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Module VIII Testing the Productive Skills

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Testing the productive skills

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Module VIII Testing the Productive Skills

  1. 1. TESTING THE PRODUCTIVE SKILLS prepared by: Analyn L. Insic Janine Magoncia Jeffrey Dalumbay
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the Module, students should be able to: 1. identify the different types of tests for speaking and writing. 2. construct test for each type. 3. acknowledge the importance of effective test to language teaching and learning.
  3. 3. TESTING THE PRODUCTIVE SKILLS A. Testing Speaking B. Testing Writing
  4. 4. A. TESTING SPEAKING Some language teachers consider testing the speaking and writing skills of students easier to evaluate than testing their listening and reading skills.
  5. 5. The spoken and written skills of learners are directly and immediately manifested, thus a teacher could tell off hand if they are proficient or not in the language.
  6. 6. A. TESTING SPEAKING In assessing the spoken ability of learners, several components have to be considered: pronunciation, grammar, word choice, fluency. Often, these are the criteria used for evaluating a person’s oral communication skills. Content and organization are not given as much emphasis as the first four (Harris, 1969)
  7. 7. A. TESTING SPEAKING 1. Testing PRONUNCIATION 2. Testing GRAMMAR 3. Testing WORD CHOICE 4. Testing FLUENCY/EASE AND SPEED OF THE FLOW OF SPEECH 5. Testing COMPREHENSION
  8. 8. A. TESTING SPEAKING 1. Testing Pronunciation There are no fixed criteria for judging good or bad pronunciation. Traditionally, correct pronunciation is measured by the accuracy of imitating a native speakers way of pronouncing words. To speak English correctly, one has to speak either the American or British way. With the advent of the communicative approach of teaching/learning language, the emphasis has shifted from accuracy to clarity/comprehensibility. As long as the pronunciation does not impede the clarity of the message or the listeners understanding of it, the pronunciation is considered acceptable. Still, in testing specific sound production, one has to follow certain standards.
  9. 9. A. TESTING SPEAKING For beginners, the following types of test for pronunciation are common: recognition of similar sounds, putting proper stress in words and sentences, loud reading.
  10. 10. A. TESTING SPEAKING Example: Recognition of similar sounds/stress Directions: From a list of words in each group, read the word that has the same vowel as the guide words. Guide Word 1. Beat steak great leave break 2. Food mood blood foot stood 3. Map mall play said fast 4. Saw small plow wow bough 5. let sit end lead grid
  11. 11. A. TESTING SPEAKING 2. Testing Grammar
  12. 12. A. TESTING SPEAKING 2. Testing Grammar Grammar tests involve correct usage of verb forms and tenses, nouns and pronouns, adjective and adverb forms, etc. In oral communication, usage may be tested through sentence conversion (from negative to affirmative, statement to question, etc.), answering question, expansion (by modification, subordination, coordination, etc.), word transformation in context (past to present tenses, singular to plural nouns, nouns to pronouns, etc.)
  13. 13. A. TESTING SPEAKING 2. Testing Grammar Examples: a. Sentence Conversation Directions: Read the following statements aloud and change to questions answerable by yes or no. 1.) My friend, Luisa, lives in Makati. 2.) She and her sisters are renting a condominium along Buendia. 3.) They used to go home everyday to Bulacan after school or work. 4.) After a few months, they realized it was impractical. 5.) Now they have more time for study and leisure.
  14. 14. A. TESTING SPEAKING 2. Testing Grammar Directions: Go back to sentences 1-5, change each into a question using the following question words: 1.) Who 2.) Where 3.) What 4.) When 5.) How
  15. 15. A. TESTING SPEAKING 2. Testing Grammar Examples: b. Answering Question Directions: Answer the following questions appropriately 1.) What do you like most about your school? 2.) How will you describe your classmates in three words? Your teachers? 3.) Why is college education is important to you? 4.) What are your immediate goals after college? 5.) Whom do you consider your closest friend here and why?
