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QS/OFF/16/001 Page 1
“Surveying is the art of and science of determining the relative positions of
various points or stations on the surface of the earth by measuring the
horizontal and vertical distances, angles, and taking the details of these points
and by preparing a map or plan to any suitable scale.”
An understanding of the Applications of surveying ensures that good value is obtained for the
successful of the projects. Traditionally Quantity Surveying is concerned with contracts and
costs on construction projects and quantity surveyors control construction costs by accurate
measurement of the work required. These methods, however, covers a range of activities which
may include value Surveying, management, tendering, valuation, change control, claims
management and cost estimation.
The quantity surveyor facilitates the design process by systematic application of cost criteria
specially they start the work with surveyors from the site visiting stage the quantity surveyor
must know the basic knowledge on application of surveying to work with them, The Quantity
surveyor has traditional independent role in the team comprising client, surveyors, architect,
engineer and contractor combined with expertise in drafting and interpretation of contract
documents will avoid disputes and ensure the effective progress of a project.
Typical subject areas for the Quantity Surveying include Construction Project Management,
Surveying, Construction Engineering, and Construction Contracting Operations. The main
objective of this study is to provide information on a general overview of the quantity surveying
to achieve the best out put in the client’s specifications. With the support of the application of
QS/OFF/16/001 Page 2
The information referenced in this thesis, has been taken from different books, thesis, published
papers and conferences. The chosen theories and are selected as the most important ones for the
subject. The report area was within the Application of surveying and focus will be on the role,
work processes and experience of land surveyors.
There were some limitations with this study. The report that is done for this thesis is limited on
the basic application of surveying. Furthermore, the study is dependent on the class room lecture
and some books.
To achieve the scope the following objectives were discussed in my report:
i. The purposes of surveying.
ii. Uses of surveying.
iii. Identify and discussion of the divisions of surveying.
iv. Discuss the classifications of surveying based on
(i) Instruments used
(ii) Objective of survey.
(iii) Methods employed.
v. Application of surveying in the navigations purpose.
QS/OFF/16/001 Page 3
The purpose of surveying
According to the statement of the surveyors first I identify the objective of the surveying that
mentions, surveying are to prepare a map or plan to show the relative positions of the objects on
the surface of the earth. The map or plan is drawn to some suitable scale. It also shows
boundaries of districts, states, and countries too. It also includes details of different engineering
features such as buildings, roads, railways, dams, canals etc.
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The surveying may be used for following purposes
To prepare a topographical map which shows hills, valleys, rivers, forests, villages, towns
To prepare a cadastral map which shows the boundaries of fields, plots, houses and other
To prepare an engineering map which shows the position of engineering works such as
buildings, roads, railways, dams, canals.
To prepare a contour map to know the topography of the area to find out the best possible
site for roads, railways, bridges, reservoirs, canals, etc.
Surveying is also used to prepare military map, geological map, archaeological map etc.
For setting out work and transferring details from the map on the ground.
Setting out work
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In this both surface and subsurface surveying are conducted to locate different minerals and
rocks. In addition, geological features of the terrain such as folds and faults are located.
Mine Survey includes include both surface and underground surveys. It is conducted for the
exploration of mineral deposits and to guide tunneling and other operations associated with
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It is conducted to locate relics of antiquity, civilization, kingdoms, forts, temples, etc
It has very important and critical applications in the military. Aerial surveys are conducted for
this purpose. It is conducted to locate strategic positions for the purpose of army operations
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Classification based on Nature of field
Land Survey is done on land to prepare plan and maps of a given area. Topographical, city and
cadastral surveys are some of the examples of land surveying
This survey is conducted on or near the body of water such as lake, river, coastal area. This
Survey consists of locating shore lines of water bodies.
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This survey is conducted for the determining of latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time, etc.
for various places on earth by observing heavenly bodies ( sun or the stars).
An aerial survey is conducted from aircraft. Aerial cameras take photographs of the surface of
the earth in overlapping strips of land. This is also known as photographic survey.
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Primary Divisions of Surveying
To achieve the above purposes surveying is divided in to divisions. We know that the shape of
the earth is spheroidal. Thus the surface is obviously curved. Surveying is primarily divided into
two types considering the curvature of the earth’s surface
The plain surveying normally for small projects covering Area less than 200 sq.km. Earth
curvature is not counted for in distances. Earth surface is considered as plane. (Angular error of
1” in 200 sq. km. area by assuming plane).In such surveying a line joining any two stations is
considered to be straight. The triangle formed by any three points is considered as a plane
triangle, and the angles of the triangle are considered as plain angles. It is carried out by local or
state agencies like R & B department, Irrigation department, and Railway department.
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When survey extends over a large areas more than 200 sq. km. and degree of accuracy is also
great. The curvature of earth is also taken into account. Geodetic survey is used to provide
control points to which small surveys can be connected. The geodetic Surveying is that type of
surveying in which the curvature of the earth is taken into account. It is generally extended over
larger areas. The line joining any two stations is considered as curved line. The triangle formed
by any three points is considered to be spherical and the angles of the triangle are considered to
be spherical angles.
