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Biochips.

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Biochips definition, history, biochip technology and architecture, implant, working, application, advantages, disadvantages, future of biochips and conclusion.

Publicada em: Ciências
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Biochips.

  1. 1. Done By : Arbiya . IInd MSc Biotechnology.
  2. 2. OVERVIEW DEFINITION HISTORY BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY BIOCHIP ARCHITECTURE IMPLANT WORKING APPLICATION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES FUTURE OF BIOCHIPS CONCLUSION
  3. 3. DEFINITION • Biochip is a hypothetical computer logic circuit or storage device in which the physical or chemical properties of large biological molecules (as proteins) are used to process information. • Biochip's surface area is no larger than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds.
  4. 4. HISTORY  The development of biochips has long history starting with early work on the underlying sensor technology.  Large- scale development of the biochips was done in 1990s.  A glucose sensor was developed in 1962 by Clark and colleague Lyons which utilized glucose oxidase molecules embedded in a dialysis membrane.  Developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries.
  5. 5. THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY  The biochip system is Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system.  The multiple technologies needed to make a successful biochip —  Sensing chemistry: to sense the biologial processes.  Microarraying: the dense, two-dimensional grid of biosensors deposited on a flat substrate, which may either be passive (e.g. silicon or glass) or active.
  6. 6.  Signal processing: Transduction must be done to translate the actual sensing event into a format understandable by a computer, which then enables additional analysis and processing to produce a final, human-readable output.
  7. 7. BIOCHIP ARCHITECTURE  SIZE: The size of biochips is the size of an uncooked rice. It ranges from 2 inches to 12 inches.
  8. 8. BIOCHIP COMPONENTS: The major parts of biochips are : Transponder. Reader.
  9. 9. TRANSPONDER :  It is the actual biochip implant . Also called as Passive transponder or Active transponder.  The transponder consists of four parts :  1. Computer microchip- It stores a unique 10 to 15 digits long identification number , encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly.
  10. 10. 2. Antenna coil- simple, coil of copper wire or iron core. It receives and sends signals from the reader. 3. Tuning Capacitor - stores the small electrical charge sent by the reader which activates the transponder to send back the ID number encoded. Capacitor is tuned to the same radio frequency as the reader to establish communication between the two. 4. Glass Capsule- houses the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. A small capsule measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter. Made up of soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is air tight sealed.
  11. 11. READER - It consists of an "exciter" coil which creates an electromagnetic field via radio signals and it provides the necessary energy to activate the implanted biochip.The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the ID number sent back from the activated implanted biochip. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result.
  12. 12. The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple,comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor recommended. IMPLANT:
  13. 13. WORKING OF BIOCHIPS Reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format and displays it on LCD Biochip sends ID code back to the reader via radio signals. Implanted biochip gets activated The reader generates a low-power electromagnetic field via radio signals
  14. 14. APPLICATIONS : With a biochip, tracing of a person/animal anywhere in the world is possible A biochip can store and update financial, medical,demographic data, basically everything about a person. Biochips really are potent in replacing passports, cash and medical records. They can perform thousands of biological reactions and operations in few seconds.
  15. 15. MEDICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOCHIPS. Biochip as Glucose Detector: The Biochip can be integrated with a glucose detector. The chip will allow diabetics to easily monitor the level of the sugar glucose in their blood. Diabetics currently use a skin prick and a hand-held blood test, and then medicate themselves with insulin depending on the result. The system is simple and works well, but the need to draw blood means that most diabetics don't test themselves as often as they should. Although they may get away with this in the short term, in later life those who monitored infrequently suffer from blindness, loss of circulation, and other complications. The solution is more frequent testing, using a less invasive method. The biochip will sit underneath the skin, sense the glucose level, and send the result back out by radio-frequency communication.
  16. 16. Biochip as an oxygen sensor :  The biochip can also be integrated with an oxygen sensor. The oxygen sensor will be useful to monitor the breathing rate.  It can also to check that packages of food, or containers of semiconductors stored under nitrogen gas.
  17. 17. Biochip as a blood pressure sensor:  In normal situations, The Blood Pressure of a healthy Human being is 120/80 mm of Hg. A Pressure ratio lower than this is said to be “Low BP “ condition & A Pressure ratio more than this is “High BP” condition. Serious Effects will be reflected in humans during Low & High BP conditions; it may sometimes cause the death of a person.  Sensors are available to detect the flow of fluid. It’s always possible to embed this type of sensors into a biochip.  Blood flow detecting circuits with the Biochip can make the chip to continuously monitor the blood flow rate & when the pressure is in its low or high extremes it can be immediately informed through the reader hence to take up remedial measures.
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES TO RESCUE THE SICK. TO IDENTIFY PERSON UNIQUELY. IN MONITORING HEALTH CONDITION OF INDIVIDUALS IN WHICH THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY EMPLOYED. THEY CAN PERFORM THOUSANDS OF BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS,OPERATIONS IN FEW SECONDS.
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES THEY RAISE CRITICAL ISSUES OF PERSONAL PRIVACY. THEY MARK THE END OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND DIGNITY. THEY MAY NOT BE SUPPORTED BY LARGE PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE. THERE IS A DANGER OF TURNING EVERY MAN,WOMEN AND CHILD INTO A CONTROLLED SLAVE. THEY CAN BE IMPLANTED INTO ONES BODY WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE.
  20. 20. If people feel that they loose their privacy because of Biochips, they may resist use of it. But if they feel that it could help in a lot of ways like detecting , monitoring and curing of diseases they can use them intensively. So it is users of chip who determine its future . FUTURE OF BIOCHIPS
  21. 21. CONCLUSION: Biochips are fast, accurate, miniaturized and can be expected to become economically advantageous attributes that make them analogous to a computer chip. Since the potential applications are vast, both for research and clinical use, the potential markets for biochips will be huge, a powerful driving force for their continued development.
  22. 22. REFERENCES: http://www.scribd.com http://www.authorstream.com http://www.slideshare.net www.wikipedia.org

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