities, while a low level of arousal was optimal for fine muscle movements, coordination, precision, steadiness, and concentration. Gross motor movements were associated with activities such as wrestling, some aspects of basketball, and running. Fine motor movements included golf, some aspects of tennis, and pistol shooting. According to Zehra, Peynireioglu, Thompson, and Tanielian (2000), free throw shooting was a predominantly fine motor skill that required high cognitive demand on shooters to concentrate on the position of their bodies, the height, distance, and size of the basket, the wrist action, and the strength needed to reach the basket.
Much of the research conducted in sport psychology prior to Martens (1977) was in a lab setting. According to Martens (1979) and Alderman (1979), the anxiety-motor performance relationship needed testing in the field in a more ego-involving setting. Some researchers tested this relationship in a field setting and supplied the field of sport psychology with valuable information concerning the anxiety/performance relationship (Cook, et al., 1983; Bird & Horn, 1990; Gould, et al., 1987; Griffiths, et al., 1981; Horikawa & Yagi, 2012; Sonstroem & Bernardo, 1982; Weinberg & Genuchi, 1980).
Weinberg and Genuchi (1980) examined the competitive trait anxiety (CTA), state anxiety, and performance of 30 male intercollegiate golfers. The results from the study indicated that low CTA subjects performed significantly better than high CTA subjects during the golf tournament (p< .05). In another study involving golf, Cook et al. (1983) examined 103 amateur golfers’ performance and state anxiety over three days. The findings indicated that lower precompetitive state anxiety enhanced golf performance. These results support Oxendine’s hypothesis that low levels of arousal are needed to perform fine motor movements associated with golf.
Sonstroem and Bernardo (1982) measured the competitive trait anxiety and pregame state anxiety of 30 female collegiate basketball players. From the results of the study, it was indicated that moderate levels of trait and state anxiety resulted in the highest levels of performance (p< .01). In games where the subjects had high anxiety, their performance was lowest (p< .05). These findings supported the inverted-U hypothesis.
Gould et al. (1987) used the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) to measure anxiety levels before a pistol shooting competition. The researchers measured the cognitive and somatic anxiety levels along with self-confidence and shooting performance of 39 subjects from the University of Illinois Police Training Institute. The results of the study indicated that cognitive anxiety did not have a significant impact on performance (p< .001), but that the somatic and the performance relationship were best interpreted by the inverted-U hypothesis.
In a study involving 50 volunteer SCUBA students, Griffiths et al. (1981) found a negative relationship between state anxiety and performance. Baseline measures of the STAI as well as heart rate, respiration rate, and temperature hand frontalis muscle action potential were taken. Participants were then assigned to a control, biofeedback relaxation group, or meditation group for six meeting times over a three week period. The results indicated a significant negative relationship between State Anxiety and performance (r =-.46, p< .05); however, relaxation did not increase performance. A possible explanation for this was performance measures of state anxiety did not exceed the norms for the STAI and therefore, the participants were not highly anxious before the performance task.
Ziegler, Klinzing, and Williamson (1982) studied eight male collegiate cross-country runners to determine the effects of two stress management programs on cardio respiratory efficiency. Both treatment groups met with the researcher twice a week for 5.5 weeks and were taught negative thought stopping, cueing, and received training in relaxation (EMG biofeedback training. The second treatment group also received strategies to regain control after being presented with a series of disastrous track-imagery situations. After the 5.5-week period, a posttest was given. A statistical significance was reached between the control group (M=36.17) and the two treatment groups (SIT M=33.16; SMT M=31.87) for oxygen consumption between the first half (p< .01) and second half of the posttest (p< .05). No statistical significance was found between the two treatment groups..
Lanning and Hisanaga (1983) measured the effects of PMR techniques on competitive anxiety and service percentage of 24 female high school players in a volleyball game. The treatment consisted of seven 30 minutes sessions of Jacobson’s PMR over a two and one half week period. Following the treatment, two posttests were administered two weeks apart. From the results, the researchers reported the treatment group’s competitive anxiety significantly decreased from pretest to posttest (p< .005). The researchers also found that service performance significantly increased from pretest to posttest (p< .005). This study supported previous research that relaxation reduces anxiety, but it also revealed that relaxation may increase performance.
