O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

NANO BIOSENSORS AND INTERNET OF NANO THINGS (2022)

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
SPACE BASED SOLAR POWER (2019)
SPACE BASED SOLAR POWER (2019)
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 31 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

NANO BIOSENSORS AND INTERNET OF NANO THINGS (2022)

  1. 1. 1 NANO BIOSENSORS AND INTERNET OF NANO THINGS Presented By, ANJANA A S S7 ECE LTCR19EC062 Guided By, Prof.GOPI C Assistant Professor Dept.of ECE
  2. 2. 2 CONTENTS BIOSENSORS AND NANO BIOSENSORS RELEVANCE OF IONT APPLICATIONS CHALLENGES REFERENCES
  3. 3. 3 BIOSENSORS BIOSENSORS • These are analytical devices , which measures concentration of an analyte. • In biosensors , a biological material (such as enzyme, antibody, whole cell, nucleic acid) is used to interact with the analyte. • This interaction produces a physical or chemical change which is detected by the transducer and convert it to electrical signal.
  4. 4. 4 COMPONENTS OF A BIOSENSOR • Bio elements (Analytes) • Bio receptors (Biological component) • Transducer • Electronic system Analyte Bio receptors
  5. 5. 5 COMPONENTS AND WORKIG • Bioelements: The biological elements, also known as bioanalytes, which are required to analyse and fed as input to the biosensor. • Bioreceptors: A biological element (e.g. enzymes, antibodies, DNA, synthetic molecules, etc.) which specifically recognizes and captures the analyte.
  6. 6. 6 • Transducer: This module converts the biochemical signals generated by the interaction between the bioelement and bioreceptor into a measurable electrical signal which can be used for the quantification of the analyte. • Electronic system: The electrical signal generated by the transducer is sent to this module which amplifies the signal and processes it for further utilisation such as displaying, storing, or transmitting through network.
  7. 7. 7 EXAMPLES 7
  8. 8. 8 TYPES OF BIOSENSORS 1.Calorimetric Biosensor: They measure changes in temperature due to either release (exothermic) or absorption (endothermic) of heat. Eg:Temperature biosensors. 2.Potentiometric Biosensor: They measure potential difference arising during a redox reaction. Eg: Urea biosensor. 3.Amperometric Biosensor: They measure current (flow of electrons) arising during a reaction. Eg:Glucose biosensor.
  9. 9. 9 CONTINUOUS...... 4.Conductometric Biosensor: These measure changes in electrical conductivity arising during a reaction. Eg:Urea biosensor. 5.Acoustic Wave Biosensor: They measure electric field developed by piezoelectric effects. Eg: Cocaine biosensor. 6.Optical Biosensors: They measure light arising from the action of enzyme luciferase (fire fly). Eg: Detection of bacteria.
  10. 10. 10 NANO BIOSENSORS • Product of merging biosensors and nanotechnology • Using nanomaterials for fabricating biosensors can improve the sensitivity and other vital attributes of a biosensor. • Nanotechnology makes nano biosensors portable ,wearable , and implantable in our body or in any medical device. • Nano biosensors are nothing but biosensors that are represented in nanoscale. • They are wearable , portable , highly sensitive , transportable and implantable. .
  11. 11. 11 APPLICATIONS BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 1.DNA Sensors:Genetic monitoring,Desease 2.Immunosensors:HIV,hepatitis,other viral deseases,drug testing etc. 3.Cell based sensors:Functional sensors,drug testing... 4.Point-of-care sensors:Blood, urine, electrolytes, gases, steroids, protiens,hormones,etc. 5.Bacteria sensors:Food industry,medicine,environmental,others 6.Enzyme sensors:Diabetics,drug testing,etc. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS 1.Detection of environmental pollution and toxicity. 2.Agricultural monitoring 3.Ground water screening 4.Ocean monitoring
  12. 12. 12 INTERNET OF NANO THINGS (IONT) WHAT IS IONT? • Essentially a nanoscale version of the IOT. • It is the convergent point where nanotechnology , IOT and industry meet. • IONT is the manifestation of a small-scale IOT systems that is an ideal solution for remote environmental monitoring and medical application. • It is a collection of sensor networks , data collectors and transmitters that send data from multiple entry points through the cloud into a centralized location.
  13. 13. 13 IONT HOW IONT SYSTEMS WORK? • Components in IONT network communicate with each other to transfer data over long distance. • There are two ways of communications: 1.Through the transmission of electromagnetic waves. 2.Through molecular communication which uses information that has been stored and encoded within the molecules.
  14. 14. • The initial sensor points can’t transfer the data as far as other IOT systems , so many of smaller hubs which collect the data is to be placed near to each other. But there are large components which can transfer the data over long distance. • Data has been bought togather in one place , advance algorithms , artificial intelligence processes such as machine learning , deep learning or artificial neural networks analyse the data without human input. 14
