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Social Media: Kids & Teens

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Slides from a two-part talk I gave at the Institute of Living in Hartford, CT.

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Social Media: Kids & Teens

  1. 1. SOCIAL MEDIA: KIDS & TEENS ANNE OELDORF-HIRSCH ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT ANNEO@UCONN.EDU 2/1/17 1Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  2. 2. TOP SOCIAL MEDIA APPS 1.79 billion monthly active users 66% use it every day 600 million monthly active users 300 million daily active users 301 million monthly active users 150 million daily active users 317 million users 100 million daily active users 2/1/17 2Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://expandedramblings.com/index.php/resource-how-many-people-use-the-top-social-media/
  3. 3. •Go-to social networking site for connecting and sharing content •Most teens are still here, but not how they communicate with friends •Family in this space makes it more of a directory/way to contact someone • Context collapse (too much network overlap) 2/1/17 3Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  4. 4. •Photo sharing app (selfies!) •All about the “likes” •Photos are public by default • Privacy concerns • Harassment concerns 2/1/17 4Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  5. 5. •Photo-based chats with friends •For the photos that aren’t good enough for Instagram •Risky use can develop because photos “disappear” after 10 seconds (but don’t really disappear) • Sexting concerns 2/1/17 5Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  6. 6. •Microblogging site for real-time status updates •All tweets are public by default • But teens may “hide” here from family who are only on Facebook 2/1/17 6Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  7. 7. 2/1/17 7 SOCIAL MEDIA USED BY CHILDREN & TEENS • 88% teens 13-17 have access to a smartphone • Texting a primary mode of communication • 92% of teens report going online daily — including 24% who say they go online “almost constantly 2/1/17 7Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  8. 8. “RULES OF SOCIAL MEDIA” • Have lots of followers. • Have more followers than people you follow. • But don’t look like you’re trying to get followers by hashtagging too much, etc. • Don’t serial post. (“You only want to post one Instagram a day.”) • If you do post multiple things per day, they’d better be amazing. (“You can post multiple tweets a day, but they can’t be stupid or not interesting.”) • If you game the system, don’t get caught. (“She [my friend] probably has 20 fake accounts where she goes and likes her own pictures.”) • Remove photos that don’t get enough likes. • Be witty. (“Cute and clever captions are important. People judge you if they’re weird.”) • Time your posts for optimal like-getting. (“There’s a lot of social pressure to get likes, so you have to post it at the right time of day. You don’t want to post it during school when people don’t have their phone.”) • Facebook is for photos that weren’t good enough for Instagram. [Survey of 5,000 13-24 females, 2014] 2/1/17 8Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://time.com/3067694/weheartit-teen-girls-bullying-instagram/
  9. 9. KEY ISSUES WITH KIDS & TEENS USING SOCIAL MEDIA Content / Privacy / Control Cyberbullying Effects on mood, self-esteem, frienships, behavior 2/1/17 9Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  10. 10. CONTENT / PRIVACY / CONTROL •Privacy • Very important to teens • But very different notion of “privacy” than adults have • Social media are “private” places to get away from school, parents • Kids/teens may not be aware of or understand bigger privacy issues 2/1/17 10Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  11. 11. CONTENT / PRIVACY / CONTROL •Terms of Service: • On most sites children need to be 13 to be allowed on site • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) • But younger children often sign up regardless • E.g., ~50% of those under 13 use Facebook • Parents break privacy rules too • No one reads the terms of service 2/1/17 11Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  12. 12. PARENTS, TEENS AND DIGITAL MONITORING 2/1/17 12Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/01/07/parents-teens-and-digital-monitoring/
  13. 13. CONTENT / PRIVACY / CONTROL •What to do? • Understand Terms of Service and Privacy Policies for social media sites/apps • Terms of Service; Didn’t Read: tosdr.org/ • Summarizes major sites’ terms, highlights protections and risks 2/1/17 13Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  14. 14. CYBERBULLYING • When a child, preteen or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones. • It has to have a minor on both sides, or at least have been instigated by a minor against another minor. • Once adults become involved, it is plain and simple cyber- harassment or cyberstalking. • Adult cyber-harassment or cyberstalking is NEVER called cyberbullying. 2/1/17 14Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://stopcyberbullying.org/
  15. 15. CYBERBULLYING •Direct attacks • Messages sent to kids directly •Cyberbullying by proxy • Using others to bully the victim • Can be very technical, e.g., hacking into account to get user banned 2/1/17 15Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://stopcyberbullying.org/
  16. 16. CYBERBULLYING Survey of 5,000 13-24 females (2014) Cyberbullying happened to this many users: •Facebook: 66% •Twitter: 19% •Instagram: 9% 2/1/17 16Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://time.com/3067694/weheartit-teen-girls-bullying-instagram/
