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CHINESE
ARCHITECTURE
Nathan Faller
HSTARC 3
DAR 1
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
 Styles of Chinese ancient architecture are rich and varied, such as temples, imperial palaces, alta...
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
CHINESE DYNASTY TIMELINE
THE CHARACTER AND
MEANING OF CLASSICAL
CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
THE AXIAL CITY PLAN AND
SITE PLAN
• One of the great religious beliefs that
influenced the design of the classical
Chinese...
THE MODULAR SYSTEM
• One of the basic principles of classical
Chinese buildings is the USE OF A
MODULE, much like the modu...
THE EXPOSED STRUCTURE
• In ancient China, almost all of the
main structures of classical Chinese
architecture were made of...
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES
DOUGONG
 Bracket sets
MUGUIJA
 Timber Frames
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES
TAIZI
 Podium
COURTYARD
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES
WU’ DING
 Roof
1) Renzi Xuan Shan
2) Renzi Yin Shan
3) Juan Peng
4) Lu Ding
5) Fudian
6) Xie Shan
...
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
TAI-LIANG
 Pillars and Beam
CHUAN DUO
 Pillar and Transverse Tie Beam
FENG SHUI
Qi(气), the energy of the universe, is
carried in the wind and retained within
water. Both elements were used as ...
YIN AND YANG
• Fundamental to feng shui is the idea
that yin and yang are the two basic
principles underlying all matter a...
BAGUA
The bagua (or pa kua) of the I Ching (Book of Changes) is an octagonal diagram used in feng shui analysis. Each dire...
RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS
BUDDHISM
• Buddhism was introduced to China from
India around the first century AD, since the
fourth century AD, it was wi...
PAGODA
• Pagoda, symbol of Buddhism is often
erected in temples.
• Pagodas were made of stone, wood, colored
glaze or meta...
GROTTOES
• Grotto, another type of Buddhist
architecture, is often chiseled into cliffs. In
the 3rd century, Chinese Buddh...
TEMPLE
• Buddhist temples tend to be decorated in
red or black, and there is a main hall for a
statue of a Bodhisattva, fo...
STUPA
• Stupas appeared in China with the import of
Buddhism and, during a long history of
well over a thousand years, hav...
LAMA TEMPLES
• Lama Temples are Buddhism temple
found in Tibet.
• It is where the seat of the Dalai Lama
is situated.
CONFUCIANISM
• Confucius (551-479 BC) established the
Confucian school of thought around 500
BC, during China's Spring and...
CONFUCIAN IDEOLOGY
• Confucian ideology was the core of feudal
China's hierarchical social system.
• Traditional courtyard...
TAOISM
• Taoism is a religion native to China.
Laozi, a famous thinker living in 6th
Century BC, established this philosop...
TEMPLE
• Taoist architecture applies two architectural
styles - traditional style and Ba-gua style.
• In the traditional s...
FUNERAL BUILDINGS
QIN LING TOMB
• The Mausoleum of the First Qin
Emperor. This mausoleum was
constructed over 38 years, from 246 to
208 BCE,...
IMPERIAL PALACE
FORBIDDEN CITY
• Situated in the heart of Beijing, the
Forbidden City is the world's largest
palace complex. It has lavish...
OTHER NOTABLE
STRUCTURES
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
The Great Wall of China is a series of
stone and earthen fortifications built by a
number of emperors ...
TEMPLE OF HEAVEN
Temple of Heaven is not a single building
but a complex located in the southern
end of central Beijing.
T...
SUMMER PALACE
Situated 13 Km northwest of central
Beijing, the Summer Palace is one of the
largest, best preserved, and mo...
CLASSIFICATION BY STRUCTURES
 Lou- Multistory Buildings
 Tai- Terraces
 Ting- Pavillions
 Ge- Multistory Pavillion
 T...
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HISTORY: Chinese Architecture 1.0

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History of Architecture 3
Report by: Faller
DLS-College of St. Benilde
School of Architecture
3rd Term S.Y. 2015-16
May 2016

Publicada em: Design
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HISTORY: Chinese Architecture 1.0

  1. 1. CHINESE ARCHITECTURE Nathan Faller HSTARC 3 DAR 1
  2. 2. CHINESE ARCHITECTURE  Styles of Chinese ancient architecture are rich and varied, such as temples, imperial palaces, altars, pavilions, official residencies and folk houses, which greatly reflect Chinese ancient thought - the harmonious unity of human beings with nature.  Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by conservative philosophies like Confucianism, Taoism etc. Over the centuries, the structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being on the decorative details.  Traditional Chinese buildings are always found in pairs or groups, whether they are residences, temples or palaces. Traditional Chinese architecture, unlike that of other cultures, uses wood-frame construction as one of its most distinctive features.