  16. 16. A. TESTING SPEAKING 3. Testing Word Choice
  17. 17. A. TESTING SPEAKING 3. Testing Word Choice One’s choice of words reflects his/her level of proficiency in the language. The richer the vocabulary is, the more proficient the learner is expected to be. In oral communication, vocabulary proficiency may be tested through word substitutions, supplying appropriate words in the missing parts of sentences, selecting from a given list of words the most appropriate for the sentences, etc.
  18. 18. A. TESTING SPEAKING 3. Testing Word Choice Examples: a. Word Substitution Directions: Read the sentences aloud and substitute new but appropriate words to underlined words. 1.) Life in the city is tedious. 2.) You need to wake up early everyday to avoid traffic congestion. 3.) Going home is also a problem especially if your last class is Late. 4.) You have to stand in line for long before you can get a ride. 5.) Even if you are lucky enough to find a seat, you still need to wait hours inside a jeep or a bus that moves and stalls every so often amidst tangled traffic.
  19. 19. A. TESTING SPEAKING 3. Testing Word Choice Examples: b. Supplying Appropriate Words to Missing Parts Directions: Complete each sentence by supplying the missing parts with appropriate words 1.) ____ along Rizal Park on an early Sunday morning can be a _____ experience. 2.) Armed with your _____ lunch and an umbrella, you _____ a bus or a jeep and along Taft Avenue. 3.) You _____ walking from the giant map of the Philippines to the _____ Rizal to the Quirino Grandstand, _____ of the inauguration of many of our ______.
  20. 20. A. TESTING SPEAKING 3. Testing Word Choice Examples: b. Supplying Appropriate Words to Missing Parts Directions: Complete each sentence by supplying the missing parts with appropriate words. 4.) As you walk, you _____ people _____ in different activities : some are _____ , others are simply exercising, several are just seated under the _____ while reading , sleeping, or _____ with friends. 5.) There are also bystanders, mostly _____ selling their wares and photographers _____ you with pleas to take your photos.
  21. 21. A. TESTING SPEAKING 4. Testing Fluency/Ease and Speed of the Flow of Speech
  22. 22. A. TESTING SPEAKING 4. Testing Fluency/Ease and Speed of the Flow of Speech The speaker’s fluency in terms of ease and speed of the flow of the speech may be difficult to measure accurately because there are no standard rules as to what speed is sufficient or insufficient. This may, however, be gauged from the speaker’s ability to answer questions spontaneously or speak or any topic informally with ease and fluency. Speed alone will not constitute fluency, because some speakers tend to speak fast, but they stammer or falter several times in their talk which hinders the smooth flow of communication
  23. 23. A. TESTING SPEAKING 5. Testing Comprehension
  24. 24. A. TESTING SPEAKING 5. Testing Comprehension Comprehension is an essential part of communication. One’s oral communication ability depends on his/her ability to understand the message received to which he/she needs to respond to. Comprehension can be tested focusing on the speaker’s ability to reply quickly to a remark or a question clearly and completely.
  25. 25. A. TESTING SPEAKING 5. Testing Comprehension All these components parts of speech process can be rated simultaneously in an interview using an evaluation sheet. The teacher can devise the evaluation sheet himself/herself. It must reflect the five components being rated, each consisting of a scale of qualities to be rated according to assigned numerical values. It is advisable not to fill in the score sheet during the interview as it might affect the performance of the speaker. It is better to record the scored interview and rate the speaker using the score sheet afterwards.
  26. 26. B. TESTING WRITING Like in speaking, the teacher’s concern in testing the written skill does not pertain to specific forms of writing such as creative or technical writing. Ability to write these forms is later developed after the student has gained mastery of the basic writing skills. Testing writing is focused primarily on evaluating the students ability to express their ideas in writing taking into consideration its five component parts: content, form, grammar, style and mechanics (Harris, 1969).
