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Models and theories

  2. WHAT ARE MODELS ? A model is a representation of the real world phenomenon in more abstract terms which can be applied to different forms at different times. WHY STUDY MODELS? Communication is an extremely complex process It is ever changing which makes it more complex For simple and generalized explanation and understanding the structure and functions of communication
  4. FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION MODELS Visualizations of the communication process Help explain the various elements of communication and how they operate and interact. Organize the various elements and process of communication in a meaningful and interesting way. Discover new facts of communication Help generate questions concerning communication that can be researched. Enables to make predictions concerning communication. May provide means of measuring the elements and processes involved in communication.
  5. LINEAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION OCCASSION speaker speech audience effect Simple and Linear In his book Rhetoric ,Aristotle advises the speaker on constructing speech for different Audience on different occasion and for different effects The model is actually more applicable to public speaking than interpersonal communication
  6. LASSWELL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION COMPONENT RESEARCH AREAS Who Control Analysis Says What Content Analysis In what Channel Media Analysis To whom Audience Analysis With what effect Effect Analysis Year -1948 Lass well model portrays the message flow in a pluralistic society in which there are numerous channels and multiple audiences.
  7. SHANNON AND WEAVER MODEL Inform ation source transmi tter Noise source destina tion receive r message signal Received signal message Proposed by Claude Shannon and Warner Weaver Mathematical Model 1949 This model led to technical improvements in the message transmission and introduced the concept of channel noise. It failed to consider the semantic or pragmatic levels of communication, and requisite attention to noise and feedback components.
  9. WENDELL JOHNSONS MODEL Proposed in 1951. In the figure: The rectangle represents the context which is external to both the sender and the receiver and even to the communication process. Stage 1 :the point of initiation of the communication . It represents the external event of spoken or written words that served the stimulation for the speaker. Stage 2:The speaker is stimulated through one or more sensory channel. Stage 3:organic evaluations occur. Stage 4:feelings that are aroused at stage 3 are translated into words . Stage 5:selected linguistic symbols are arranged into a pattern. These symbols serve as a stimulation for another receiver. The continuous loop indicates that the various stages are actually interrelated and interdependent.
  10. WILBUR SCHRAMM MODEL Year -1950 -73 Proposed by Wilbur Schramm Relational Model Sender Receiver Sender Message Receiver Sender Message Channel Receiver Sender Message Channel Receiver Effect
  11. WESTLEY AND MACLEAN’S MODEL X =Source of Information A = Communicator C=Mass Communication Organization B =Audience f = feedback
  12. WESTLEY AND MACLEAN’S MODEL Proposed in the year of 1957 by Bruce Westley and Mac Lean . Extension of Newcomb’s Model of Communication Specifically adopted for the Mass Media The model helps in explaining how messages in Mass Communication pass through different check points called Gatekeeper before they are actually received by the receiver. Introduced the concept of ‘Gatekeeper” The Main thrust of the model appears to be emphasizing the dependency of B on A and C. What is missing from the model ,and what later thinking about Mass Media Process insists upon are numerous message sources and influences which work upon B other than AC,and counter balance the influence of AC such as the family,friends,members of peer groups,colleagues,workmates or wider influences such as school ,churches ,trade unions etc.
  13. BERLOS MODEL/SMCR MODEL Source Message Channel Receiver Effects 1.Com skill Elements Seeing Com skill Positive 2.Attitudes Structure Hearing Attitudes Negative 3.Knowledge Content Touching Knowledge 4.Social system Treatment Smelling Social system 5.Culture Code Tasting Culture Proposed by David Berlo Year -1960 Explains the various components of com process
  15. Proposed by Gerbner In 1956 The event (E) is perceived by M (the man or machine). The process of perception is a process of active interpretation. The way that the E is perceived will be determined by a variety of factors, such as the assumptions, attitudes, point of view, experience of M. The model is a useful starting-point for the analysis of wide variety of communication acts. Note that the model, besides drawing our attention to those factors within E which will determine perception or interpretation of E, also draws our attention to three important factors: Selection  Context Availability E1 is the event-as-perceived (E) by the man (sic) or machine M In the next stage of the model, M becomes the Source of a message about E to someone else. M produces a statement about the event (SE) To send that message, M has to use channels (or media) over which he has a greater or lesser degree of control. SE (statement about event) is what we would more normally call the 'message The process can be extended ad infinitum by adding on other receivers (M2, M3etc.) who
  16. DE –FLEUR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Proposed in – 1966 Proposed By –De Fluer Modification of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Interjection of Mass Medium Device and the feedback device
  17. HUB MODEL Communication is perceived as a set of concentric circles much like the waves formed when a pebble is thrown in a pool. Pebble= communication content. Shore = audience
  18. Knowledge Attiude and Behavior Time IE EE VORAS MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
  19. VORAS MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Voras model presents the concept of diffusion ,knowledge,attitude change,and behaviour change in a dynamic and progressive spiral that utilizes mass media and interpersonal channels. This model emphasized the external and internal environment and effects components in addition to source,message,channel and receiver components in the mass communiction process for diffusion of concepts.