  3. 3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  4. 4. CHINESE DYNASTY TIMELINE
  5. 5. THE CHARACTER AND MEANING OF CLASSICAL CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
  6. 6. THE AXIAL CITY PLAN AND SITE PLAN • One of the great religious beliefs that influenced the design of the classical Chinese city and Chinese architecture is Confucianism. In order to create a stable social order, Confucianism established the strict doctrines putting the society in order with rules and filial piety.
  7. 7. THE MODULAR SYSTEM • One of the basic principles of classical Chinese buildings is the USE OF A MODULE, much like the modular concept of prefabrication in contemporary architecture. • Traditional Chinese carpenters used “JIAN” – a structured bay as a standard unit to construct all buildings. “Jian” was a rectangular space marked by adjacent structural frames. “Jian”, as the basic interior unit, can be expanded or repeated along the architectural plan axis to join together to create a hall, then a building. • Odd numbers of Jian are allowed. Even numbers are considered unlucky.
  8. 8. THE EXPOSED STRUCTURE • In ancient China, almost all of the main structures of classical Chinese architecture were made of wood. Thus, the art of traditional Chinese architecture may be seen as the aesthetic of wood.
  9. 9. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES DOUGONG  Bracket sets MUGUIJA  Timber Frames
  10. 10. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES TAIZI  Podium COURTYARD
  11. 11. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES WU’ DING  Roof 1) Renzi Xuan Shan 2) Renzi Yin Shan 3) Juan Peng 4) Lu Ding 5) Fudian 6) Xie Shan 7) Conical Cuan Jian 8) Pyramidial Cuan Jian 9) Renzi with Parapet Wall
  12. 12. METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION TAI-LIANG  Pillars and Beam CHUAN DUO  Pillar and Transverse Tie Beam
  13. 13. FENG SHUI Qi(气), the energy of the universe, is carried in the wind and retained within water. Both elements were used as a way of directing Qi Feng shui is not only a practice that is related to physical space, but also to the inhabitants of the space itself, as both are interconnected. The goal of feng shui guidelines is to locate and orient dwellings, possessions, land and landscaping, etc., so as to be attuned with the flow of qi.
  14. 14. YIN AND YANG • Fundamental to feng shui is the idea that yin and yang are the two basic principles underlying all matter and energy in the universe. These forces are opposites, but are not in opposition. Rather, they are complementary and need each other to exist and flourish. The constantly changing interactions of yin and yang give rise to the infinite variety of patterns in life. • Widely used in Taoism Architecture.
  15. 15. BAGUA The bagua (or pa kua) of the I Ching (Book of Changes) is an octagonal diagram used in feng shui analysis. Each direction on the octagon (north, northeast, etc.) is associated with certain significant aspects. When one maps the bagua onto a home, village, cemetery, etc., information about correct orientation and placement can allegedly be gleaned.
  16. 16. RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS
  17. 17. BUDDHISM • Buddhism was introduced to China from India around the first century AD, since the fourth century AD, it was widely spread and gradually became the most influential religion in China. • Because of varied introduction time and channel as well as regional, historic and social backgrounds, Buddhism in China is divided into three branches, namely Chinese Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism and Pali Buddhism.
  18. 18. PAGODA • Pagoda, symbol of Buddhism is often erected in temples. • Pagodas were made of stone, wood, colored glaze or metal. • Pagodas have an odd number of layers. Seven-layer and Nine-layer pagodas are commonly built. • The shape of cross-section is rectangular, eight-sided or even circular. • Initially, the pagoda served as the central axis alongside which rows of halls and monks' rooms spread out.Later, pagodas were built near the main palace hall. • Chinese pagodas, in short, are a significant part of the country's cultural heritage -with their beautiful shapes, bas-relief carvings, dougong brackets and upturned eaves.
