GORTER Anna EC format Nov 2016

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GORTER Anna EC format Nov 2016

  1. 1. ————————————————--————————————————- Curriculum Vitae Anna Cornelia Gorter MD, MSc, PhD ————————————————————————————————— 1. Family name: GORTER 2. First name(s): Anna Cornelia (Anneke) 3. Date and place of birth: Roosendaal, August 20th , 1953 4. Nationality Dutch 5. Civil status Married (2 children) Address: Beryldijk 4, 4706 EA Roosendaal The Netherlands Phone/fax: +31-165-561405 or +31-627610793 Email: henkanna@kpnmail.nl 6. Education: Institution [ Date from - Date to ] Degree(s) or Diploma(s) obtained: National Committee for Medical-Biological Research Training (SMBWO) 13-10-1999 Registered Specialist in Epidemiology, the Netherlands University of Maastricht, Maastricht (NL) 1993-1998 PhD in Epidemiology Council of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society 1996 MSc in Epidemiology Royal Institute of the Tropics, Amsterdam (NL) 1981-1982 MD Tropical Medicine: Registrar in general surgery, obstetrics/gynaecology, Certificate Tropical Medicine University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (NL) 1971-1980 MD in Medicine 7. Language skills: Indicate competence on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 - excellent; 5 - basic) Language Reading Speaking Writing Dutch Mother tongue English 1 1 1 Spanish 1 1 1 French 2 4 4 German 2 4 4 8. Membership(s) of professional bodies: • Founder / Member Central American Health Institute ICAS, developing results based health financing approaches (e.g. vouchers) to improve service delivery to underserved populations (1995-2014); • Founder / Member Nicaraguan NGO TESIS, providing HIV/STIs and community services to marginalized population groups such as sex workers and glue-sniffing youth (1990-2014); • Technical Advisor Nicaraguan NGO DESEAR, a rural development organisation, which developed the rope pump and works in the field of hygiene, water and sanitation (1990-2005); • Dutch Society for Epidemiology. 9. Other skills: Fully computer literate, design/management programmes, monitoring and evaluation 10. Present position: Senior Consultant 11. Years of experience: 37 years 12. Key-qualifications:
  2. 2. • Expert in Results Based Financing (RBF) in health; pioneer in developing programs to increase access to health care for disadvantaged populations, such as vouchers and Performance Based Financing (PBF); • Public Health, Epidemiology, expert in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care, Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/AIDS; Mother and Child care; Diarrhoea and other Infectious Diseases (malaria, TB); Hygiene, Water and Sanitation; Tobacco Control and prevention of smoking initiation; • Institutional building of NGOs, NGO networks, public-private partnerships; • Community services for vulnerable populations (adolescents, street children, sex workers, clients, drug addicts, IDU, men who have sex with men, transvestites, uniformed, mobile and other populations); • Identification, design, formulation, fundraising, management, implementation, quality assurance and M&E; • Results Oriented Monitoring (ROM) of projects and of Sector Policy Support Programmes (SPSP); • Strategic health planning, health systems research (access to and quality of health care, accreditation, contracting, claims processing, public-private collaboration), health sector reform; • Knowledge of Sector-Wide Approaches and donor coordinating mechanisms; • Post crisis rehabilitation of health care systems and evaluation of humanitarian aid; • Supervision of students obtaining academic degrees in health or health economics (BA to PhD) • Review of scientific papers related to RBF, vouchers, sexual/reproductive health, HIV/AIDS. 13. Country Experience: Country (one country per line) Date (MM/YYYY – MM/YYYY) Madagascar, Uganda, Ethiopia 2016 Pakistan 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2005 Kenya 2016, 2015, 2013, 2012; 2011; 2010; 2007 Cambodia 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012; 2011; 2010; 2006 Yemen 12/2013, 09/2013, 04/2013, 01/2013, 10/2012 Zambia 1/2012 Vietnam 2/2011 Laos 06/2010 Panama, Peru, Mexico 10/2009 – 11/2009 South Africa 09/2009 Mozambique 04/2009 – 06/2009 Libya 09/2008 Serbia 06/2008 Afghanistan 05/2008, 05/2005 India 04/2007, 04/2004, 01/2004 Honduras 10/2007, 2001 Malawi 08/2007 Tajikistan 05/2007, 2012 Caribbean (Guyana, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, St. Vincent) 01/2007 – 02/2007 Papua New Guinea 10/2006 – 11/2006 Chad 04/2005 Guinea 03/2005 Kosovo 03/2003 – 10/2003 Nicaragua Full-time (1983-2003), frequent visits up to 2014 Netherlands 1980-1982 Suriname 2007, 1979
  3. 3. 14. Professional experience: Date Location Organisation and reference person Position Description 12/2014 – ongoing Kenya Options/DfID s.fox@options.co.uk PBF and voucher Specialist Design and implementation of Performance Based Financing (PBF) and transport vouchers in DfID funded project: “Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Deaths in Kenya 2013-2018”. 10/2012 – ongoing Yemen (Jordan) Options / KfW c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist SRH specialist Design, implementation and monitoring of the KfW funded “Safe Motherhood and Family Planning Vouchers” in Yemen, financed by KfW. 07/2016 – 11/2016 Kenya Marie Stopes Int Matthew.Wilson@mariestopes.org Voucher Expert SRH specialist Technical assistance to Marie Stopes Kenya with the design of a subsidy scheme for youth under a CIFF grant. 03/2016 – 06/2016 Uganda, Ethiopia, Madagascar Marie Stopes Int/Options Caitlin.Mazzilli@mariestopes.org Voucher Expert Voucher Management System (VMS) scoping at Marie Stopes International (MSI): Report on existing VMSs and gap analysis; business requirements for VMS to serve as a ‘gold standard’ reference for the functions that all VMSs should be able to perform. 01/2016 London Marie Stopes International Caitlin.Mazzilli@mariestopes.org Trainer on voucher projections/costing Training in a voucher costing and projections model and preparation of such a model to be used in the Uganda Reporductive Health Voucher project implemented by MSI. 11/2015 – 01/2016 Cambodia EPOS / KfW Thomas.Kempff@epos.de Evaluator/ Voucher Specialist Mid Term Review of the KfW funded Cambodian Social Health Protection Programme: “Vouchers for Reproductive Health Services”. 06/2015 Home-office ADE/ECHO Neil.Dillon@ade.eu Health voucher specialist Evaluation of the use of vouchers and cash transfers for health outcomes as part of a larger evaluation of different Transfer Modalities in ECHO Humanitarian Aid actions 2011 – 2014. 