In a study involving 90 beginning university tennis players, Greer and Engs (1986) assigned players to relaxation, hypnosis, and lecture/control groups. The treatment groups received relaxation or hypnosis training every other class meeting for a four-week period during the semester. All groups received the same amount of physical practice time. Treatment and control groups significantly (p< .05) increased performance on the tennis rally test from pretest to posttest; therefore, the researchers concluded that relaxation was not any more effective than traditional lecture and practice.
In a study involving seven sub-elite long distance runners, Caird, McKenzie, and Sleivert (1999) measured the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on running economy. After pretest measures were taken, runners were then told to continue with their normal training routine for the next six weeks and received progressive muscle relaxation and centering training. The researchers determined from posttest results that the use of a combined biofeedback and relaxation program improved running economy (p< .05).
Forty-three males and forty-seven females from Midwestern University participated in a study that involved indoor rock climbing and relaxation (Fraser et al., 2001). The control group met for 14 class days or 26 hours, and the treatment group met for 15 class days or 28 contact hours and also went through a series of eight relaxation regimens for a total of 120 minutes. The performance pretest and posttest were given during the second and eighth week respectively. The results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the pretest and posttest (p> .05).
The inverted-U hypothesis is often used as an explanation for decrements in performance resulting from over or under arousal levels. Researchers hypothesized that relaxation techniques could reduce the state anxiety levels of overly anxious participants and thus improve performance. The results of studies using relaxation techniques indicate that relaxation does reduce state anxiety. However, not all studies that indicate a reduction in anxiety indicate an improvement in performance. This study was undertaken to determine if improvements in performance would result from the use of relaxation technique sessions.
Volunteers for the study were selected based on their participation in the American Heart Association’s Hoops for Heart Free Throw Competition at a NCAA Division II university. Each of the 47 participants signed Consent to Act as Research Subjects form. Eight participants qualified for the next stage of the study by their scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Participants scoring at least one half a standard deviation above the mean on the STAI Norms for state anxiety for college students for their gender qualified for the study. One participant was not reachable, and after seven relaxation techniques sessions, one participant did not attend the posttest. A total of six participants completed the entire study. Five of the participants were female and one was male. His scores were reported separately due to different male and female norms. The six participants ranged in age from 18 to 28 years with a mean age of 22. All of the participants had at least Jr. High basketball experience.
The first measure taken in the study was the number of free throws made for each participant during the American Heart Association Hoops for Heart contest (American Heart Association, retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.kintera.org/site/c.7oJFLUPzFdJSG/b.8191827/k.BEBD/Home.htm) . Ten free throws were shot from the regulation college free throw line, and the number of free throws made was recorded.
The second measure used in the study was the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. 1983), which measured the amount of state and trait anxiety before an activity. This test was used because the participants in this study were not athletes, and the norms for the STAI are based on the general college student population. The questionnaire is self-administered and taken either alone or in groups. The inventory has no time limits and takes about five to ten minutes to complete. The
state and trait anxiety portion of the test each consisted of 20 questions. The test was presented as the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire to prevent the possibility of biased responses.
Participants served as their own control group for the study. The dependent variables were measured by the number of free throws made by each participant during the competitions and administering the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory after each competition.
Two separate Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks t-Tests (Bolding Computer Software, 1992) were used to find the relationship between the variables and the probability. One Wilcoxon compared the difference between the state anxiety scores of each participant from pretest to posttest. The other Wilcoxon compared the difference between the numbers of free throws made from pretest to posttest. The alpha level was set at .05 for both tests.
Permission to conduct research on human subjects was given by the institution’s Human Subjects Committee. Pretesting took place during the spring semester at the university physical education building gymnasium during the Hoops for Heart Free Throw competition. Those who volunteered filled out Consent to Act as Research Subject’s form. They were then told to remember to think about how they felt as they were walking up to shoot their first free throw. They were also reminded to go to the adjacent area to take the STAI after they shot their ten free throws. The test administrator of the STAI had a four-year degree in psychology which is a requirement of persons administering this test. The participants were then dismissed.
