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• It is the smallest unit of life.
• It is the basic structural, functional, and
biological unit of all known living
• It is consisted of cytoplasm enclosed
within a membrane, which contains
many biomolecules such
as proteins and nucleic acids.
• First discovered by Robert Hooke in
• It has a dimensions between
1- 100 micrometres.
• Cells of a multicellular organism.
• The cells are grown for prolonged periods in
• First discovered by Dr. George Otto Gey in
• First discovered cell line, HeLa cell line.
• Some cell lines are known as immortalized
• Cell lines are a very important tool for
Finite Cell Line
Primary Cell Line
Finite Cell Lines:
• Cell Lines where cell division
occurs for finite time period.
• Usually represents the losing
ability of proliferation of the
• It is determined by genetic event
Continuous Cell Lines:
• Cell Lines where cell division occurs
indefinitely also known as
“immortalized cell line”.
• Cultured cells are usually spontaneously,
chemically or virally induced.
• Usually neoplastic.
Primary Cell Line:
• Derived directly from animal tissue
• May be normal or neoplastic.
• Cultured either as tissue explants
or single cells.
• Cultured in vitro.
• Retain differentiated phenotype.
• Mainly anchorage dependent.
• Exhibit contact inhibition.
• Not viable for long time.
SECONDARY CELL LINE:
• Done by sub-culturing of
primary cell line.
• Usually by transferring of cells
from one culture vessel to
• Viable for long time.
• Anchorage independent.
• Consisting of proliferating cells.
• Cell line gets continuously
evolved and properly
• Cells are grown under controlled
conditions (in vitro).
• Cells isolated from living tissues.
• Carried out under controlled
conditions like essential nutrients,
growth factors, hormones, and
• Artificial substrate (adherent or
monolayer culture) or culture
medium (suspension culture) are
required for it.
IN-VITRO CELL CULTURE
Animal Cell Culture:
• Used provide a good model
system for studying.
• Used in toxicity testing.
• Used to observe replication
of viruses in cell cultures .
Plant Cell Culture:
• Used to produce clones of a
• To quickly produce mature
• Mainly based on totipotency.
• Large scale production of
Cell Line Organism Origin Tissue
HeLa Human Cervical Cancer
293-T Human Kidney (Embryonic)
A-549 Human Lungs Carcinoma
ALC Mouse Bone Marrow
CHO Hamster Ovary
FM 3 Human Metastatic Lymph Node
Vero Monkey Kidney
Caco-2 Human Colo-rectal Carcinoma
MCF-7 Human Breast Tumor
HeLa Cells 293-T Cells A-549 Cells
ALC Cells CHO Cells
Vero Cells Caco-2 Cells MCF-7 Cells
CELL LINE MAINTENANCE
• Creating master or working cell
• Before use, cells must be quickly
thawed to prevent crystallization.
• Transfer cells in tissue culture to
perform cell counting.
• Incubation in 370C with 5% CO2 in
• For sub-culturing cells are
• Storage in 10% DMSO and 10%
FBS at -200C for 1hr. and then at -
800C and then cryopreserved.