04/2015 – 02/2016 Pakistan MSI /Options/ USAID c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist MCH specialist Design and implementation of Safe Motherhood Vouchers. USAID funded project: “Family Planning and Reproductive Health” implemented by Marie Stopes International (MSI). 12/2014 – 01/2015 Kenya Futures/DfID RWood@futuresgroup.com Voucher Specialist SRH specialist Design and implementation of the voucher component of the DfID funded project: “DIFPARK, Delivering Increased Family Planning Across Rural Kenya 2013-2018”. 10/2014 – 06/2015 Home-office Options/DfID c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist SRH specialist Expert support to the Design of a Demand Side Financing (DSF) pilot in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, financed by DfID. 05/2013 – 06/2014 Home-office/ Malawi Options / DfID c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist/ SRH specialist Technical Lead working closely with the Options Technical Advisor on the design of the voucher component of the DFID funded Reproductive Health Framework Malawi. 05/2013 – 06/2013 Pakistan Options / UNFPA c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist/ SRH specialist Team Leader of the Development of a UNFPA Family Planning Voucher Scheme in Pakistan 10/2012 – 07/2014 Yemen Options / The World Bank c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist/ SRH specialist Design and implementation of World Bank financed Yemen Maternal and Newborn Voucher project. Building capacity of the Social Fund for Development to implement vouchers. 09/2012 – 02/2016 Pakistan Options / MSI / DfID c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist SRH specialist Design/implementation of voucher component of DfID funded: “Delivering reproductive health results through non-state providers”, implemented by Marie Stopes Society, Pakistan.
  4. 4. 05/2012 Tajikistan ECORYS / EC Brian.Morgan@ecorys.com Evaluator, Public Health Expert Results-Oriented Monitoring of the European Commission’s Operations in Asia and Central Asia (Lot 3): Health Policy Analysis Support Project financed by the European Commission. 03/2012 – 12/2012 Home-office GIZ, Germany, jasmin.dirinpur@giz.de Results Based Financing (RBF) Production Evidence Brief “Results-Based Financing of Maternal and Neonatal Health Care” for GIZ. In collaboration with Bruno Meessen and Por Ir. 01/2012 – 02/2012 Zambia POPCOUCIL kaustrian@popcouncil.org Voucher Specialist/ SRH specialist Design of a voucher scheme for Sexual + Reproductive Health (SRH) for young people in the context of the Zambian Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP), financed by DfID 06/2011 – 03/2012 Home-office POPCOUNCIL bbellows@popcouncil.org RBF Specialist Team Leader, conducting a literature review of Results Based Financing (RBF) including the systematic review of structural and implementation issues of 40 voucher programmes. 02/2011 – 03/2011 Vietnam and Cambodia Options/MSI c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist Design of the voucher component of the EC-funded project implemented by Marie Stopes International in Viet Nam and Cambodia. 02/2011 UK Options/DfID c.grainger@options.co.uk Voucher Specialist Presentation “International experience with vouchers” at DFID Health Adviser’s Conference on 4th February 2011; production of a fact sheet as a resource document on vouchers. 11/2010 Home-office Venture Strategies for Health and Development Voucher Specialist Technical review and feedback on systematic review of health vouchers, EPPI (Evidence for Practice and Policy Information) Centre, University of London, study financed by UK-DfID. 09/2010 Arlington EHG (Euro Health Group) HIV expert Workshop 7th GMS (Grants Management Solutions) Boot Camp on GFATM 09/2010 Home-office WHO-Papua New Guinea Voucher Expert Video-Conference – potential of demand side financing for maternal health in PNG 07/2010 – 12/2014 Cambodia EPOS / KfW Voucher Specialist SRH specialist Technical Support for the implementation of the KfW funded Cambodian Social Health Protection Programme: “Vouchers for Reproductive Health Services”. 06/2010 Geneva WHO HIV expert Expert reviewer WHO “A Handbook on Quality of HIV Testing and Counselling”. 05/2010 Laos LuxDev – Laos, WHO-Laos Team Leader, Voucher Expert Design of a Voucher Scheme to increase access to Safe Motherhood services and to reduce Maternal Mortality 01/2010 – 11/2013 Kenya EPOS / KfW Thomas.Kempff@epos.de Voucher Specialist/ SRH specialist Overall Technical Assistance to the Kenyan “Reproductive Health – Output Based Approach (OBA)” phase 2 and phase 3; financed by KfW. 12/2009 – 01/2010 Home-office Options / KfW Voucher Expert Technical Backstopping to a Pre-feasibility study identifying Innovative Financing Approaches for Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS in Central America 10/2009 – 12/2009 WDC, LAC region WHO / PAHO Team Leader, Epidemiologist Independent Evaluation of PAHO’s Management of the Response to the Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic, country visits to Washington, Mexico, Panama, El Salvador and Nicaragua 09/2009 – 10/2009 South Africa ECORYS / Belgian Gov. Team Leader, Public Health Expert Evaluation of the quality of services of the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC) in South Africa for a capacity building project working in the areas of TB/HIV/STI, South Africa 07/2009 – 10/2009 Home-office Options / MSI Expert RBF, sexual/ reproductive health Production Toolkit on Results Based Financing (RBF) for MSI: to advance the use of RBF to increase access to sexual and reproductive health for underserved populations
  5. 5. 04/2009 – 06/2009 Mozambique TSF – South Africa / UNAIDS-Mozambique HIV/AIDS expert, Civil Society expert Development of Mozambique’s successful Round 9 HIV proposal for the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Malaria and TB. Lead proposal writer for Civil Society. Technical Support Facility. 09/2008 – 1/2009 Libya ECORYS / EC Team Leader, HIV/AIDS expert Evaluation of the four phases of the EU funded HIV/AIDS Benghazi Action Plan in Libya and identification and design of the future programme (€6 million) 06/2008 Serbia UNFPA/UNHCR Expert vouchers for sex workers Facilitator UNFPA/UNHCR Sub regional workshop on HIV vulnerability among internally displaced persons, refugees and Roma (Balkan) 05/2008 – 06/2008 Afghanistan ECORYS / EC Monitoring and Evaluation Expert Results Oriented Monitoring (ROM) of the EC’s Sector Policy Support Programme (SPSP) to the MoH, in the framework of support to the (emerging) health sector in Afghanistan. 09/2007 – 10/2007 Honduras Sanigest / Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria Public Health and HIV/AIDS Expert Case study on Governance and Civil Society Participation of the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) of the GFATM in Honduras. 