Seven participants qualified and volunteered to continue with the study. The progressive muscle relaxation technique sessions began the day after the competition. During the following three weeks, participants met for a minimum of six times for 15-30 minutes for progressive muscle relaxation sessions.
Three of the participants met for eight relaxation sessions, two met for nine relaxation sessions, and one met for six relaxation sessions. The relaxation technique used in this study originated from Jacobson (1938). For the first session, participants met with the investigator for thirty minutes and were told that the relaxation technique consisted of tensing and relaxing muscle groups. During the following sessions, participants met with the investigator fifteen to twenty minutes in a quiet classroom in the physical education building where they could lay comfortably on mats. After the first session, participants were told to say the cue word “relax” before starting the relaxation.
The posttest was administered three weeks later at an intramural free throw contest. The last relaxation technique session was administered twenty minutes prior to the free throw competition. After the session, the participants were told that if they felt nervous before shooting the first free throw to tell themselves to “relax” to trigger the relaxation response. They were also told to remember how they felt prior to shooting the first free throw. The participants then went to the gym and participated in the free throw competition.
After shooting the free throws, they again took the STAI and were reminded to answer the questionnaire according to how they felt walking up to the free throw line to shoot the first free throw. Only side A (state anxiety) was completed during the posttest because side B measured trait anxiety (trait is relatively stable over time). After completing the STAI, the participants were thanked for their participation and told the study was completed.
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Raw scores for the male participant (#3) are shown in the table in Table 1. Because the STAI provides separate norms for men and women, his scores were not factored into the Wilcoxon tests.
For the STAI, the mean pretest score was 52.2, and the posttest score was significantly lower (p< .05) at 33.3 as shown in Table 2. Also shown in Table 2 are the pretest and posttest mean scores for free throw performance, ranges, and standard deviations.
Two separate Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks t-Tests were used to compare pretest and posttest State Anxiety scores and free throws made. The results for the STAI scores and free throws made are shown in Table 3.
A Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was calculated to determine if a relationship existed between the number of relaxation sessions attended and how much state anxiety scores decreased from pre to posttest. The results indicated that a significant positive relationship existed between the variables r = .729 (p< .005). Also, another Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was calculated to determine if a relationship existed between trait and pretest state anxiety scores. The results indicated a positive relationship between the variables r = .614 (p> .05). Some of the participants who had high state anxiety also had high trait anxiety.
There was a significance decrease in state anxiety from pretest to posttest (p< .05). In addition, the more relaxation sessions the participants completed, the lower their state anxiety (r = .729) (p< .05), and the participant whose state anxiety was reduced the least, only participated in six relaxation sessions (r = .729).
Trait anxiety was measured along with state anxiety when the STAI was administered. Four of the five females scored at least one standard deviation above the mean for trait anxiety. The fifth female and the only male both scored one standard deviation below the mean for their respected norms. These findings indicated that some participants who had high state anxiety also had high trait anxiety (r = .614) (p> .05).
Finally, participants significantly improved their free throw percentage from pretest to posttest (p<.05).
There is a plethora of research in the field of sport psychology regarding relaxation techniques. Relaxation techniques help reduce anxiety levels prior to competition (Caird, et al., 1999; Fraser, et al., 2001; Greer & Engs, 1986; Griffiths, et al., 1981; Lanning & Hisanaga, 1983; Ryska, 1998; Ziegler, et al., 1982). The findings of this study are in agreement with previous studies in that progressive muscle relaxation significantly reduced anxiety levels prior to performance (p< .05)
Supporting the research of Caird, et al., (1999) and Lanning and Hisanaga, (1983), investigators in this study found that free throw performance significantly increased from pretest to posttest (p< .05). Oxendine (1979) stated that low levels of arousal were needed to perform fine motor skill tasks. The low levels of arousal could have contributed to the increase in free throw performance from pretest to posttest. Participants were highly anxious during the pretest, which could have resulted in arousal levels above the optimal level. This interpretation provides support for the inverted-U hypothesis.
Although not a part of the official study, it was reported by one participant who was a member of the varsity golf team, that after playing poorly the first round of a tournament, the assistant coach told her to do the relaxation techniques. After listening to the PMR tape provided to her by
the principle investigator, she dropped fifteen strokes in her second round. She then continued to use the tape for the rest of her season.