  27. 27. B. TESTING WRITING 1. TESTING THE CONTENT 2. TESTING THE FORM 3. TESTING GRAMMAR 4. TESTING SYNTACTIC PATTERN 5. TESTING STYLE 6. TESTING MECHANICS
  28. 28. B. TESTING WRITING 1. TESTING THE CONTENT Contents refers to the ideas expressed in the writing. Oneness of general idea must be observed by the writer. All parts of the composition must relate to one topic. Test items focusing on content may include writing specific details on a general topic, writing a general statement encompassing all specific details, identifying and deleting unrelated sentences in a paragraph.
  29. 29. B. TESTING WRITING 1. TESTING THE CONTENT Examples: a. Providing Specific Details to General Ideas Directions: Write five specific details related to the general statements. 1.) Travelling to foreign countries is rewarding. 2.) The Filipino drama series reflect the country’s cultural practices. 3.) Some Filipino cultural traits are negative. 4.) My best friend and I are he exact opposites. 5.) Life is like a stage.
  30. 30. B. TESTING WRITING 1. TESTING THE CONTENT Examples: b. Writing a General statement to Express the main Idea of each Group of a Sentences Directions: Write a general statement to express the main idea of each group of a sentences. A. ________________________ 1.) He is often absent in class. 2.) He seldom recites. 3.) He fails most of his quizzes. 4.) He seldom passes an assignment or a seatwork. 5.) He sometimes cuts classes.
  31. 31. B. TESTING WRITING 1. TESTING THE CONTENT Examples: b. Writing a General statement to Express the main Idea of each Group of a Sentences Directions: Write a general statement to express the main idea of each group of a sentences. B. ________________________ 1.) She’s always near when I need her.. 2.) She’s remembers the special occasions in my life. 3.) She can keep sensitive matters a secret. 4.) We like almost the same things. 5.) She’s lavish with her praises but candid with her criticisms.
  32. 32. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM
  33. 33. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM Form refers to the organization of the content into a unified, coherent written presentation. Tests of this type including ordering ideas into logical order: chronological, spatial, inductive, deductive, etc.; connecting ideas using appropriate connectors; using topic sentences at strategic points and tying up ideas with a clincher sentence.
  34. 34. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM a. Ordering Sentence in Logical Order Directions: Arrange the following sentences in jumbled order into one coherent paragraph. Place the letter corresponding to the first in the order in number 1, the next in number 2, etc. 1. (a) Each leap year we add that day onto end of February. 2. (b) Because of this, every four years an extra day is added to the calendar so we don’t fall behind in the natural cycle of things. 3. (c) The earth’s solar orbit takes 365 and a quarter days. 4. (d) in this way, the calendar is readjusted into the astronomical timetable.
  35. 35. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM b. Connecting Ideas Using an Appropriate Connector Directions: Complete the following paragraph by supplying appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. Among he wonders of Jamaica is a body of water called Luminous Lagoon. By day, ___1___ is a nondescript bay on the country’s coast. By ___ 2 ___, it is a marvel of nature.
  36. 36. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM b. Connecting Ideas Using an Appropriate Connector Directions: Complete the following paragraph by supplying appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. If you visit ___ 3 ___ after dark, ___ 4 ___ notice ___5___ the water is filled ___6___ millions of phosphorescent organisms. ___7___ there is movement, the ___8___ and the creatures in the bay glow. When fish ___9___ past your boat, for example, they light up ___10___ waterborne fireflies. ___ the boat glides through water, the wave shines brightly.
  37. 37. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM c. Writing a Topic Sentence and a Clincher Sentence Directions: Write an appropriate beginning or ending to the following paragraphs to highlight the main idea. A. _______________. You see not only new places on the other side of the globe, you also get first-hand information about the customs and practices of different races. On top of this is the opportunity to study the languages of these people. Lots of other things also expose you to different new experiences like riding a bullet train, eating extra ‘hot’ dishes, being transported through cable cars, etc. Indeed, going abroad is a rewarding experience!