05/2007 – 06/2007 Tajikistan SHER Ingénieurs-Conseils s.a / ECHO (EC) Evaluator LRRD / Public Health Evaluation of the EC’s strategy Linking Relief to Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD) in Tajikistan; evaluation of health projects financed by ECHO during the period 2003-2007. 04/2007 – 09/2007 India,Kenya/ Malawi CESO / ECORYS EuropeAid/EC Evaluator Public Health Results Oriented Monitoring (ROM). India: Asian Stakeholder Consultation HIV/AIDS, Malaria and TB (UNAIDS). Kenya/Malawi: community program HIV (STAR - Action Aid). 01/2007 – 02/2007 Caribbean –7 countries Conseil Santé S.A/ ECORYS/ EC Evaluator, expert STI/HIV/AIDS Evaluation of EC’s Strengthening the Institutional Response to HIV/AIDS/STI in the Caribbean (Guyana, Surinam, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, St. Vincent) 10/2006 – 12/2006 Papua New Guinea Marie Stopes Australia/ AusAid Team leader, expert STI/HIV/AIDS Design of the Integrated Sexually Transmitted Infection Management and Prevention Program in PNG for Marie Stopes International Australia 09/2006 – 10/2006 Cambodia Conseil Santé S.A./ French Government Public Health Expert, Mother & Child Care Feasibility Study funding period 2007-2010, Hospital Policy and Health Micro-Insurance Feasibility Study - Health Sector Support Project (Agence Française de Développement-AFD) 09/2005 Switzerland UNICEF Expert HIV/AIDS - Young People at risk Co-facilitator of Planning Workshop Adolescents at risk for HIV, Regional Office Central/ Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States, Sept. 2005. 03/2005 – 06/2005 Guinea, Chad, Afghanistan and Pakistan SHER Ingénieurs-Conseils s.a. / ECHO (EC) Evaluator /expert Public Health Evaluation of “The partnership between ECHO and UNHCR and the UNHCR activities funded by ECHO”. Including field visits to camps for refugees from Sierra Leone, Liberia, Sudan, and Afghanistan and evaluation of the health aspects. 01/2004 – 04/2004 India London School of Economics/ EC Expert health vouchers Demand Side Financing Study to increase access to Mother and Child care and Reproductive Health in India. Design of pilot voucher projects. 03/2003 – 10/2003 Kosovo Conseil Santé S.A./ European Commission Advisor/ expert HIV/AIDS International Advisor to the Kosovar MOH to assist in design STI/HIV/AIDS strategy and proposal for the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. 6-month consultancy to EC. 03/2003 – 04/2004 Home-office / Washington ICAS The World Bank Team Leader Voucher Expert Production of Guide to Competitive Vouchers for The World Bank (based on ICAS’s highly successful experiences with development of one of the world’s first ever voucher schemes).
  6. 6. 12/2002 – 03/2003 Home-office / Montreux WHO Evaluator/ Expert vouchers HIV/AIDS Review paper on potential of vouchers in increasing access to HIV/AIDS services for young people. ‘Consultation WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNAIDS and YouthNet). 02/2002 – 03/2002 Nicaragua Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Finnish Government Evaluator, expert reproductive health Evaluation of the first phase and design of the second phase of Finnish government development support for sexual & reproductive health care in Nicaragua. 11/2001 – 01/2002 Nicaragua ICAS The World Bank, KfW Expert voucher schemes Preparation of a paper with case studies on health vouchers in Nicaragua; ‘showcase’ these at a World Bank/KfW sponsored workshop for donors as examples of Output-Based Aid (OBA). 08/2000 – 01/2006 Nicaragua ICAS/ London School of Hygiene /Tropical Medicine Project Director Principal Investigator “Vouchers to improve uptake and quality of sexual and reproductive health for young people in Nicaragua”. Financed by DfID, Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands and US-AID. 03/1995 – 12/2013 Nicaragua ICAS; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine / HLSP Project Director, Voucher Expert Several STI/HIV/AIDS voucher programmes for high risk populations. Financed by DfID, Netherlands, US-AID; Elton John AIDS F.; NOVIB; GFATM; ICCO; and EC. 01/1992 – 12/1993 Nicaragua DESEAR (NGO), Embassy New Zeeland Project Director/ Principal Investigator Study “A randomised trial of the impact of rope pumps on water quality” 04/1992 – 09/1992 Home office Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Epidemiologist “Literature Review paper on hygiene, water, sanitation and water well pollution” commissioned by CoWater International, Colombo, Sri Lanka for the World Bank. 12/1989 – 03/1992 Nicaragua EC, University College London Project Director/ Principal Investigator Major AIDS project, "An Action Research Project to Reduce STI Rates and Population AIDS Risk in Nicaragua", funded by the European Community's Task Force on AIDS (EC). 1988 – 1990 Nicaragua UNICEF, Dutch + New Zealand Embassies Epidemiologist “Using appropriate technologies: The Villa Carlos Fonseca Hygiene education and Rope Pump Project, Technical University of Managua, Nicaragua. 1988 – 1990 Nicaragua University College London Epidemiologist "Appropriate Health Information Systems for Primary Health Care and Health Promotion", an action-research project in Nicaragua, financed by Leverhulme Trust (UK) 06/1986 – 01/1990 Nicaragua WHO, UNICEF, Leverhulme Trust Principal Investigator PhD research on Childhood Diarrhoea, Hygiene, Water and Sanitation in rural Nicaragua 05/1983 – 05/1986 Nicaragua Dutch Government (Post- War Reconstruction) Medical Officer Medical Officer at rural public health centre and hospital (among other duties in charge of mother and child care, vaccination, infectious diseases: TB, malaria, dengue, STIs etc). 10/1981 – 09/1982 Netherlands Municipality of Amsterdam, Netherlands General Practitioner Drug abuse and methadone programme for drug-addicts, including injecting drug users (IDU), Public Health Service of the Municipality of Amsterdam. 08/1980 – 07/1981 Netherlands Willem-Alexander Hospital, Den Bosch, Netherlands Registrar (for MD Tropical Medicine) Registrar in general surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, Den Bosch, The Netherlands. 07/1979 – 11/1979 Suriname Hospital Diaconessenhuis, Paramaribo, Surinam Internship Internship obstetrics and gynaecology