  19. 19. GROTTOES • Grotto, another type of Buddhist architecture, is often chiseled into cliffs. In the 3rd century, Chinese Buddhists began to build grottoes and Xinjiang is the first area where grottoes were hewn. • Grottoes are decorated with painted sculptures, carvings and frescos. • Craftsmen revealed real life pictures and their understanding of society in these art works, which gave them great historical and cultural value. • The four famous grottoes in China are: Mogao Caves, Longmen Grottoes, Yungang Grottoes and Maiji Caves.
  20. 20. TEMPLE • Buddhist temples tend to be decorated in red or black, and there is a main hall for a statue of a Bodhisattva, followed by a smaller hall with statues of other Buddha's and deities. • Buddhist Temples are called Miao
  21. 21. STUPA • Stupas appeared in China with the import of Buddhism and, during a long history of well over a thousand years, have become a valued part of the national Buddhist art. • Stupa, a word from ancient Sanskrit meaning a square or round tomb or a 'soul shrine’. • The perfect proportions of the Buddha’s body corresponds to the design of religious monuments - STUPAS • Its architecture developed from the pre- Buddhist Indian grave-mound. • Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. • These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. • And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.
  22. 22. LAMA TEMPLES • Lama Temples are Buddhism temple found in Tibet. • It is where the seat of the Dalai Lama is situated.
  23. 23. CONFUCIANISM • Confucius (551-479 BC) established the Confucian school of thought around 500 BC, during China's Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC). • Confucianism became one of the pillars of Chinese culture, and was named China's official state ideology around 100 BC, during the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) by Emperor Han Wudi, who reigned from 140-87 BC.
  24. 24. CONFUCIAN IDEOLOGY • Confucian ideology was the core of feudal China's hierarchical social system. • Traditional courtyard residences drew strict distinctions between interior and exterior, superior and inferior, and male and female; internal affairs and external affairs, the honorable (master) and humble (maid) ranking. • The compounds were enclosed and isolated from the outside world, and serving as material expressions of Confucian ideology. • The chinese quadrangle buildings (known as “Si He Yuan") was highly influenced by Confucanism's rite.
  25. 25. TAOISM • Taoism is a religion native to China. Laozi, a famous thinker living in 6th Century BC, established this philosophy and came to be regarded as the father of Taoism. • It formed mainly during Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). Many Taoist ideas and thoughts are greatly reflected in Taoist architecture.
  26. 26. TEMPLE • Taoist architecture applies two architectural styles - traditional style and Ba-gua style. • In the traditional style, traditional architectural layout, which is symmetric, was applied. • The second is the Bagua style in which all structures surround the Danlu (stove to make pills of immortality) in the center according to Bagua's position request. • A Statue of Dragon and Lion guards the gates of a Taoist temple; • In the main hall, the four Heavenly Emperors in Taoism replace the Buddha trinity and four Heavenly Kings in Buddhism
  27. 27. FUNERAL BUILDINGS
  28. 28. QIN LING TOMB • The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor. This mausoleum was constructed over 38 years, from 246 to 208 BCE, and is situated underneath a 76-meter-tall tomb mound. • A terracotta army guards the complex.
  29. 29. IMPERIAL PALACE
  30. 30. FORBIDDEN CITY • Situated in the heart of Beijing, the Forbidden City is the world's largest palace complex. It has lavishly decorated ceremonial halls and royal palaces. All the gates, palace and other structures of the Forbidden City were arranged about the north-south central axis of old Beijing
  31. 31. OTHER NOTABLE STRUCTURES
  32. 32. GREAT WALL OF CHINA The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications built by a number of emperors to protect the northern borders against nomadic tribes.
  33. 33. TEMPLE OF HEAVEN Temple of Heaven is not a single building but a complex located in the southern end of central Beijing. The temple was used by the emperor to make offerings to the heaven and to prey for a good harvest.
  34. 34. SUMMER PALACE Situated 13 Km northwest of central Beijing, the Summer Palace is one of the largest, best preserved, and most interesting royal gardens in the world.
  35. 35. CLASSIFICATION BY STRUCTURES  Lou- Multistory Buildings  Tai- Terraces  Ting- Pavillions  Ge- Multistory Pavillion  Ta- Pagodas  Xuan- Verandas with Windows  Xie- Pavilions or Houses in Terraces  Wu- Rooms along roofed corridors  Gong- Palaces

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