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Application of surveying

Application of surveying in lfe

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Application of surveying

  1. 1. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 1 INTRODUCTION “Surveying is the art of and science of determining the relative positions of various points or stations on the surface of the earth by measuring the horizontal and vertical distances, angles, and taking the details of these points and by preparing a map or plan to any suitable scale.” Wikipedia, Background An understanding of the Applications of surveying ensures that good value is obtained for the successful of the projects. Traditionally Quantity Surveying is concerned with contracts and costs on construction projects and quantity surveyors control construction costs by accurate measurement of the work required. These methods, however, covers a range of activities which may include value Surveying, management, tendering, valuation, change control, claims management and cost estimation. The quantity surveyor facilitates the design process by systematic application of cost criteria specially they start the work with surveyors from the site visiting stage the quantity surveyor must know the basic knowledge on application of surveying to work with them, The Quantity surveyor has traditional independent role in the team comprising client, surveyors, architect, engineer and contractor combined with expertise in drafting and interpretation of contract documents will avoid disputes and ensure the effective progress of a project. Aim Typical subject areas for the Quantity Surveying include Construction Project Management, Surveying, Construction Engineering, and Construction Contracting Operations. The main objective of this study is to provide information on a general overview of the quantity surveying to achieve the best out put in the client’s specifications. With the support of the application of surveying.
  2. 2. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 2 Limitations The information referenced in this thesis, has been taken from different books, thesis, published papers and conferences. The chosen theories and are selected as the most important ones for the subject. The report area was within the Application of surveying and focus will be on the role, work processes and experience of land surveyors. There were some limitations with this study. The report that is done for this thesis is limited on the basic application of surveying. Furthermore, the study is dependent on the class room lecture and some books. The objectives To achieve the scope the following objectives were discussed in my report: i. The purposes of surveying. ii. Uses of surveying. iii. Identify and discussion of the divisions of surveying. iv. Discuss the classifications of surveying based on (i) Instruments used (ii) Objective of survey. (iii) Methods employed. v. Application of surveying in the navigations purpose.
  3. 3. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 3 FINDINGS The purpose of surveying According to the statement of the surveyors first I identify the objective of the surveying that mentions, surveying are to prepare a map or plan to show the relative positions of the objects on the surface of the earth. The map or plan is drawn to some suitable scale. It also shows boundaries of districts, states, and countries too. It also includes details of different engineering features such as buildings, roads, railways, dams, canals etc.
  4. 4. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 4 The surveying may be used for following purposes  To prepare a topographical map which shows hills, valleys, rivers, forests, villages, towns etc.  To prepare a cadastral map which shows the boundaries of fields, plots, houses and other properties.  To prepare an engineering map which shows the position of engineering works such as buildings, roads, railways, dams, canals.  To prepare a contour map to know the topography of the area to find out the best possible site for roads, railways, bridges, reservoirs, canals, etc.  Surveying is also used to prepare military map, geological map, archaeological map etc.  For setting out work and transferring details from the map on the ground. Topographical map Cadastral map Engineering map Contour map Setting out work Militarymap Usage of surveying
  5. 5. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 5 ClassificationbasedonPurpose Geological Survey: In this both surface and subsurface surveying are conducted to locate different minerals and rocks. In addition, geological features of the terrain such as folds and faults are located. Mine Survey Mine Survey includes include both surface and underground surveys. It is conducted for the exploration of mineral deposits and to guide tunneling and other operations associated with mining
  6. 6. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 6 Archaeological Survey It is conducted to locate relics of antiquity, civilization, kingdoms, forts, temples, etc Military Survey It has very important and critical applications in the military. Aerial surveys are conducted for this purpose. It is conducted to locate strategic positions for the purpose of army operations
  7. 7. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 7 Classification based on Nature of field Land Survey Land Survey is done on land to prepare plan and maps of a given area. Topographical, city and cadastral surveys are some of the examples of land surveying Hydrological Surveying This survey is conducted on or near the body of water such as lake, river, coastal area. This Survey consists of locating shore lines of water bodies.
  8. 8. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 8 Astronomical Survey This survey is conducted for the determining of latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time, etc. for various places on earth by observing heavenly bodies ( sun or the stars). Aerial Survey An aerial survey is conducted from aircraft. Aerial cameras take photographs of the surface of the earth in overlapping strips of land. This is also known as photographic survey.
  9. 9. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 9 Primary Divisions of Surveying To achieve the above purposes surveying is divided in to divisions. We know that the shape of the earth is spheroidal. Thus the surface is obviously curved. Surveying is primarily divided into two types considering the curvature of the earth’s surface  Plane Surveying  Geodetic Surveying Plane surveying The plain surveying normally for small projects covering Area less than 200 sq.km. Earth curvature is not counted for in distances. Earth surface is considered as plane. (Angular error of 1” in 200 sq. km. area by assuming plane).In such surveying a line joining any two stations is considered to be straight. The triangle formed by any three points is considered as a plane triangle, and the angles of the triangle are considered as plain angles. It is carried out by local or state agencies like R & B department, Irrigation department, and Railway department.
