WHAT ARE MODELS ?
A model is a representation of the real
world phenomenon in more abstract terms
which can be applied to different forms at
WHY STUDY MODELS?
Communication is an extremely complex
It is ever changing which makes it more
For simple and generalized explanation
and understanding the structure and
functions of communication
Visualizations of the communication
Help explain the various elements of
communication and how they operate and
Organize the various elements and process
of communication in a meaningful and
Discover new facts of communication
Help generate questions concerning
communication that can be researched.
Enables to make predictions concerning
May provide means of measuring the
elements and processes involved in
LINEAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
speaker speech audience effect
Simple and Linear
In his book Rhetoric ,Aristotle advises the speaker on constructing speech for
Audience on different occasion and for different effects
The model is actually more applicable to public speaking than interpersonal
LASSWELL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION COMPONENT RESEARCH AREAS
Who Control Analysis
Says What Content Analysis
In what Channel Media Analysis
To whom Audience Analysis
With what effect Effect Analysis
Lass well model portrays the message flow in a pluralistic society in which
there are numerous channels and multiple audiences.
SHANNON AND WEAVER MODEL
message signal Received signal message
Proposed by Claude Shannon and Warner Weaver
This model led to technical improvements in the message transmission and introduced
the concept of channel noise.
It failed to consider the semantic or pragmatic levels of communication, and requisite
attention to noise and feedback components.
WENDELL JOHNSONS MODEL
Proposed in 1951.
In the figure:
The rectangle represents the context which is external to both the
sender and the receiver and even to the communication process.
Stage 1 :the point of initiation of the communication . It represents
the external event of spoken or written words that served the
stimulation for the speaker.
Stage 2:The speaker is stimulated through one or more sensory
Stage 3:organic evaluations occur.
Stage 4:feelings that are aroused at stage 3 are translated into words
Stage 5:selected linguistic symbols are arranged into a pattern. These
symbols serve as a stimulation for another receiver.
The continuous loop indicates that the various stages are actually
interrelated and interdependent.
WILBUR SCHRAMM MODEL
Year -1950 -73
Proposed by Wilbur Schramm
Sender Message Receiver
Sender Message Channel Receiver
Sender Message Channel Receiver Effect
WESTLEY AND MACLEAN’S MODEL
X =Source of Information
A = Communicator
C=Mass Communication Organization
f = feedback
WESTLEY AND MACLEAN’S MODEL
Proposed in the year of 1957 by Bruce Westley and Mac Lean .
Extension of Newcomb’s Model of Communication
Specifically adopted for the Mass Media
The model helps in explaining how messages in Mass
Communication pass through different check points called
Gatekeeper before they are actually received by the receiver.
Introduced the concept of ‘Gatekeeper”
The Main thrust of the model appears to be emphasizing the
dependency of B on A and C. What is missing from the model ,and
what later thinking about Mass Media Process insists upon are
numerous message sources and influences which work upon B
other than AC,and counter balance the influence of AC such as
the family,friends,members of peer groups,colleagues,workmates
or wider influences such as school ,churches ,trade unions etc.
BERLOS MODEL/SMCR MODEL
Source Message Channel Receiver Effects
1.Com skill Elements Seeing Com skill Positive
2.Attitudes Structure Hearing Attitudes Negative
3.Knowledge Content Touching Knowledge
4.Social system Treatment Smelling Social system
5.Culture Code Tasting Culture
Proposed by David Berlo
Explains the various components of com process
Proposed by Gerbner
The event (E) is perceived by M (the man or machine).
The process of perception is a process of active interpretation.
The way that the E is perceived will be determined by a variety of factors, such as the
assumptions, attitudes, point of view, experience of M.
The model is a useful starting-point for the analysis of wide variety of communication acts.
Note that the model, besides drawing our attention to those factors within E which will
determine perception or interpretation of E, also draws our attention to three important
E1 is the event-as-perceived (E) by the man (sic) or machine M
In the next stage of the model, M becomes the Source of a message about E to someone
else. M produces a statement about the event (SE)
To send that message, M has to use channels (or media) over which he has a greater or
lesser degree of control.
SE (statement about event) is what we would more normally call the 'message
The process can be extended ad infinitum by adding on other receivers (M2, M3etc.) who
DE –FLEUR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
Proposed in – 1966
Proposed By –De Fluer
Modification of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication
Interjection of Mass Medium Device and the feedback device
Communication is perceived as a set of concentric circles much like the waves
formed when a pebble is thrown in a pool.
Pebble= communication content.
Shore = audience
VORAS MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
Voras model presents the concept of
diffusion ,knowledge,attitude change,and
behaviour change in a dynamic and progressive
spiral that utilizes mass media and
This model emphasized the external and
internal environment and effects components
in addition to source,message,channel and
receiver components in the mass
communiction process for diffusion of