The Human Reproductive System
Presented by Group 1
Patrice Torbeles Balod
Rodin Mae Saldasal
- Can be either sexual or asexual
- is seen in small microorganisms usually such as bacterias.
- no reproductive organs were involved.
- involves mitosis and offsprings are identical to their parents.
- is exclusive to larger living things such as mammals and reptiles.
- involves different reproductive organs for an offspring to exist.
- involves meiosis wherein the offspring would have qualities of parents but not
identical to them.
The Human Reproductive System
- The male and female reproductive systems are responsible for sexual
- The purpose of the male and female reproductive
systems is to continue the human species by the production
- Human reproduction happens because of the union of the egg and sperm
cells (individually called gametes) that happens through sexual intercourse,
which then would lead to fertilization and the formation of the zygote.
Let us now proceed to the organs that compose the male and female
Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
- Deals with the process of how the gametes are formed. (Gametogenesis)
Spermatogenesis - located in the testes (exclusive for males), the production
Oogenesis - located in the ovaries (exclusive for females), the production of
ovum or egg cells.
PROCESSES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- The term menstrual cycle technically refers to the cyclic
changes in sexually mature, nonpregnant females that begin
with menses. Typically, the menstrual cycle is about 28 days
long, although it can be as short as 18 days in some women and
as long as 40 days in others
Menses - is a period of mild hemorrhage that occurs
approximately once each month, during which the functional
layer of the endometrium is sloughed and expelled from the
Menstruation - is the discharge of the blood and
other elements of the endometrium
The time between the ending of menses and ovulation is called
the proliferative phase, because of the rapid proliferation of
the uterine mucosa, or the follicular phase, because of the rapid
development of ovarian follicles. The period after ovulation and
before the next menses is called the secretory phase, because of
the maturation of and secretion by uterine glands, or the luteal
phase, because of the existence of the corpus luteum.
(see image, second to the last stage of the ovarian cycle)
- Contrary to childbirth and the menstrual
cycle, male ejaculation is exclusive to males
only. A different process happens for females.
- Happens when the muscles on the base of
the penis extend and contract, this then would
lead for the semen to exit the male
reproductive system through the urethra and
outside the human body.
- It is an essential part of human reproduction.
- happens when the egg cell and
sperm cells meet in the fallopian
tube that will then turn into a
zygote, the zygote would then
mature and make its way to the
wall of the uterus.
After the process, if it survives,
the zygote would then develop
into an embryo and then a fetus.
COMMON Diseases of the reproductive system
- Also called Impotence, Is a common type of male
sexual dysfunction. It is when a man has trouble
getting or keeping an erection.
-ED can be a sign of health problems. It may mean
your blood vessels are clogged. It may mean you
have nerve damage from diabetes. If you don't see
your doctor, these problems will go untreated.
-For many men, the answer is as simple as taking a
pill (ex. Viagra). Getting more exercise, losing
weight, or stopping smoking may also help.
-is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your
genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone
who has it. The virus can spread even when sores are not present. Mothers can also infect their babies during
- Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near the area where the virus has entered the
body. The sores are blisters that break and become painful and then heal. Sometimes people do not know they
have herpes because they have no symptoms or very mild symptom
- There are tests that can diagnose genital herpes. There is no cure. However, medicines can help lessen
symptoms, decrease outbreaks, and lower the risk of passing the virus to others. Correct usage of latex condoms
can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading herpes.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections (STDs/STIs)
-is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect
both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the
urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat. You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone
who has the infection. A woman can also pass chlamydia to her baby during childbirth.
If you've had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can get re-infected if you have unprotected sex with
someone who has it. Chlamydia is more common in young people, especially young women. You are more likely to
get it if you don't consistently use a condom, or if you have multiple partners.
There are tests that can diagnose Chlamydia.
Antibiotics will cure the infection. You may get a one-time dose of the antibiotics, or you may need to take
medicine every day for 7 days. Antibiotics cannot repair any permanent damage that the disease has caused.
Abnormal vaginal discharge,
which may have a strong smell
A burning sensation when
Pain during intercourse, If the
infection spreads, you might get
lower abdominal pain, pain during
sex, nausea, or fever.
Symptoms in women include:
Discharge from your penis
A burning sensation when
Burning or itching around the
opening of your penis
Pain and swelling in one or both
testicles (although this is less
Symptoms in men include:
-is a sexually transmitted disease. It is most common in young adults. The bacteria that cause gonorrhea can infect
the genital tract, mouth, or anus. You can get gonorrhea during vaginal, oral, or anal sex with an infected partner.
A pregnant woman can pass it to her baby during childbirth.
- It does not always cause symptoms. In men, gonorrhea can cause pain when urinating and discharge from the
penis. If untreated, it can cause problems with the prostate and testicles. In women, the early symptoms of
gonorrhea often are mild. Later, it can cause bleeding between periods, pain when urinating, and increased
discharge from the vagina. If untreated, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which causes problems with
pregnancy and infertility.
Your health care provider will diagnose gonorrhea with lab tests. Treatment is with antibiotics. The most reliable
way to avoid infection is to not have anal, vaginal, or oral sex.
Through unprotected sex with a person with HIV. This is the most common way that it spreads.
By sharing drug needles
Through contact with the blood of a person with HIV
From mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
People who have another sexually transmitted disease (STD). Having an STD can increase your risk of getting
or spreading HIV.
People who inject drugs with shared needles
• Gay and bisexual men, especially those who are Black/African American or Hispanic/Latino American
People who engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as not using condoms
What is HIV?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood
cell that helps your body fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers.
What is AIDS?
AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. It happens when
the body's immune system is badly damaged because of the virus. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS.
HIV can spread in different ways:
Who is at risk for HIV infection?
Anyone can get HIV, but certain groups have a higher risk of getting it:
Swollen lymph nodes
What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?
The first signs of HIV infection may be flu-like symptoms:
These symptoms may come and go within two to four weeks. This stage is called acute HIV infection.
If the infection is not treated, it becomes a chronic HIV infection. Often, there are no symptoms during this stage. If it is not
treated, eventually the virus will weaken your body's immune system. Then the infection will progress to AIDS. This is the late
stage of HIV infection. With AIDS, your immune system is badly damaged. You can get more and more severe infections. These
are known as opportunistic infections (OIs).
Some people may not feel sick during the earlier stages of HIV infection. So the only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to
get tested. A blood test can tell if you have an HIV infection. There is currently no cure for HIV infection, but it can be treated with
medicines. This is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART can make HIV infection a manageable chronic condition. It also reduces the
risk of spreading the virus to others. Most people with HIV live long and healthy lives if they get and stay on ART. It's also important to
take care of yourself. Making sure that you have the support you need, living a healthy lifestyle, and getting regular medical care can
help you enjoy a better quality of life.
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