  38. 38. B. TESTING WRITING 2. TESTING THE FORM c. Writing a Topic Sentence and a Clincher Sentence Directions: Write an appropriate beginning or ending to the following paragraphs to highlight the main idea. B. Teaching is a noble profession, especially in this country. Unlike the nursing course, Education does not dangle to the students the opportunity of working abroad when they enroll. Those who take Education know that the job is not lucrative because salaries of teachers are not big. Yet, many students want to become teachers. When asked about their reasons, some say they want to be part of the education of the youth; others claim they love working with children; the more enterprising ones plan to put up their own schools after several years.
  39. 39. B. TESTING WRITING 3. TESTING GRAMMAR
  40. 40. B. TESTING WRITING 3. TESTING GRAMMAR Grammatical usage is always a part of any language test. A proficient speaker or writer must have a good command of the grammar of the language he/she is using. A test in grammar is a test of grammatical forms and syntactic patterns. Grammatical forms refer to the use of correct parts of speech like the plural and possessive forms of nouns; the case, number and gender forms of pronouns; tense forms of verbs; derivational and comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs. Syntactic patterns involve the proper combinations of words and their correct placement in sentences.
  41. 41. B. TESTING WRITING 3. TESTING GRAMMAR a. Testing Grammatical Forms Directions: Change the forms of the verbs in parentheses to past. Soon after her family (leave) for the evening, Carol (start) to think that her hospital room must be loneliest place in the world. Night time had (fall), her fears about her illness (be) back, and she (feel) overwhelming despair as she (lie) there alone.
  42. 42. B. TESTING WRITING 3. TESTING GRAMMAR a. Testing Grammatical Forms Directions: Fill in the blanks with appropriate pronoun forms. It has been said that “one person’s junk is another’s treasure.” When David Dudley tried to help _____ parents clear _____ house of “unnecessary items” before moving to a smaller home, _____ found _____ very difficult. _____ was often angered by _____ parents refusal to part with things _____ had not used for decades. Finally, David’s father helped____ understand that even the worn out, useless items were tied to close friends and important events. Clearing the clutter felt like throwing away_____ very lives.
  43. 43. B. TESTING WRITING 4. TESTING SYNTACTIC PATTERNS
  44. 44. B. TESTING WRITING 4. TESTING SYNTACTIC PATTERNS Directions: Combine the following groups of words into coherent sentences 1. and a candle in the other Michael Angelo painted with a brush from covering his masterpiece legend has it that in one hand in progress to prevent his shadow
  45. 45. B. TESTING WRITING 4. TESTING SYNTACTIC PATTERNS Directions: Combine the following groups of words into coherent sentences 2. millions of TV sets to receive digital signals would stop working today a year ago, I read unless they were able an article saying that
  46. 46. B. TESTING WRITING 4. TESTING SYNTACTIC PATTERNS Directions: Rewrite the following sentences inserting the modifiers in parentheses in their proper places a. The boy unleased his dog at the party. (last Sunday, unruly, mischievous, children’s) b. As he stood at the varenda staring at the night, he was besieged by nostalgia for his homeland. (starless, gripping, hotel, suddenly, long forgotten). c. The cottage looked deserted. (on top of a hill, old, lone, small)
  47. 47. B. TESTING WRITING 5. TESTING STYLE
  48. 48. B. TESTING WRITING 5. TESTING STYLE Style pertains to the choice of structures and lexical items to give a particular tone or flavor to the writing. Choice of structures refers to various ways of expressing sentences. They may start with the subject, the verb, or the modifiers; they may be simple, compound or complex, etc.
  49. 49. B. TESTING WRITING 5. TESTING STYLE Lexical items involve vocabulary usage. Style in writing requires that word choice should consider clarity, appropriateness and variety. The first in rule in communication is clarity of ideas. Even in literary or creative writing, the writer’s goal is to be understood. Next is appropriateness of word to the intended meaning. Miscommunication can occur for using inexact words. Variety is the third guide. It prevents monotony and redundancy.