  7. 7. References available upon request 15. Other (e.g. publications): Short list of publications • PhD book: Childhood diarrhoea and its prevention in Nicaragua • Co-promoter and co-author of PhD book: Improving sexual and reproductive health care for poor and underserved girls, Impact of a voucher program on access and quality of primary care in Nicaragua • Co-author of A guide to Competitive Vouchers in Health, book published by the World Bank 2005 • Over 100 articles in international scientific journals, conference presentations and invited papers. Selected publications: • Boddam-Whetham L, Gul X, Al-Kobati E, Gorter AC (2016), Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan, Global Health: Science and Practice 2016, vol. 4 no. Suppl 2 p. S94-S108. • Grainger C, Gorter A, Okal J and Bellows B (2014), Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: A Comprehensive Review, International Journal for Equity in Health 2014, 13:33. • Anna C. Gorter, Por Ir, Bruno Meessen (2013), Evidence Review, Results-Based Financing of Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Low- and Lower-middle-Income Countries, February 2013, study commissioned and funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through the sector project PROFILE at GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. • Gorter AC, Grainger C (2012), The Quick Guide to Developing Voucher Programmes, Options Consultancy Services, Ltd., published at RHVoucher website: http://www.rhvouchers.org/resource/2012/547 . • McKay JE, Campbell DJ, Gorter AC (2006). Lessons for management of STI treatment programs as part of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. American Journal of Public Health; 96:7-9. • Meuwissen LE, Gorter AC, Knottnereus JA (2006). Impact of accessible sexual and reproductive health care on poor and underserved adolescents in Managua, Nicaragua: A quasi-experimental intervention study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(1):56.e1-56.e9. • Borghi J, Gorter A, Sandiford P and Segura Z (2005). The cost-effectiveness of a competitive voucher scheme to reduce sexually transmitted infections in high-risk groups in Nicaragua. Health Policy & Planning, 20(4): 222-31. Complete list of publications • Grainger C, Gorter AC, Al-Kobati E, Boddam-Whetham L (2016), Providing safe motherhood services to underserved and neglected populations in Yemen: the case for vouchers, accepted for publication in PLOS ONE. • Boddam-Whetham L, Gul X, Al-Kobati E, Gorter AC (2016), Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan, Global Health: Science and Practice 2016, vol. 4 no. Suppl 2 p. S94-S108. • Grainger C, Gorter A, Okal J and Bellows B (2014), Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: A Comprehensive Review, International Journal for Equity in Health 2014, 13:33. • Jaruseviciene L, De Meyer S, Decat P, Zaborskis A, Degomme O, Rojas M, Hagens A, Auquilla N, Vega B, Gorter AC, Orozco M, and Lazarus JV (2014), Factorial validation of the attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents, Glob Health Action 2014, 7:
  8. 8. 23126 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.23126. • Gorter AC, Ir P, and Meessen B (2013), Evidence Review, Results-Based Financing of Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Low- and Lower-middle-Income Countries, February 2013, study commissioned and funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through the sector project PROFILE at GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. • Bellows B, Conlon C, Higgs E, Townsend J, Nahed M, Cavanaugh K, Grainger C, Okal J, Gorter AC (2013), A taxonomy for maternal health voucher programs: Results from a comprehensive review of 40 voucher programs, Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, Dec;31(4) Suppl 2:S106-S128. • Jaruseviciene L, Orozco M, Ibarra M, Cordova F, Vega B, Auquilla N, Medina J, Gorter AC, Decat P, De Meyer S, Temmerman M, Edmonds A, Valius L, Lazarus JV (2013), Primary health care providers’ views on improving sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua, Global Health Action, 6: 20444 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v6i0.20444 • Decat P, Nelson E, De Meyer S, Jaruseviciene L, Orozco M, Segura Z, Gorter A, Vega B, Cordova K, Maes L, Temmerman M, Leye E, Degomme O (2013). Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention. BMC Public Health, Jan 14;13(1):31. • Sochas L, Grainger C, Gorter A, Griffith D, Boddam-Whetham L (2013), What can vouchers do for Universal Health Coverage? Briefing Note, Options Consultancy Services, http://www.options.co.uk/sites/default/files/what-can-vouchers-do-for-universal-health-coverage.pdf • Gorter AC, Grainger C, Okal J, Bellows B (2012), Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: A systematic review. Paper presented and published at the IUSSP Scientific Panel on Reproductive Health, Bangkok, August 2012. • Gorter AC, Grainger C, Okal J, Bellows B (2012), Systematic Review of Structural and Implementation Issues of Voucher Programs, Analysis of 40 Voucher Programs, In- depth Analysis of 20 Programs. Report Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya, February 2012. http://www.options.co.uk/sites/default/files/comprehensive_review_of_rh_voucher_programmes.pdf • Gorter AC, Grainger C (2012), The Quick Guide to Developing Voucher Programmes, Options Consultancy Services, Ltd., published at RHVoucher website: http://www.rhvouchers.org/resource/2012/547 . • Ir P, Reyners M, Wilkinson D, Gorter AC , Sieng R, Long L, Bayou A (2011), Improving Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Services by the Poor and Vulnerable in Cambodia: the potential Role of Vouchers, MT, Bulletin of the Dutch Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health; 49(3):3-6.. • Gorter AC (2008), Case Study Country Coordinating Mechanisms (CCM), Governance and Civil Society Participation: Honduras (2008), Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland • Bhatia MR and Gorter AC (2007). Improving access to Reproductive and Child Health services in developing countries: are competitive voucher schemes an option? Journal of International Development; 19(7): 975-981 (16 March 2007, DOI: 10.1002/jid.1361). Summary published in id21 Research Highlight: 18 December 2007. • Gorter AC, Segura ZE, Savelkoul PHM, Morré SA (2006), Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Nicaragua: Preliminary results from a competitive voucher scheme to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS among sex workers, Drugs of Today; 42 (Suppl. A): 47-54. • McKay JE, Campbell DJ, Gorter AC (2006). Lessons for management of STI treatment programs as part of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. American Journal of Public Health; 96:7-9. • Bhatia MR, Yesudian CAK, Gorter AC and Thankappan KR (2006). Demand side financing for Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in India. Economic and Political Weekly, January 2006, India. • Meuwissen LE, Gorter AC, Segura Z, Kester ADM and Knottnerus JA (2006). Uncovering and responding to needs for sexual and reproductive health care among poor urban female adolescents in Nicaragua. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 11(12):1858-1867.