  10. 10. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 10 Geodetic Surveying When survey extends over a large areas more than 200 sq. km. and degree of accuracy is also great. The curvature of earth is also taken into account. Geodetic survey is used to provide control points to which small surveys can be connected. The geodetic Surveying is that type of surveying in which the curvature of the earth is taken into account. It is generally extended over larger areas. The line joining any two stations is considered as curved line. The triangle formed by any three points is considered to be spherical and the angles of the triangle are considered to be spherical angles.
  11. 11. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 11 Analyze the difference between geodetic surveying and plane surveying No Plain Surveying Geodetic Surveying 1 The earth surface is considered as plain Surface. The earth surface is considered as Curved Surface. 2. The Curvature of the earth is ignored The curvature of earth is taken into account. 3 Line joining any two stations is considered to be straight The line joining any two stations is considered as spherical. 4. The triangle formed by any three points is considered as plain The Triangle formed by any three points is considered as spherical. 5. The angles of triangle are considered as plain angles. The angles of the triangle are considered as spherical angles. 6. Carried out for a small area < 250 km 2 Carried out for a small area > 250 km 2
  12. 12. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 12 Classification of surveying In surveying to gain the perfect results in application of surveying it can be classified into various categories depending on methods used and nature of the field. Classification Based on instrument Chain Survey This is the simplest type of surveying in which only linear measurements are made with a chain or a tape. Angular measurements are not taken. Compass Survey In Compass Survey, the angles are measured with the help of a magnetic compass. Chain and compass survey In this survey linear measurements are made with a chain or a tape and angular measurements with a compass.
  13. 13. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 13 Plane Table Surveying It is a graphical method of surveying in which field works and plotting both are done simultaneously Theodolite Survey In theodolite survey the horizontal angles are measured with the theodolite more precisely than compass and the linear measurements are made with a chain or tape.
  14. 14. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 14 Tachometry Survey A special type of theodolite known as tachometer is used to determine horizontal and vertical distances indirectly Leveling Survey This type of survey is used to determine the vertical distances (elevations) and relative heights of points with the help of an instrument known as level
  15. 15. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 15 Photogrammetric Survey Photogrammetry is the science of taking measurements with the help of photographs taken by aerial camera from the air craft. EDM Survey In this type of survey all measurements ( length, angles, co-ordinates) are made with the help of EDM instrument ( i.e.. Total Station).
  16. 16. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 16 ClassificationBasedonmethods. Triangulation Triangulation is basic method of surveying, when the area to be surveyed is large, triangulation is adopted. The entire area is divided into network of triangles. Traversing A Traversing is circuit of survey lines. It may be open or closed. When the linear measurements are done with a chain and a tape and the directions or horizontal angles are measured with a compass or a theodolite respectively the survey is called traversing
  17. 17. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 17 Objective of surveying One of the basic objectives of surveying is to prepare plans and maps. Plan A plan is the graphical representation to some scale, of the features on, near or below the surface of the earth as projected on a horizontal plane. The horizontal plane is represented by plane of drawing sheets on which the plan is drawn to some scale However the surface of the earth is curved it cannot be truly represented on a plane without distortion. In plane surveying the area involved are small, the earth’s surface may be considered as plane and hence plan is constructed by orthographic projections. A plan is drawn on a relatively large scale. Map If the scale of the graphical projection on a horizontal plane is small, the plan is called a map. Thus graphical representation is called a plan if the scale is large while it is called a map if the scale is small. On plan, generally only horizontal distances and directions or angles are shown. On topographical map, however the vertical distances (elevations) are also represented by contour lines.
  18. 18. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 18 Application of surveying in the navigations purpose Navigation systems, also known as Global Positioning Systems (GPS), allow individuals to more easily navigate from geographical point to point. Navigational systems come in a variety of forms, from personal portable devices to integrated automotive systems. The original GPS navigational system was designed for the military, according to the RAND Corporation. The military used a system of satellites in order to navigate and locate positions. Consumer use now outnumbers military use by a 3-to-1 ratio, reports RAND. The most frequent use of navigational systems today is personal navigation. Navigational systems can be mounted in a car, used as a hand held device or integrated into your smart phone. It is as simple as entering an address or GPS coordinates and then following the directions to the specific destination.
  19. 19. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 19 CONCLUSIONS This study consists of the basic application of surveying which must quantity surveyors know to perform his work effectively and efficiently. The quantity surveyors are working with Land surveying we got know that it is basically an art and science of mapping and measuring land. The entire scope of this study identified this profession is wide; it actually boils down to calculate where the land boundaries are situated. This is very important as without this service, there would not have been any type of construction such as well as railroads, skyscrapers could not have been erected and neither any individual could have put fences around their yards for not intruding others land. So this to understand the surveyors Jorgen we must know the basic application of surveying.
  20. 20. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 20 REFERENCES Bibliography 2010. [bookauth.] N.N.Basak. Surveyingand Levelling. Tata Mcgraw Hill : s.n.,2010. Surveying Vol- III & III. s.l. : Dr. B.C.PunamiaLaxmi Publication. kulkarni, Kanetkar and. 2011. SurveyingandLevelling -Vol I.pune : Pune Vidhyarthi Griha,2011. 2012. surveying.[Online] june12,2012. [Cited:october10, 2016.] http://www.alifewithoutlimits.com.au/about-surveying/.
  21. 21. QS/OFF/16/001 Page 21 APPENDICES This report contains of the basic application of surveying mainly I prepared this report according to the book surveying and leveling other than that to get the further and advance knowledge in the application of surveying I recommend the following books  Modern Surveying Techniques.  Surveying.  Surveying is basic to engineering.  Fundamental of Surveying.