NATURE & DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDE
TYPES OF ATTITUDE
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE
MEASUREEMNT OF ATTITUDE
3. THE NATURE AND DIMENSIONS
The attitude is the evaluative statements or
judgments concerning objects, people, or
events. More precisely attitudes can be defined as
a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a
particular way toward some object which may
include events or individuals as well.
Characteristics of Attitudes
They tend to persist unless something is done to
They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very
favorable to very unfavorable.
They are directed toward some object about which a
person has feelings and beliefs.
4. TYPES OF ATTITUDES
A collection of positive and or negative feelings that an individual holds
toward his or her job.
Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering
performance important to self-worth.
Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to
maintain membership in the organization.
6. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
Attitudes structure can be described in terms
of three components.
Affective component: this involves a person’s
feelings / emotions about the attitude object. For
example: “I am scared of spiders”.
Behavioral (or cognitive) component: the way the
attitude we have influences how we act or behave.
For example: “I will avoid spiders and scream if I
Cognitive component: this involves a person’s
belief / knowledge about an attitude object. For
example: “I believe spiders are dangerous”.
7. This model is known as the ABC model of attitudes. The
three components are usually linked. However, there is
evidence that the cognitive and affective components of
behavior do not always match with behavior.
They evaluative statements in an attitude are either
favorable or unfavorable. They reflect how one feel
A person can have thousands of attitudes. But OB
focuses on a limited number of job-related attitudes.
These include job satisfaction
job involvement (the degree to which person identifies
with his or her job and actively participates in it)
And organizational commitment (an indicator of
loyalty to, and, identification with the organization).
8. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
How attitudes are formed? How do you develop your attitude? Essentially
attitudes are the outward manifestation of your inner values and beliefs.
These develop over time. As you grow you watch the significant people around
you behaving in a particular way; you are being told to cherish certain things over
others and you learn from your teachers and peers and come to value certain
thins over other, thus forming your value system. These in turn give rise to
development of your attitudes.
9. Attitudes help predict work behavior. The following example might help
to illustrate it. After introducing a particular policy, it is found from an
attitude survey, that the workers are not too happy about it. During the
subsequent week it is found that the attendance of the employees drops
sharply from the previous standard. Here management may conclude
that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased
Attitudes help people to adapt to their work environment. An
understanding of attitudes is also important because attitudes help the
employees to get adjusted to their work. If the management can
successfully develop a- positive attitude among the employees, they will
be better adjusted to their work.
10. PROCESS OF FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
A) Social Learning: it is acquiring attitudes from others. There are
broadly three processes of acquiring attitudes through social
learning: Classical Conditioning, instrumental Conditioning, and
Classical Conditioning is a basic form of learning in which one
stimulus regularly precedes another. It is learning based of
association, that when first stimulus is represent, the second would
follow. Prejudices and preferences are created through classical
conditioning. Classical Conditioning can play a role in the
development of attitudes.
Instrumental Conditioning is concerned with learning to express the
“right” views. Instrumental Conditioning is created through
rewarding a desirable behavior and discouraging an undesirable
behavior. Thus a particular type of attitude is created towards a
particular type of action through Instrumental Conditioning.
11. Modeling as a concept deals with individuals acquiring new behaviors
through observing the actions of others. Individuals tend to do what
others do, not what others say. Thus attitudes may be transmitted from
one person to other or from one group to other, or from one generation to
B) Direct Experience: Attitudes are also formed through real life
experience, which may be also called as direct experience or personal
experience. Various studies suggest that strength of the attitudes
acquired through direct experience is stronger than the strength of
attitudes acquired indirectly. Attitudes acquired through direct experience
are held more confidently and are more difficult to be subjected to
change. If you hold strong attitude about an object, issue, or a person,
and you want others to properly understand your stand, it is better to let
others have direct experience with the attitude object.
12. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE
According to Katz, attitudes serve four important functions from the
viewpoint of organizational behavior. These are as follows.
The Adjustment Function. Attitudes often help people to adjust to their
work environment. Well-treated employees tend to develop a positive
attitude towards their job, management and the organization in general
while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a
negative attitude. In other words, attitudes help employees adjust to
their environment and form a basis for future behavior.
Ego-Defensive Function. Attitudes help people to retain their dignity
and self- image. When a young faculty member who is full of fresh
ideas and enthusiasm, joins the organization, the older members might
feel somewhat threatened by him. But they tend to disapprove his
creative ideas as ‘crazy’ and ‘impractical’ and dismiss him altogether.
13. The Value-Expressive Function. Attitudes
provide individuals with a basis for expressing
their values. For example, a manager who
values hard and sincere work will be more
vocal against an employee who is having a
very casual approach towards work.
The Knowledge Function. Attitudes provide
standards and frames of reference that allow
people to understand, and perceive the world
around him. If one has a strong negative
attitude towards the management, whatever
the management does, even employee welfare
programmes can be perceived as something
‘bad’ and as actually against them.
14. Measurement Of Attitude
A) LIKERT’S METHOD
It uses 5 parameters.
These points show the degree of agreement or
It is considered better than Thurstone’s method.
It is also called as summated rating scale.
15. THURSTSONE’S TECHNIQUE OF SCALING
Developed by THURSTSONE & CHAVE.
This technique was based on 11 statements.
Most favorable statement was put under pile-1
while the most unfavorable under pile-11.
The scale is shown to the respondent.
His attitude score is then calculated on the
average of what he has checked.
Attitudes have traditionally been described as a process in
which we logically calculate our feelings toward the attitude
object based on an analysis of our beliefs. Thus, beliefs
predict feelings, which predict behavioral intentions, which
predict behavior. But this traditional perspective overlooks
the role of emotions, which have an important influence on
attitudes and behavior
Behavior sometimes influences our subsequent attitudes
through cognitive dissonance. People also have personality
traits which affect their emotions and attitudes.
Attitudes Influence on Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved from boundless
- Better than your assigned text books:
Luthans, F. (2008). Organizational Behavior. Mc Graw Hill
ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR – ATTITUDE. (n.d.). Retrieved from
What Are Attitudes? (n.d.). Retrieved from Pearson Education :
18. WORKPLACE EMOTIONS. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.ftms.edu. (n.d.). Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction.
Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction:
McLeod, S. A. (2009). Attitudes and Behavior - Simply Psychology.
Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/attitudes.html
Hogg, M., & Vaughan, G. (2005). Social Psychology (4th edition).
London: Prentice-Hall .