  9. 9. • Meuwissen LE, Gorter AC, Kester ADM and Knottnereus A (2006). Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Latin America. BMC Public Health, 6:204 (online August 7. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-204). • Meuwissen LE, Gorter AC, Kester ADM and Knottnerus JA (2006). Can a comprehensive voucher program prompt changes in doctors’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents? A case study from Latin America. Tropical Medicine and International Health;11(6):889–898. • Meuwissen LE, Gorter AC, Knottnereus JA (2006). Impact of accessible sexual and reproductive health care on poor and underserved adolescents in Managua, Nicaragua: A quasi-experimental intervention study. Journal of Adolescent Health;38(1):56.e1-56.e9. • Meuwissen LE, Gorter AC, Knottnereus JA (2006). Perceived quality of reproductive care for girls in a competitive voucher programme. A quasi-experimental intervention study, Managua, Nicaragua. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 18(1):35-42. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Rojas Z, Salvetto M (2005). A guide to competitive vouchers in health. Private Sector Advisory Unit, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC, (ISBN: 0-8213-5855-3). • Borghi J, Gorter A, Sandiford P and Segura Z (2005). The cost-effectiveness of a competitive voucher scheme to reduce sexually transmitted infections in high-risk groups in Nicaragua. Health Policy & Planning, 20(4): 222-31. • Gorter A, Segura Z Voucher scheme for sexual and reproductive health services, Nicaragua (2004). In: UNAIDS and the Royal Tropical Institute, Techniques and practices for Local Responses to HIV/AIDS, KIT Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. • Meuwissen LE, Donaire TE, Medina JA, Segura ZE and Gorter AC (2004). Nicaragua: Introducing a voucher scheme for disadvantaged adolescents' access to services in three districts. Sexual Health Exchange, 3&4. • Gorter AC, Sandiford P, Rojas Z, Salvetto M (2003). Competitive Voucher Schemes for Health. Background Paper. ICAS/Private Sector Advisory Unit of The World Bank Group, Washington, DC. • Gorter A (2003). Evidence of effectiveness of competitive voucher schemes on HIV prevention and care for young people. Background paper ‘Global consultation on the health services response to the prevention and care of HIV/AIDS among young people’ organised by WHO with UNFPA, UNAIDS, YouthNet. Summary in: Achieving the global goals: access to services, Technical Report of a WHO Consultation, Montreux, Switzerland, 17-21 March 2003. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Salvetto M (2002). Bonos para una mejor salud sexual. Programa basado en la compra del servicio completo en lugar de financiar insumos. El Observador 24:4-5, 19 December 2002. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Salvetto M (2002). Vouchers for Health, Using Voucher Schemes for Output-Based Aid. The World Bank Group. Public Policy for the Private Sector, Viewpoint 2002; 243, 1-4. (Note available at https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/11349 ) • Sandiford P, Gorter A and Salvetto M (2002). Use of voucher schemes for output-based aid in the health sector in Nicaragua: three case studies. Paper and invited presentation at the World Bank/KfW workshop on Output-Based Aid (OBA), Frankfurt, January 24-26, 2002. • Gorter AC, Segura Z, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R (2002), The ICAS voucher scheme to combat HIV/AIDS, Nicaragua, invited presentation at the DfID Safe Passages to Adulthood & WHO Expert Meeting, Brighton, UK, December 2001. Published in the DfID/WHO Safe Passage to Adulthood series: Preventing HIV/AIDS, promoting sexual health, among especially vulnerable young people, July 2002. • Gorter A and Sandiford P (2001), Vouching for health: HIV prevention for sex workers in Nicaragua, id21 Health-Research Highlight, March 2001. An online journal: http://www.id21.org/id21ext/h6ps1g1.html • Gorter A, Segura Z, Sandiford P, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R, Ådahl S (2000). Involving partners and regular clients of sex workers in a voucher programme for improved medical care in Managua. Research for Sex Work Newsletter 3, June 2000, Amsterdam.