Much of the previous literature that focused on an increase in performance through the use of relaxation did not find significant improvements (Fraser, et al., 2001; Greer & Engs, 1986; Griffiths, et al., 1981; Ryska, 1998). However, unlike the present study, some of these studies did not limit their participants to persons exhibiting high state anxiety or activities requiring fine motor skill.
1. Use biometric measures such as heart rate monitors during relaxation sessions and take blood pressure after sessions to provide both administrators and participants physiological feedback of anxiety reduction.
2. Utilize a larger sample size to decrease the chance of Type I and Type II errors.
3. Limit the interaction between investigators and the subjects by using tapes of the relaxation technique and having assistants oversee the sessions thus reducing the chance of the Hawthorne Effect.
4. Compare groups of highly anxious athletes using relaxation, highly anxious athletes without relaxation, highly anxious non-athletes with relaxation, and highly anxious non- athletes without relaxation.
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Participant’s Pretest and Posttest Raw Scores
Source 1 2 3** 4 5 6
Pretest Trait 70 39 28 51 51 54
Pretest State 59 49 51 57 46 52
Posttest State 33 35 28 38 41 26
STAI and Performance Descriptive Statistics
Statistics STAI Pretest STAI Posttest Free Throw Free Throw
Mean 52.6 34.6* 2.2 4.4*
Range 46 - 59 26 - 41 0 – 5 2 - 7
SD 9.65 9.12 2.5 3.8
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks t-Test Results
Source STAI Free Throws Made
Pairs not Equal 5 4
Pairs Equal 0 2
Sum of Positive 15.0 0.0
Sum of Negative 0.0 10.0
Z-Value 2.02 1.83
Probability One-Tailed 0.02* 0.03*
A Peer Reviewed Article
What Makes for Effective Leadership?
An Integrative Model
Effective leadership has been found to drive to greater performance and commitment towards work teams or organizations (Judge & Piccolo, 2004). Given the advantages such effective leadership offers to organizations of all types, much attention has been devoted to leadership in the academic literature (Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008; Northouse, 2012). For instance, leadership’s positive effects on individual employee’s satisfaction and motivation have been identified (Kaiser et al. 2008). Furthermore, different types of leaders have been recognized, including transactional and transformational. Transactional leaders use rewards to motivate employees. Whereas transformational leaders inspire followers persuading them to work towards a collective purpose. Within this differentiation among leaders, characteristics of diverse types of leaders have been identified. Judge and Piccolo (2004) and others, for example, identify charisma as an important component of transformational leadership (see also Conger & Kanungo, 1987).
Academicians recognize the interaction of leadership behavior with other factors (Marion & Uhl-Bien, 2001). Some research addresses elements affecting leadership effectiveness which are outside the leaders control, such as followers’ behavior. Specifically, Avolio (2007) states that by considering elements such as the leader, the follower, and the context, in an integrative theory of leadership we can further develop our knowledge about this phenomenon.
In line with the recognition that more comprehensive theories contribute better to the advancement of the field than more simplistic ones (Cunningham, 2002; Steel & Konig, 2006; Van de Ven & Poole, 1995; Yammarino, Dionne, Chun, & Dansereau, 2005), this paper theorizes an integrated model of effective leadership. In the proposed model internal leader characteristics, such as traits and personality, as well as external characteristics, such as followers and the environment will be considered.
Integrated Model of Effective Leadership
This section outlines the model elements in detail. First, a definition of effective leadership is provided. Then, characteristics internal to the person leading the team or group are considered, such as individual traits and personality. Finally, characteristics outside the leader’s control that may possibly affect the effectiveness of leadership will be contemplated, namely followers and the environment. The model is depicted in figure one.
Leadership is the process of influencing others to work towards the attainment of a common goal (Greenberg, 2005). However, goal attainment alone does not reflect the full purpose of leadership, and thus it does not permit the evaluation of its effectiveness. As stated in the literature, effective leadership is reflected in processes as well as in outcomes. Processes examples include the way a team functions while working together towards goal attainment, and outcomes may include the results obtained based on the performance of the team (Kaiser et al.