  50. 50. B. TESTING WRITING 5. TESTING STYLE a. Testing Variety of Structures Directions: Re-arrange the following sentences according to the direction given. 1.) The contestant was looking anxious when he entered the theatre. (Begin with ‘When’ and ‘Looking’) 2.) The ushers instructed the guests to wait at the lobby. (Change to passive voice) 3.) She went home early yesterday. Classes were suspended because of power outage. (Combine into complex sentence)
  51. 51. B. TESTING WRITING 5. TESTING STYLE b. Testing Lexical Items Directions: From the given list, select the appropriate word to substitute for the word ‘beautiful’ in the paragraph. Use word only once. was speechless at the sight of our new home! Everything looked beautiful. It was beautifully painted with a combination of beige and yellow. The grounds were enclosed by beautiful white picked fences. The first thing that caught my attention as I opened the gate was the array of beautiful flowers lining the pathway: roses, daisies, carnations, gladiolas, etc. there was a small veranda in front with a beautiful swing on the left and a coffee table with two chairs on the right.
  52. 52. B. TESTING WRITING 5. TESTING STYLE b. Testing Lexical Items Directions: From the given list, select the appropriate word to substitute for the word ‘beautiful’ in the paragraph. Use word only once. As I opened the beautifully carved with wooden door, the brightly lighted living room greeted me with its beautiful chandelier hanging at the center. The walls were all made of glass covered with beautiful white lace and flowery silk curtains. All the other rooms in the house, from the kitchen to the bed rooms were furnished with beautiful furniture and beautiful wall decorations. The house looked like a showcase from a home magazine! (attractive, cozy, marvelous, intricately, freshly, arresting, expensive, artistic, sturdy, colorful)
  53. 53. B. TESTING WRITING 6. TESTING MECHANICS
  54. 54. B. TESTING WRITING 6. TESTING MECHANICS The mechanics of writing refers to the proper use of graphic symbols such as Punctuation, Capitalization, and Abbreviation. Certain rules govern the use of these graphic symbols. Since they are important in written communication, students must gain mastery in using this symbols by following the rules. A complete handbook on the mechanics of writing is available in the library. List of specific references is provided at the bi bibliography of this Module.
  55. 55. B. TESTING WRITING 6. TESTING MECHANICS a. Testing Punctuation Directions: Insert the parentheses provide the correct punctuation marks. When E ( ) Stanley Jones ( ) well ( ) known missionary to India ( ) had the opportunity to meet with Mahatma Gandhi, he asked a searching question of India ( ) s revered leader ( ) ( ) How can Christianity make a stronger impact on your country ( ) ( ) Gandhi thoughtfully replied that three things would be required ( ) First ( ) Christian must begin to live more like Jesus ( ) Second ( ) the Christian faith should be presented without any adulteration ( ) Third ( ) Christian should emphasize love ( ) which is at the heart of the Gospel ( )
  56. 56. B. TESTING WRITING 6. TESTING MECHANICS b. Testing Abbreviation and Capitalization Directions: Abbreviate and capitalize words where necessary. I. The 40,000-mile-long great wall of China was built to keep out invaders from the north. The first wall was constructed by shi huangdi, the first emperor of china, who lived between 259 and 210 before christ. but in anno domini 1644 the great manchus broke through the great wall and overran china.
  57. 57. B. TESTING WRITING 6. TESTING MECHANICS b. Testing Abbreviation and Capitalization Directions: Abbreviate and capitalize words where necessary. II. As soon as she earned her master of science degree in mathematics, my friend liza, applied for scholarship at the Massachusetts institute of technology where after three year of rigorous study and hard work, she finished her doctor of philosophy degree in mathematics. Now she is a visiting lecturer at the university of california los angeles and a consultant of a trading company in Washington, district of columbia.
  58. 58. 1. DISCUSSION POINT a. What are the different test for productive skills? b. What are the components parts of a tests for speaking? c. How many fluency and comprehension be tested in speaking? D. What are component parts of tests for writing? E. Why is listening generally considered more difficult to test than a writing? 2. POST-DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES 1. Prepare a complete evaluation scale for speaking tests showing all the component parts of the test. 2. Component sample test for all types of speaking and writing test.
  59. 59. Instructor: Ramlah A. Ampatuan Ed,D

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