  10. 10. • Sandiford P, Salvetto M, Segura Z, Gorter A (2000). Clinics for sex workers in Managua. In Harper M (ed.) 'Public services through private enterprise; micro-privatisation for improved delivery', IT Publications, London, and Oxford IBH Publishers New Delhi. • Gorter A, Sandiford P, Segura Z and Villabella C (1999). Improved health care for sex workers. A voucher programme for female sex workers in Nicaragua. Research for Sex Work Newsletter 2, August 1999, Amsterdam. • Gorter AC, Sandiford P, Pauw J, Morales P, Pérez RM and Alberts H (1998), Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea. International Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 27:1090-1100. • Pauw J, Ferrie J, Rivera R, Medrano J, Gorter A and Egger M, A controlled HIV/AIDS-related health education programme in Managua, Nicaragua. AIDS 1996; 10:537-544. • Sandiford P, Gorter A and Torres MdC, Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries [letter], Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1996; 90. • Gorter AC, Alberts JH, Gago JF and Sandiford P, A randomized trial of the impact of rope pumps on water quality. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995; 98:247- 255. • Gorter AC, Sanchez G, Pauw J, Perez RM, Sandiford P and Davey Smith G, Diarrea infantil en Nicaragua rural: importancia de comprender las creencias y practicas medicas tradicionales. Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, 1995; 119:377-390. • Medrano D, Pauw J and Gorter A, "Estamos en la calle......" Un estudio sobre niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de riesgo de Managua: su modo de vida, su sexualidad, ETS y SIDA. In collaboration with UNFPA, Imprimátur 1995, Managua. • Egger M, Ferrie J, Gorter A, González S, Gutiérrez R, Pauw J and Davey Smith G, Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del SIDA entre estudiantes de escuelas secundarias de Managua. Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana 1994; 117:12-21. • Davey Smith G, Gorter A, Hoppenbrouwer J, Sweep A, Perez R, González C, Morales P, Pauw J and Sandiford P, The cultural construction of childhood diarrhoea in rural Nicaragua: Relevance for epidemiology and health promotion. Social Science and Medicine 1993; 36:1613-1624. • Sandiford P, Alberts H, Orosco JG and Gorter A, The Nicaraguan Rope Pump, Waterlines 1993; 11:27-30. • Gorter A, Miranda E, Ortells P, Davey Smith G and Low N, How many people actually use condoms, an investigation of motel clients in Managua. Social Science and Medicine 1993; 36:1645-1647. • Egger M, Ferrie J, Gorter A, González S, Gutiérrez R, Pauw J and Davey Smith G, Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS among Managuan secondary school students. Bulletin of the Panamerican Health Organization 1993; 27:360-369. • Low N, Egger M, Gorter A, Sandiford P, Gonzalez A, Pauw J, Ferrie J and Davey Smith G, Aids in Nicaragua: Epidemiological, political and sociocultural perspectives, International Journal of Health Services 1993; 23:685-702. • Low N, Aráuz R, Gorter A, Guevara M, González A, Sequeira G, Morgan M, Rocha R, Serna R, González Al and Davey Smith G, Conocimientos acerca del SIDA de la población adulta de Managua, Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana 1992; 112:319-326. • Gorter A, Sandiford P, Davey Smith G and Pauw J, Water supply sanitation and diarrhoeal disease in Nicaragua: Results from a case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 1991; 20:527-533. • Sandiford P, Morales P, Gorter A, Coyle E, Davey Smith G, Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan Experience. American J. of Public Health 1991; 81:30-37 [in editorial AJPH. Summary in Intern. Family Planning Perspectives: "Better Access to Health Services in Nicaragua Lowered Infant Mortality", 1991; 17(2):77-78.] • Arauz R,Low N,Gorter A, Davey Smith G, AIDS in Nicaragua [letter]. Lancet 1991; 337:1290. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Orozco G and Pauw J, Determinants of domestic water use in rural Nicaragua. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1990; 93:383-389. • Low N, Davey Smith G, Gorter A and Aráuz R, AIDS and migrant populations in Nicaragua [letter]. Lancet 1990; 336:1593-1594.
  11. 11. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Davey Smith G and Pauw J, Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua. Epidemiology and Infection 1989; 102:429-438. Conference Presentations and Invited Papers: • Gorter AC, Grainger C (2016), Ensuring access to care in fragile states – the experience of the Voucher Program in Yemen, invited presentation at the Development Cooperation Working Group of the German Society for Health Economics, 6 October 2016, Frankfurt • Boddam-Whetham L, Gul X, Al-Kobati E, Gorter A (2015), Providing Family Planning in Fragile Environments: the case for vouchers, Oral presentation at the fourth International Conference on Family Planning, January 25-28, 2016, Nusa Dua, Indonesia. • Gul X, Abbas A, Daredia K, Gorter A, Hamid M, Balal A (2014), IRADA: Improving Reproductive Health through Awareness, Decision and Action to improve the impact of social franchising for family planning services in rural Pakistan, Volume 19, Number S1, Book of Abstracts of The 13th Congress of the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health, May 2014. • Morgan L, Basenya O, Bhui BR, Eichler R, Gorter A, MacCauley R, Mbuthia B, and Okumu C (2013), Performance-based incentives (PBI): A Vehicle for Enhancing Quality Family Planning? Oral presentation at the Third International Conference on Family Planning, November 12 -15, 2013, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. • Gul X, Abbas A, Gorter A, Hamid M, Balal A (2013), Optimizing Demand Generation to Improve the Impact of Social Franchising for Family Planning Services in rural Pakistan, Poster at Global Health Conference on Social Marketing & Franchising, 3rd-5th December 2013, Kochi, Kerala, India • Bellows B, Gorter A, Grainger C, Okal J (2013), Organizing the evidence on family planning voucher programs: A taxonomy of program implementation and studies. Oral presentation at the Third International Conference on FP, November 12 -15, 2013, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia • Gorter AC (2013), What are Vouchers and Conditional Cash Transfers? Invited presentation at World Bank, MENA Results Based Financing Workshop, Amman, Jordan, March 25-28th, 2013. • Gorter AC (2012), Results Based Financing of Maternal and Neonatal Health Care in Low- and Lower-middle-Income Countries, presentation at the session “New paradigm or just a lot of hype? Taking a fresh look at results-based financing (RBF) in health programmes’ Experts’ talk organized by the GIZ health section, Eschborn, 12 December 2012. • Gorter AC, Grainger C (2011), Voucher Programmes: Lessons from a review of voucher programmes in Low Income Countries, invited presentation at a meeting of the Interagency Working Group on Result Based Financing, DFID´s offices, London, UK, 15 November 2011. • Gorter AC, International experience with vouchers, short presentation at DfID Health advisors’ retreat, Glasgow, UK, Feb 4 2011. • Gorter AC, Can Demand Side Financing, e.g. vouchers, assist Governments to reach MDGs and reduce Maternal Mortality? Video Conference WHO, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, September 8, 2010. • Gorter AC, McKay J, Meuwissen L, Segura Z, Medina J and Bellows B, Targeting vouchers to underserved populations in Nicaragua, oral presentation in panel: “Vouchers for Health”, The Global Health Council’s 36th Annual International Conference on Global Health, Washington, DC, May 26-30, 2009. • Gorter AC, Segura ZE, Medina JA, Rodriguez OG, Medina GM, Peralta WJ and Rovin K, Providing STI/HIV/AIDS services to glue-sniffing young people in Nicaragua: needs, relevance and feasibility, Poster at the XVII International Conference on AIDS, 3-8 August 2008, Mexico City. • McKay JE, Campbell DJ and Gorter AC, Supporting decision-makers in costing and prioritising HIV and AIDS interventions – a tool to manage rather than ignore information uncertainty, Oral Presentation IAEN Pre-Conference Meeting, Mexico 8-9 August 2008 (International AIDS Economics Network). • Gorter AC, Providing HIV and STI prevention services for sex workers, Invited Presentation at UNFPA/UNHCR sub-regional workshop on HIV vulnerability among internally displaced persons, refugees and Roma, Belgrade, Serbia, June 23-25, 2008. • Gorter AC and Bellows BW, Do competitive voucher schemes improve the provision of health care to underserved and/or vulnerable population groups? Experiences from Nicaragua, India and Africa. Invited Seminar, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, April 24, 2008.