  17. 17. RESEARCH: CYBERBULLYING •Affordances of technology (e.g., lack of social-emotional cues) lead to moral disengagement1 •School/classroom structure plays an important role2,3 •Cyberbullying can be mutual3 2/1/17 17Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu 1Runions, et al., 2015; 2Festl, et al., 2015; 3Herman, et al., 2015; 4Wegge, et al., 2014
  18. 18. RESEARCH: CYBERVICTIMS •Only 33% of victims tell an adult1 •94% of cyberbully victims also targeted in at least some other form of bullying2 •Social networking site use3 and text messaging4 associated with increased risk of being cyberbullied 2/1/17 18Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu 1Kessel Schneider, et al., 2015; 2Beran, 2015; 3Sampasa-Kanyinga, et al., 2015; 4Rice, et al., 2015
  19. 19. RESEARCH: CYBERBULLIES • Cyberbullies: High popularity goals, low peer acceptance1 • Risk factors for being a cyberbully2 • Previous attitudes about cyberbullying, previous cyberbullying behavior, anonymity • 5 types of cyberbullies3 • Sociable cyberbully, Lonely cyberbully, Narcissistic cyberbully, Sadistic cyberbully, Morally-driven cyberbully 2/1/17 19Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu 1Romero, et al., 2016; 2Bartlett, 2015; 3Kyriacou, 2016
  20. 20. MEASURING, STUDYING, UNDERSTANDING CYBERBULLYING Palladino, B. E., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E. (2015). Psychometric Properties of the Florence CyberBullying-CyberVictimization Scales. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 18(2), 112-119. Thomas, H., Connor, J., & Scott, J. (2015). Integrating Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying: Challenges of Definition and Measurement in Adolescents - A Review. Educational Psychology Review, 27(1), 135- 152. 2/1/17 20Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  21. 21. [CYBERBULLYING BIBLIOGRAPHY] Barlett, C. (2015). Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis. Journal Of Adolescence, 41(3), 86-95. Beran, T., Mishna, F., McInroy, L., & Shariff, S. (2015). Children's experiences of cyberbullying: A Canadian national study. Children & Schools, 37(4), 207-214. Festl, R., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2015). The Individual or the Group: A Multilevel Analysis of Cyberbullying in School Classes. Human Communication Research, 41(4), 535-556. doi:10.1111/hcre.12056 Heirman, W., Angelopoulos, S., Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Walrave, M. (2015). Cyberbullying- Entrenched or Cyberbully-Free Classrooms? A Class Network and Class Composition Approach. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(3), 260-277. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12111 Kessel Schneider, S., O'Donnell, L., & Smith, E. (2015). Trends in Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization in a Regional Census of High School Students, 2006-2012. Journal Of School Health, 85(9), 611-620. Kyriacou, C. (2016). A psychological typology of cyberbullies in schools. Psychology Of Education Review, 40(2), 24-27. Rice, E., Petering, R., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Goldbach, J., Plant, A., & ... Kordic, T. (2015). Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(3), e66-e72. Romera, E. M., Cano, J., García-Fernández, C., & Ortega-Ruiz, R. (2016). Cyberbullying: Social Competence, Motivation and Peer Relationships. Comunicar, 24(48), 71-79. doi:10.3916/C48-2016-07 Runions, K. C., & Bak, M. (2015). Online Moral Disengagement, Cyberbullying, and Cyber- Aggression. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 18(7), 400-405. Sampasa-Kanyinga, H., & Hamilton, H. A. (2015). Use of Social Networking Sites and Risk of Cyberbullying Victimization: A Population-Level Study of Adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 18(12), 704-710. Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., & Eggermont, S. (2014). Who bullies whom online: A social network analysis of cyberbullying in a school context. Communications: The European Journal Of Communication Research, 39(4), 415-433. doi:10.1515/commun-2014-0019 2/1/17 21Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  22. 22. RESOURCES Audio • This American Life. (2015, November, 27). Status update: Find the self in the selfie. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/573/status-update Books • Bearden, S. (2016). Digital citizenship: A community-based approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • boyd, d. (2014). It's complicated: The social lives of networked teens. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press • Ito, et al. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Websites • https://www.commonsensemedia.org/ • http://www.digitalcitizenship.net/ 2/1/17 22Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  23. 23. RESOURCES Reports • Anderson, M. (2016). Parents, teens and digital monitoring. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/01/07/parents-teens-and- digital-monitoring/ • Duggan, M., Lenhart, A., Lampe, C., & Ellison, N. B. (2015). Concerns about children, social media and technology use. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/07/16/concerns-about-children-social- media-and-technology-use/ • Pew Research Center. (2015). Teen voices: Dating in the digital age. http://www.pewinternet.org/online-romance/ • Rainie, L. (2014). 13 things to know about teens and technology. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/07/23/13-things-to- know-about-teens-and-technology/ 2/1/17 23Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  24. 24. 24 TALKING TO KIDS & PARENTS ABOUT SOCIAL MEDIA USE 24Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu 2/8/17
