2. What is a Research ??
• To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge
and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated
• Research is also defined as a systematic inquiry that investigates
hypotheses, suggests new interpretations of data or texts, and poses new
questions for future research to explore.
Hypothesis:- is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of
argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.
Architectural Research- It is development/extension /innovation of
Architectural practices and interested in generally recognized practices,
subjects and themes of architecture.
3. Research Approaches
Approach Description Detail
Deductive Specific, Belief based on a general
Starts with generalization and moves
Inductive General belief from many singular cases Starts with observation and moves
Researchers taking a deductive approach take the
steps described earlier for inductive research and
reverse their order. They start with a social theory
that they find compelling and then test its
implications with data. That is, they move from a
more general level to a more specific one. A
deductive approach to research is the one that
people typically associate with scientific
investigation. The researcher studies what others
have done, reads existing theories of whatever
phenomenon one is studying, and then tests
hypotheses that emerge from those theories
In an inductive approach to research, a researcher begins by
collecting data that is relevant to his/her topic of interest. Once
a substantial amount of data have been collected, the
researcher will then take a breather from data collection,
stepping back to get a bird’s eye view of their data. At this
stage, the researcher looks for patterns in the data, working to
develop a theory that could explain those patterns. Thus, when
researchers take an inductive approach, they start with a set of
observations and then they move from those particular
experiences to a more general set of propositions about those
experiences. In other words, they move from data to theory, or
from the specific to the general.
4. Types of Research from the view point of
Types of Information
Types of Research
5. Types of Research- Based on application
1. Pure/Basic Research- Basic research is also known as fundamental or pure research
since it is mainly concerned with the improvement of scientific knowledge. The
purpose of basic research is simply to gather more information to further understand
existing phenomena. Its focus is on supporting as well as challenging assumptions
which aim to explain various phenomena. Pure research looks at the “big picture” in
the sense that it looks for overall factors and related postulates. Hence, fundamental
research is purely theoretical as it delves into basic laws and principles.
2. Applied Research- The purpose of applied research is to know more about a certain
real-world problem and take steps to solve it. It focuses on the application of natural
science principles on practical difficulties as well as enhancing innovations. Many
applied researchers utilize the naturalistic observation method to verify existing social
difficulties and then conduct experiments to ascertain solutions.
6. Types of Research- Based on Objectives
1.Exploratory: As the name suggests, exploratory research is conducted to explore
a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a final conclusion
to the perceived problem. It is conducted to handle new problem areas which
haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for
more conclusive research and data collection.
2.Descriptive: Descriptive research focuses on expanding knowledge on current
issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive studies are used to
describe the behavior of a sample population. In a descriptive study, only one
variable is required to conduct the study. The three main purposes of descriptive
research are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
3.Explanatory: Explanatory research or causal research is conducted to understand
the impact of certain changes in existing standard procedures. Conducting
experiments is the most popular form of casual research.
7. Types of Research - Based on Information Sought
Quantitative Vs Qualitative
Quantitative data are used when a researcher is trying
to quantify a problem, or address the "what" or "how
many" aspects of a research question. It is data that can
either be counted or compared on a numeric scale.
Qualitative data describes qualities or characteristics. It
is collected using questionnaires, interviews, or
observation, and frequently appears in narrative form.
For example, it could be notes taken during a focus group
on the quality of the food at Cafe Mac, or responses from
an open-ended questionnaire. Qualitative data may be
difficult to precisely measure and analyze. The data may
be in the form of descriptive words that can be examined
for patterns or meaning
8. Research Methodology- 4 Phases
Researches and outcomes)
ensure that the topic is
manageable and that
material is available.
Points to be considered
•Choose a topic that you are interested in! The research process is
more relevant if you care about your topic.
•Narrow your topic to something manageable.
• If your topic is too broad, you will find too much
information and not be able to focus.
• Background reading can help you choose and limit the
scope of your topic.
•Talk about research ideas with a friend. She/he may be able to
help focus your topic by discussing issues that didn't occur to you
•Think of the who, what, when, where and why questions:
• WHY did you choose the topic? What interests you about
it? Do you have an opinion about the issues involved?
