2. HAWTHRONE STUDY
The Human Relation Movement began with the
They were conducted at Western Electrical
Works in USA, in between 1924-1932.
It was initially designed by Western Electric
3. Four Parts of Hawthrone Study
Part I- illumination Experiment (1924-27)
Part II- Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-
Part III- Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-
Part IV- Bank Wiring Observation Room
4. Part I- illumination Experiment (1924-
These experiments were performed to find out the effect of different of illumination
(lighting) or productivity of labours.
The brightness of light was increased and decreased to find out the effect on the
productivity of the test group. The productivity increased even when the level of
illumination was decreased.
It was concluded that factors other than light were also important.
5. Part II- Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-29)
Under these test two small group of six female telephone relay assemblers were selected.
Each group was kept in a separate room. From time to time, change were made in
working hours, rest periods, lunch breaks etc.
They were allowed to choose their own rest periods and to give suggestion.
It was concluded the social relationship among workers, participation in decision-making,
etc. had greater effect on productivity than working condition.
6. Part III- Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-20)
21,000 employees interviewed over a period of three years to find out reasons for
It was concluded that productivity can be increased if workers are allowed to talk freely
about matters that are important to them.
7. Part IV- Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment (1932)
A group of 14 male workers in bank wiring room were placed under observation of six
The researchers thoughts that the efficient workers would put pressure on the less efficient
workers to complete the work.
However, it was found that the group establish it own was found standards of output and
social pressure was use to achieved the standards of output.
8. Criticism of Hawthrone Study
The Hawthrone Study are criticized on the followings:
1. Lacks Validity.
2. More important to Human Aspects.
3. More Group-Decision Making.
4. Over importance to freedom to workers.
9. Conclusion of Hawthrone Study
1. The social factors are responsible for worker’s productivity and job
satisfaction. Only physical working conditions are no enough to increase
2. The informal relations among workers influences worker’s behavior and
performance more than formal relations in thee organization.
3. Employees will perform better if they are allowed to participate in decision-
making affecting their interests.
4. Employees will also work more efficiency when they believe that the
management is interested in their welfare.
5. When employees are treated with respect and dignity, their performance will