  15. 15. 15 IONT BASIC COMPONENTS OF AN IONT SYSTEMS ●NANONODES ●NANOROUTERS ●GATEWAYS ●NANO-MICRO INTERFACE DEVICES
  16. 16. IoNT ARCHITECTURE 16
  17. 17. 17 NANONODES • These are the end-points such as nano sensors and nano- actuators ,which are able to perform simple computation and processing tasks. • Due to their limited communication capabilities,reduced energy and limited memory they can only transmit over very short distances. • An example of nanonodes is nanomachines having communication capabilities combined in various types of things,such as books and keys. • These devices can also be used inside the human body as biological nanosensors.
  18. 18. 18 NANOROUTERS • Compared to nanonodes,nanorouters have larger computational resources,and they are appropriate for collecting information from limited nano machines(eg.nanosensors) • Moreover nanorouters can also monitor the behaviour of nanonodes by sending very simple control commands such as sleep,on/off,etc. • However,this would increase their size,and consequently their deployment would be more invasive.
  19. 19. 19 NANO-MICRO INTERFACE DEVICE • Information forwarded by nanorouters is aggragated by nano- micro interface devices. • These devices can handle information from microscale to nanoscale devices. • Nano-micro interfaces can be considered as hybrid devices that are able to communicate in nanoscale using nanocommunication technologies. • In addition,they can also use classical communication models in micro/macro communication networks.
  20. 20. 20 GATEWAYS • These are used to enable the remote monitoring of the entire system over the internet. • Gateways can recieve the information from a nano-micro interface and forward it to the related service provider. • For example,in the case of a healthcare monitoring system,all the sensor data from the human body can be forwarded over the internet to the healthcare provider. • The IONT architecture can also be customized according to the applications and objectives of the network in order to achieve the specific goals of a system. • For example,in the nanorouters forward the collected data to cognitive relay nodes that are usually connected to the internet for remote processing.
  21. 21. 21 • These cognitive nodes act and make decision based on the nano network conditions in order to save considerable amounts of energy in the entire system.
  22. 22. IONT COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION IN WIRELESS NANOSENSORS: COMMUNICATION OPTIONS FOR WIRELESS NANOSENSOR N/W MOLECULAR COMMUNICATIONS DIFFUSION BASED NANO-ELECTROMAGNETIC COMMUNICATIONS FLOW BASED WALKWAY BASED 22
  23. 23. Molecular communication is a new approach to communications between nano-machines, it is inspired by the communication mechanisms that occur between living cells. It is defined as the transmission and reception of information encoded in molecules. Nano-electromagnetic communication is defined as the transmission and reception of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from components. 23
  24. 24. 24 APPLICATIONS 1. Food analysis 2. Study of biomolecules and their interaction 3. Drug development 4. Medical diagnosis 5. Environmental field monitoring 6. Quality control 7. Industrial process control 8. Detection systems for biological warfare agents 9. Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and organ replacements.
  25. 25. 25 CURRENT RESERCH (WEARABLES) • Activated when sufficient sweat is detected • Measures metabolite & Electrolyte level of healthy person • Alert-Dehydration,fatigue & rising body temperature
  26. 26. 26 CURRENT RESERCH (IMPLANTABLE) • Measure glucose level. • Hyperglycemia triggers the delivery of Metformin. • patch can connect to portable analyser. • Data can be sent to smartphone or tablet.
  27. 27. 27 CURRENT RESERCH Detecting molecules associated with Neurodegenerative deseases and types of cancer.
  28. 28. 28 WEARABLE & IMPLANTABLE
  29. 29. 29 CHALLENGES .Limited computational capabilities. .Limited memoy space. .Designing lightweight protocols. .Compatibility and Integration .Sensor Validity and Temperature control .Security and Privacy .Health consequences:implanting electronic devices with radiating signals inside the human body is still a concern for the scientists and medical experts.(can overcome by using IoBNT)
  30. 30. 30 REFERENCES [1] J. Pellico, C. M. Ellis, and J. J. Davis, ‘‘Nanoparticle-based paramagnetic contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging,’’ Contrast Media Mol. Imag., vol. 2019, May 2019, Art. no. 1845637. [2] R. Nouri, Y. Jiang, X. L. Lian, and W. Guan, “Sequence-specific recognition of HIV-1 DNA with solid-state CRISPR- assisted nanopores (SCAN),” ACS Sensors, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1273–1280, May 2020. [3] A. M. C. Drăgulinescu, A. F. Manea, O. Fratu, and A. Drăgulinescu, ‘‘LoRa-based medical IoT system architecture and testbed,’’ Wireless Pers. Commun., pp. 1–23, 2020. [4] J. Best, ‘‘Could implanted medical devices be hacked?’’ Bmj, vol.368,2020.

×