2008). Thus, when evaluating effectiveness, consider a leader’s influence on individuals, organizational subunits, and the whole organization (Kaiser et al. 2008; Yammarino, et al., 2005); as well as productivity, and financial performance among other outcomes (Kaiser et al. 2008).
It seems that organizational success is determined in a convoluted way, with many factors needing to be accounted for. As a result, it is difficult to imagine how many outcome variables will be the product of a leader’s actions. In other words, leaders do not achieve such results on their own, “[leaders] are one element of an interactive network that is far bigger than they” (Marion & Uhl-Bien, 2001, p. 414). In an attempt to paint a more complete picture of such network, internal factors (the leader) and external factors (the network) should be included in the model.
Two aspects originated within the person leading the team or group are considered: Individual traits and personality. Traits refer to inherited personal characteristics which will make it easy to identify a person as leader-like (Greenberg, 2005; Slack & Parent, 2006; Kaiser et al. 2008). These, although much out of the individual’s control, originate within the person. Personality refers to behavior, emotions, and thoughts that make an individual unique.
Traits. As some of the early leadership literature indicates, most effective leaders have similar personal characteristics. For example, they are driven, self-confident, creative, flexible, and have complex cognitive ability among other things (Greenberg, 2005; Slack & Parent, 2006; Yammarino, et al., 2005). Such traits allow leaders to stand out from the crowd (Kaiser et al. 2008).
Personality. Ones personality is the unique stable behavior, emotions, and thoughts which differentiate him/her from everybody else. As with traits, research on leadership also points out the similarities across the behavior, emotions, and thoughts of leaders (Greenberg, 2005). Fry and Slocum (2008) stress the need for ethical leaders with a strong moral character. Such moral character will emerge from within the individual influencing her/his emotions, thoughts, and ultimately actions.
Aside from traits and personality, two factors from the leader’s network need to be considered: followers and the environment. These two elements are outside the leader’s control and may possibly truncate/enhance the effectiveness of leadership.
Followers. One of the leadership effectiveness assessments is organizational processes (Kaiser et al. 2008; Yammarino, et al., 2005), during which leaders influence subordinates’ actions (Ellemers, De Gilder, & Haslam, 2004). The literature indicates peers may influence others’ behaviors and actions (Hollander, 1980; Laursen, 1996). Thus, organizational outcomes do not depend solely on a leader’s influence on subordinates.
Environment. Another external factor that could possible affect results attributed to leadership is the environment. Environment is as defined anything that goes on around a leader attempting to guide subordinates either within the organization or in a broader context. Research suggests tasks and organizational context may counteract leadership efforts (Yammarino, et al., 2005). As such, a leader’s efforts to achieve teamwork may find this difficult to achieve in an organization where a culture of individualism prevails (Ellemers et al. 2004). Moreover, events in the external
environment, such as legislative changes, may also influence the future of the organization (Slack & Parent, 2006), whether the leaders within the organization are effective or not.
Leadership in sports
This model for leadership in a general context can easily be applied in sport organizations. Sport managers can use the insights brought about by this model to more effectively motivate the people in their organization, whether it be their subordinates or their peers. Specifically they can use the aforementioned traits to their advantage when in a leadership position (Greenberg, 2005; Kaiser et al., 2008; Slack & Parent, 2006; Yammarino, et al., 2005). Furthermore they can use their personality in influencing others to work towards a common goal. However, sport managers in leadership positions are not the only ones capable of influencing the organization’s members. As stated earlier, peers have influence over each other, and everyone within the organization can contribute to the organizational environment, so sport professionals in any level position can use their leadership knowledge to influence the behavior of their coworkers.
In summary, the purpose of the current paper was to construct a theoretical integrated model of effective leadership. The model suggests multivariable assessment of a leader’s effectiveness, as well as the inclusion of internal and external factors that may affect such effectiveness evaluation. Internal factors include personal traits and personality; whereas external factors comprise followers and the environment surrounding leaderships’ effort. Empirical test of the model is warranted.
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Figure 1. Integrated Model of Effective Leadership
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Effective leadershipInternal factorsExternal factorsFollowersEnvironmentTraitsPersonalityEffective factorsFollowersEnvironmentTraitsPersonality