• WHO are the information providers on this topic? Who is
affected by the topic?
•WHAT are the major questions for this topic? Is there a debate
about the topic? Are there a range of issues and viewpoints to
•WHERE is your topic important: at the local, national or
international level? Are there specific places affected by the topic?
•WHEN is/was your topic important? Is it a current event or an
historical issue? Do you want to compare your topic by time
Formulation of Aim
Research Questions: Once you have selected a topic, the
next step is to develop research questions.
•Write down what you already know or don't know about
•Use that information to develop questions.
• Use probing questions. (why? What? if?)
• Avoid "yes" and "no" questions.
Hypothesis of Study
Hypothesis is statement which is to be tested for possible
acceptance or rejection. Hypothesis are of two types i.e. Null
and Alternative. Null hypothesis is tested for possible
rejection, whereas alternative hypothesis is tested for
11. AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Aim = what you hope to achieve.
Objective = the action(s) you will take in order to achieve
Aims are statements of intent. They are usually written in
broad terms. They set out what you hope to achieve at the
end of the project.
Objectives, on the other hand, should be specific
statements that define measurable outcomes, e.g. what
steps will be taken to achieve the desired outcome.
When writing your objectives try to use strong positive
Objectives should also be S.M.A.R.T. - which means
they should be:
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The scope of a study explains the extent to which
the research area will be explored in the work and
specifies the parameters within the study will be
operating. Basically, this means that you will have to
define what the study is going to cover and what it is
You cannot spend indefinite time, cover all possible
details related with a topic, or use all the expensive
and fancy equipment you might like for your research.
And nobody expects you to. The research project will
have to be limited in several ways. For example,
temporally, geographically, technologically or
topically/theoretically. The reader will of course
assume that you are aware of your limitations and
proceed to a sound research, given these. Therefore,
the limitations section is, where you inform about the
conscious choices you have made concerning limiting
the study to a manageable size, given the options
open to you.
12. Research Proposal/Synopsis
A research synopsis is a short outline that gives you and your supervisor a clear view of
what the research aims at achieving and within what time frame. It also helps you stay
focused. This explains why your synopsis should be approached with clarity, systematically
with unambiguous sentences.
It is often required that the researcher work out a research proposal before setting out on
the study, detailing what he seeks to study, why, how the study is to be conducted and
reported, as well as the significance of the study. The minimum ingredients of such a
proposal comprise the following:
• Background and Introduction
• Study Objectives, Research questions and Hypotheses: One of these could be adequate,
although nothing stops a researcher from listing the three. Essentially a statement of
objective can also be turned into a research question and an hypothesis.
• Proposed Methodology: Should include, as appropriate, sampling methods, data
collection methods, and data analysis methods.
• Scope (in time and space as appropriate) and Limitations of/to the study
• Significance/Need of Study
• Plan of Study: A summary of how the study will be reported in terms of chapters,
13. 1. Introduction
• Give Background information e.g. prevalence, statistics etc.
• List down conceptual Definitions of the Constructs Under study
• Provide brief overview of theories / Models linking the topic to the
available body of knowledge
• List down the theoretical frame work you will base your research
14. 2. Need/Significance / Rational of the Study
• It refers to justification, importance, and vital contribution of the
findings of the study / research and its likely benefits.
• Why is it worth doing?
• While the particular topic and its context will determine a study’s
significance and contribution of a study in terms of: adding to the
existing knowledge in the area; policy considerations; implications for
Justification - It is important to provide justification for undertaking the proposed research, perhaps in the light
of previous work done. It should be possible in most cases to predict the specific and general benefits likely to
be achieved as a result of completion of the proposed research.
15. In collecting the Data the Researcher must consider:-
1. Sources available
Essentially two types-
1. Primary Data- Primary data are collected for the first time and are original in
2. Secondary Data- Data which have already been collected by someone else.
Data collection will be explained further in the next lecture
Research Methodology- Phase-2- Data Collection