  25. 25. GENERAL TIPS 1. Do learn about current technologies • Net aware: guide to social networks kids use • Download apps and join • Friend some kids/teens in your family (but give them their space!) 2. Do tell kids their technology use is something you are interested in and want to know more about 3. Don’t be secretive about getting at their tech use • (E.g., using monitoring software without their knowing) 2/8/17 25Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  26. 26. HOW KIDS/TEENS DIFFER FROM ADULTS More kids & teens are on social media than adults • And they spend more time on social media Social media are a much bigger part of kids’ & teens’ lives • Self-expression, information, entertainment Kids & teens are more impulsive online • Disclose first, then correct Teens think of privacy differently • Don’t always understand complexities 2/8/17 26Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  27. 27. DEVELOPMENT & WELL-BEING •Technology amplifies emotions1 •Mixed effects:2 • Increased self-esteem, social support, social capital, safe identity experimentation, opportunity for self-disclosure • Increased exposure to harm, social isolation, depression, cyberbullying 2/8/17 27Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu 1Barth, F. D. (2015). Social media and adolescent development: Hazards, pitfalls and opportunities for growth. Clinical Social Work Journal, 43(2), 201-208. doi:10.1007/s10615-014-0501-6 2Best, P., Manktelow, R., & Taylor, B. (2014). Online communication, social media and adolescent wellbeing: A systematic narrative review. Children And Youth Services Review, 4127-36. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.001
  28. 28. BENEFITS OF KIDS/TEENS USING SOCIAL MEDIA 1. Opportunities for community engagement through raising money for charity and volunteering for local events, including political and philanthropic events 2. Enhancement of individual and collective creativity through development and sharing of artistic and musical endeavors 3. Growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites 4. Expansion of one's online connections through shared interests to include others from more diverse backgrounds 5. Fostering of one's individual identity and unique social skills 2/8/17 28Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-804. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0054
  29. 29. RISKS OF KIDS/TEENS USING SOCIAL MEDIA 1. Cyberbullying & online harassment 2. Sexting • “sending, receiving, or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs, or images via cell phone, computer, or other digital devices.” • 20% of teens have done this 3. Depression • When preteens and teens spend a great deal of time on social media sites, such as Facebook, and begin to exhibit classic symptoms of depression 2/8/17 29Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-804. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0054
  30. 30. ROLE OF CLINICIANS 1. Advise parents to talk to their children and adolescents about their online use and the specific issues that today's online kids face. 2. Advise parents to work on their own participation gap in their homes by becoming better educated about the many technologies their youngsters are using 3. Discuss with families the need for a family online-use plan that involves regular family meetings to discuss online topics and checks of privacy settings and online profiles for inappropriate posts. The emphasis should be on citizenship and healthy behavior and not punitive action, unless truly warranted 4. Discuss with parents the importance of supervising online activities via active participation and communication, as opposed to remote monitoring with a “net-nanny” program 2/8/17 30Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-804. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0054
  31. 31. THREE POTENTIAL ISSUES 1. Privacy / content shared 2. Cyberbullying 3. Overuse / improper use 2/8/17 31Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  32. 32. PRIVACY 2/8/17 32Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu qz.com
  33. 33. TECH/PRIVACY QUESTIONS TO ASK What is your favorite app? What apps are your friends into right now? How do you keep yourself safe online? Are you concerned when others write something about you online that’s not true but others might think is true? 2/8/17 33Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  34. 34. CYBERBULLYING QUESTIONS TO ASK Do you ever post hurtful updates on social media? Why? Have you ever had to delete a post or comment written by someone else? Would you feel comfortable telling an adult if an online interaction made you uncomfortable? Do you feel like your friends would be supportive if you told them you were cyberbullied? Does your school have a way to deal with cyberbullying? 2/8/17 34Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu http://cyberbullying.org/questions-parents-should-ask-their-children-about-technology
  35. 35. CYBERBULLYING Cyberbullying laws to know about: • Covered in Connecticut, under the term “Bullying and positive school climate” • stopbullying.gov/laws/connecticut.html 2/8/17 35Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu
  36. 36. RESTRICTING USE FOR PARENTS What to tell parents about restricting use: • Create a family media plan Guide parents to online resources: • commonsensemedia.org 2/8/17 36Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch | anneo@uconn.edu

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