  12. 12. • Gorter AC and McKay J, Competitive voucher schemes to increase access to and quality of sexual and reproductive health care for marginalized and/or vulnerable populations, Invited Presentation at the British Society for Population Studies meeting “Reproductive health in Latin America: costs, outcomes and policies”, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, September 20, 2007, London, UK. • Gorter AC and McKay J, Competitive Voucher Schemes for Health, Oral presentation panel “How Can Private Providers be Engaged in Serving the Poor?”, 6th World Congress on Health Economics (iHEA), July 8-11, 2007, Copenhagen. • Gorter AC, Segura ZE, Medina JA, McKay JE. Effectiveness and impact of a long running competitive voucher program providing quality STI/HIV care to groups most at risk of HIV in Nicaragua. Poster XVI International Conference on AIDS, 13-18 August 2006 and International Workshop on HIV Transmission, August 11-12 Toronto, Canada. • Gorter AC, Segura ZE, Medina JA, McKay JE. Adolescent and young sex workers in Managua, Nicaragua compared to their older peers: STI/HIV prevalence and evaluation of the effectiveness of a competitive voucher program disaggregated by age. Poster XVI International Conference on AIDS, Toronto, Canada, 13-18 August 2006. • McKay JE, Campbell DJ and Gorter AC, Can targeted, high-cost STI treatment contribute to cost-effective HIV prevention in developing countries? Evidence from a 10-year program in Nicaragua? Oral presentation IAEN Pre-Conference Meeting, Toronto 11-12 August 2006 (International AIDS Economics Network). • McKay JE, Campbell DJ, Gorter AC, Segura ZE. Can targeted STI treatment be a cost-effective contributor to HIV/AIDS prevention in developing countries despite its high unit cost? An applied study based on a long running voucher program in Nicaragua using simulation modelling to track program impacts, determine cost-effectiveness and identify cost effective program modifications. Poster XVI International Conference on AIDS, Toronto, Canada, 13-18 August 2006. • Gorter AC, Segura ZE, Savelkoul PHM, Peña AS, Morré SA (2006), Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Nicaragua: Preliminary results from a competitive voucher scheme to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS among sex workers. Poster Intern. Symp. Human Chlamydial Infections, Ontario, Canada, 18-23 June 2006. • Gorter AC, Chlamydia trachomatis in Nicaragua, Invited presentation Second Mini Symposium Chlamydia trachomatis infections, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, March 28, 2006. • Gorter AC, Segura ZE, Hermans MHA, Savelkoul PHM, Morré SA, Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among different ‘high-risk’ populations of Managua, targeted by a HIV prevention programme using a competitive voucher scheme. Poster, 16th Biennial meeting of the ISSTDR, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 10-13 July 2005. • Gorter A, Segura Z, Zuñiga E and Medina J, Scaling up a successful research project to reach vulnerable populations with STI/HIV care through a competitive voucher scheme in Nicaragua. Poster, 15th International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 11-16th July 2004. • Sandiford P, Rojas Z, Gorter AC, Salvetto M. A Toolkit on competitive voucher schemes in health. Workshop presentation at the World Bank, Washington DC, April 22, 2004. • Borghi J, Gorter A, Sandiford P & Segura Z, The Cost-Effectiveness of a Voucher Scheme to Reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections in Sex Workers and their Clients: the case of Managua, Nicaragua. Oral presentation, 4th World Congress of the International Health Economics Association, San Francisco, USA, June 15-18, 2003. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Zúñiga E, Torrentes R, Reducción de sífilis y factores de riesgo en trabajadoras sexuales de Managua, análisis de datos del Programa de bonos. Poster presentation, II Foro en VIH/SIDA/ITS de América Latina y el Caribe, La Habana, Cuba, 7-12 April 2003. • Gorter A, Segura Z, Sandiford P, Competitive Voucher Schemes for Better Health for Vulnerable Populations and Poor. Invited presentation at the Discussion Forum on Private Provision of Health Services in Developing Countries of the World Bank, Washington DC, US, November 7, 2002. • Gorter A, Segura Z, Sandiford P, Competitive vouchers and private sector provision of health care services. Invited clinic at the Private Sector Advisory Services of the World Bank, Washington DC, US, November 6, 2002. • Gorter A, Segura Z, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R, Risk factors for syphilis within a female sex worker population in Managua, analysing data from a voucher program. Oral presentation, 18th Congress of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Vienna, September 12-14, 2002 • Gorter A, Segura Z, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R, The potential of voucher schemes for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections amongst clients of sex workers. Poster presentation, XIV International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, Spain, July 2002.