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Analyze the difference between geodetic surveying and plane surveying
No Plain Surveying Geodetic Surveying
1 The earth surface is considered as plain
The earth surface is considered as Curved
2. The Curvature of the earth is ignored The curvature of earth is taken into account.
3 Line joining any two stations is considered
to be straight
The line joining any two stations is
considered as spherical.
4. The triangle formed by any three points is
considered as plain
The Triangle formed by any three points is
considered as spherical.
5. The angles of triangle are considered as
The angles of the triangle are considered as
6. Carried out for a small area < 250 km
Carried out for a small area > 250 km
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Classification of surveying
In surveying to gain the perfect results in application of surveying it can be classified into
various categories depending on methods used and nature of the field.
Classification Based on instrument
This is the simplest type of surveying in which only linear measurements are made with a chain
or a tape. Angular measurements are not taken.
In Compass Survey, the angles are measured with the help of a magnetic compass.
Chain and compass survey
In this survey linear measurements are made with a chain or a tape and angular measurements
with a compass.
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Plane Table Surveying
It is a graphical method of surveying in which field works and plotting both are done
In theodolite survey the horizontal angles are measured with the theodolite more precisely than
compass and the linear measurements are made with a chain or tape.
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A special type of theodolite known as tachometer is used to determine horizontal and vertical
This type of survey is used to determine the vertical distances (elevations) and relative heights of
points with the help of an instrument known as level
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Photogrammetry is the science of taking measurements with the help of photographs taken by
aerial camera from the air craft.
In this type of survey all measurements ( length, angles, co-ordinates) are made with the help of
EDM instrument ( i.e.. Total Station).
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Triangulation is basic method of surveying, when the area to be surveyed is large, triangulation
is adopted. The entire area is divided into network of triangles.
A Traversing is circuit of survey lines. It may be open or closed. When the linear measurements
are done with a chain and a tape and the directions or horizontal angles are measured with a
compass or a theodolite respectively the survey is called traversing
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Objective of surveying
One of the basic objectives of surveying is to prepare plans and maps.
A plan is the graphical representation to some scale, of the features on, near or below the surface
of the earth as projected on a horizontal plane. The horizontal plane is represented by plane of
drawing sheets on which the plan is drawn to some scale However the surface of the earth is
curved it cannot be truly represented on a plane without distortion. In plane surveying the area
involved are small, the earth’s surface may be considered as plane and hence plan is constructed
by orthographic projections. A plan is drawn on a relatively large scale.
If the scale of the graphical projection on a horizontal plane is small, the plan is called a map.
Thus graphical representation is called a plan if the scale is large while it is called a map if the
scale is small.
On plan, generally only horizontal distances and directions or angles are shown. On
topographical map, however the vertical distances (elevations) are also represented by contour
QS/OFF/16/001 Page 18
Application of surveying in the navigations purpose
Navigation systems, also known as Global Positioning Systems (GPS), allow individuals to more
easily navigate from geographical point to point. Navigational systems come in a variety of
forms, from personal portable devices to integrated automotive systems.
The original GPS navigational system was designed for the military, according to the RAND
Corporation. The military used a system of satellites in order to navigate and locate positions.
Consumer use now outnumbers military use by a 3-to-1 ratio, reports RAND.
The most frequent use of navigational systems today is personal navigation. Navigational
systems can be mounted in a car, used as a hand held device or integrated into your smart phone.
It is as simple as entering an address or GPS coordinates and then following the directions to the
QS/OFF/16/001 Page 19
This study consists of the basic application of surveying which must quantity surveyors know to
perform his work effectively and efficiently. The quantity surveyors are working with Land
surveying we got know that it is basically an art and science of mapping and measuring land. The
entire scope of this study identified this profession is wide; it actually boils down to calculate
where the land boundaries are situated. This is very important as without this service, there
would not have been any type of construction such as well as railroads, skyscrapers could not
have been erected and neither any individual could have put fences around their yards for not
intruding others land. So this to understand the surveyors Jorgen we must know the basic
application of surveying.
QS/OFF/16/001 Page 20
2010. [bookauth.] N.N.Basak. Surveyingand Levelling. Tata Mcgraw Hill : s.n.,2010.
Surveying Vol- III & III. s.l. : Dr. B.C.PunamiaLaxmi Publication.
kulkarni, Kanetkar and. 2011. SurveyingandLevelling -Vol I.pune : Pune Vidhyarthi Griha,2011.
2012. surveying.[Online] june12,2012. [Cited:october10, 2016.]
QS/OFF/16/001 Page 21
This report contains of the basic application of surveying mainly I prepared this report according
to the book surveying and leveling other than that to get the further and advance knowledge in
the application of surveying I recommend the following books
Modern Surveying Techniques.
Surveying is basic to engineering.
Fundamental of Surveying.