  13. 13. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R, A voucher scheme to reach young sex workers (including glue-sniffing girls), to treat sexually transmitted infections and to prevent HIV transmission. Poster, XIV International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, Spain, July 2002. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R, Programa de “bonos” del ICAS para combatir el VIH-SIDA. Invited presentation at the regional workshop of the Novib Aids Platform in Latin America, Salvador, Brazil, 23-25 January 2002. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R, Un programa de ‘Bonos’ reduce las ITS en inhalantes de pega en Managua,. II Congreso Centroamericano de ITS/VIH/SIDA, Guatemala, November 2001. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Zúñiga E, Torrentes R, Un programa de bonos atrae no solo a trabajadoras sexuales sino también a su clientes, invited presentation at the UNAIDS Workshop on the development of projects on HIV/AIDS in Central America and Mexico, San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 2-3 August 2001. • Gorter A, Segura Z, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R and Sandiford P, Voucher programs can effectively reduce sexual transmitted infections in groups with high rates, the case of Managua, International Congress of Sexually Transmitted Infections Berlin, June 24 – 27, 2001. • Gorter A, Segura Z, González P and Meuwissen L, A voucher scheme for adolescents of Managua: an innovative programme to improve the uptake and quality of sexual health care, Seminar – Adolescent Sexual Health Care at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, June 4, 2001. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Torrentes R, Zuñiga E, Un programa de bonos atrae efectivamente no solo a las trabajadoras sexuales sino que también a sus parejas y/o clientes, enfocando en la prevención, detección y tratamiento de las ETS, oral “Conferencia de Cooperación Técnica en VIH y SIDA y ETS”, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, Nov 6-11, 2000. • Gorter A, Segura Z, Zuñiga E, Torrentes R and Sandiford P, A voucher programme can efficiently target groups with high need for sexual health services, the case of Managua, Oral Presentation at 13th World Aids Conference, Durban, South Africa, June 2000. • Segura Z, Gorter A, Torrentes R, Zuñiga E, Sandiford P, Un programa de prevención del VIH/SIDA en Managua; detección, tratamiento y prevención de ETS en grupos de alto riesgo a través de un innovador programa de bonos, Oral Presentation at I Congreso Centroamericano de ETS y VIH/SIDA, San Pedro Sula, Honduras Nov. 7-10, 1999. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Salvetto M and Segura Z. A voucher scheme for female sex workers. Invited paper presented at the IHSD International Forum on Current Issues in Health Sector Development, London, April 13-14, 1999. • Gorter AC, Sandiford P and Villabella C, A voucher scheme to improve access to health services for female sex workers reduces sexually transmitted diseases, abstract 12th World Aids Conference, Geneva, June 28-July 3 1998. • Villabella C, Gorter A, Sandiford P and Monge R, Ensayo de un sistema de bonos para mejorar la calidad, eficiencia y equidad de los servicios de salud y el control de las enfermedades de transmission sexual en trabajadoras sexuales, Oral Presentation at V Conferencia Latinoamericano de SIDA, Lima, Peru, Dec. 3-6, 1997. • Villabella C, Gorter A and Sandiford P, Programa de Bonos para control de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual en Trabajadoras Sexuales, Oral Presentation at XXI Congreso Centroamericano de Ginecología, Managua, Nicaragua, Nov.17-21 1997. • Gorter A, Sandiford P, Villabella C, Monge R and Standing H. Female sexworkers: more than a core. Invited paper presented at the satellite workshop on health needs for commercial sex workers at the International Congress of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Seville, Spain. 19-22 October, 1997. • Sandiford P and Gorter A, Enfermedades de Transmision Sexual/SIDA. Prevencion y Consecuencias en la Salud de Hombres y Mujeres. Presented to the II Curso International “Salud Reproductiva y Sociedad”, Lima, Peru, 3-7 March 1997. • Sandiford P, Gorter AC and Braddock M, Are voucher systems the way to organize health care in the 21st century? Oral Presentation at Sixth International Conference on System Science in Health Care, Barcelona, Spain, September 16-20, 1996. • Gorter A, Sandiford P, The voucher scheme for sex workers in Managua. Seminar – Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK, February 1996. • Espinoza F, Egger M, Gorter A, Herrmann B, Rivera R and Davey Smith G, Low incidence of AIDS in Nicaragua: why and for how much longer? Poster at the IXth International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, June 7-11, 1993.
  14. 14. • Sandiford P, Pauw J, Gorter A, Davey Smith G and Morales P, Can children with high rates of diarrhoea be identified from records of attendance at health services? Paper presented at European Regional Meeting of the International Epidemiological Association (IEA), Basel, Switzerland, Aug.29-31, 1991. • Davey Smith G, Boersma A, Pauw J, Gorter A and Sandiford P, What control group is appropriate for case-control studies of childhood diarrhoea?. Paper presented European Regional Meeting of the IEA, Basel, Aug.29-31, 1991. • Davey Smith G, Low N, Gorter A, Miranda E and Aráuz R, Condom use in motels in Managua: an opportunity for Aids prevention. Paper presented at the 35th annual meeting of the British Society for Social Medicine 1991. • Gorter A, Davey Smith G, Aráuz R and Low N, Aids prevention in motels in Managua, Paper presented at the International Conference Assessing AIDS Prevention, Montreux, Switzerland October 29-November 2, 1990. • Aráuz R, Low N, Gorter A, González A, Homosexuals and AIDS prevention in Nicaragua. Paper presented at the International Conference Assessing AIDS Prevention, Montreux, Switzerland October 29-November 2, 1990. • Low N, Aráuz R, Ortells P and Gorter A, Preventing AIDS in Nicaragua: Health education with the 'contra'. Paper presented at the International Conference Assessing AIDS Prevention, Montreux, Switzerland Oct. 29-Nov. 2, 1990. • Sandiford P, Gorter A, Pauw J and Davey Smith G, A case-control study of water accessibility and water quality as risk factors for diarrhoea. Paper presented at Congress of the 50th Anniversary Pedro Kouri Institute Tropical Medicine, Havana, Cuba, 1988.

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