Training, Pruning, Staking.pptx

23 de Mar de 2023

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Training, Pruning, Staking.pptx

  2. Definition of Training  When the plant is stalked or tied or supported over a trellisorpergola in certain fashion orsomeof its parts are removed or trimmed with aview togive the planta particularshape, thisoperation is called training. OR  Training refers to judicious removal of part todevelop a proper shape of plant capable of bearing heavy crop load.  The management of plant structure and fruiting branches is called pruning and training
  3. Objectives of Training Training controls the shape of plants. It aims at proper distribution of fruit bearing parts. Control of insect &diseases.  To facilitate interception of sunrays to each and every part of plant. To develop a balance between vegetative and reproductive growth of plant.
  4. Principles of Training Training should be started from very beginning age of plant. In plant having prominent apical dominance, the terminal bud should be removed to facilitate emergance of side branches. Drooping branches needs to be removed.
  5. Definition of Pruning Removal of any excess or undesirable/ unproductive branches, shoots or any other parts of plants so as to allow the remaining part to grow normally or according to desire of prunner is called pruning. OR Pruning is defined as the judicious removal of parts like root, leaf, flower, fruit etc. to obtain good and qualitative yield
  6. Objective of Pruning To control flowering and fruiting. To remove diseased, damaged, insect infested part of plant. To remove weak shoots. To thin out flower and fruits. To augment production in plant which bear on new shoots. It ensure access to sunlight to bearing shoots.
  7. Principle of Pruning Pruning should be completed well in advance of flowering season. Apply Bordeaux paste after pruning to avoid incidence of diseases. Diseased, damaged and insect infested shoots should be removed. Avoid injury to plant while pruning.
  9. STAKING AND TRAINING IN TOMATO PRODUCTION The main reason for staking and supporting tomato plants is to keep plants and off the ground. This reduces losses from fruit rots when fruit are not shaded by foliage. Determinate varieties are not heavily pruned, regardless of support system, because most of the fruit produced on the branches.
  10. Merits of staking tomato plants are:  It keeps the fruits above the ground  It helps in producing healthy fruits. Relatively clean, firm and large sized fruits are obtained. There are comparatively less chances from incidence of pests It facilitates spraying and dusting of pesticides/ fungicides. Cont...
  11.  It increases the plant stand per unit area.  It facilitate rapid picking and collection of fruits.  Training and staking help in better utilization of sunlight and air. Demerits:  It adds more cost of cultivation  There is a damage of spreading virus infection unless necessary precaution are taken. Cont…
  12. Stake and weavedtomato plants 1. Stake and Weave In this training system, wooden or metal stakes are driven between every other tomato plant. Lines of twine are strung between stakes on either side of the plants to provide support. Indeterminate varieties require longer stakes (5-6 feet) than determinate varieties habit help (3-4 feet.) although the growth of your specific variety will determine stake length TRAINING SYSTEMS OF TOMATO
  13. 2.Trellis Trellising is used to train indeterminate tomatoes The system consists of heavy gauge wire strung horizontally across the top of widely spaced, sturdy (3-6 inch) support posts. Lengths of twine are dropped from this top wire and secured to the base of each tomato plant (or to a bottom wire, if used).
  14. 3.Cages A foot length of mesh can be folded into a cylindrical cage with an 18 inch diameter. The cage can be supported by a stake, or if the bottom cross-wires are cut out the cage can be pressed into the ground on its wire "feet.“ For indeterminate varieties, cages should be 5 feet high; determinate varieties can be grown with shorter cages.
  15. Comparison of Tomato TrainingSystems Factor Ground (1) Cage (2) Stake and Weave (3) Trellis (4) Earliness 3rd 4th 2nd Best Fruit Size 4th 3rd 2nd Largest Marketable Yield 4th Largest 2nd 3rd Fruit Cracking 3rd 4th 2nd Worst Fruit Rotting Worst 2nd 2nd 2nd Fruit Quality Worst 2nd 2nd 2nd Fruit Sunburn Worst 4th 3rd 2nd Cost/Acre 4th 2nd Largest 3rd Pest Control 4th 3rd 2nd Best Ground cage Stake and weave Trellis
  16. TRAINING AND PRUNING OF TOMATOIN PROTECTED CULTIVATION Greenhouse tomatoes, as a result of their indeterminate growth habit, require continuous pruning and training to the trellis system. The trellis system consists of wire cable stretched from one end of the house to the other between two anchor posts.  The anchors should be metal posts cemented into the greenhouse floor. The cable is stretched tightly over each row of plants at a height of 8 to 10 feet and fastened on one end to a cable tightener. Cont…
  17. The downward pull exerted on the cable by a single tomato plant with five or six well-developed clusters of fruit might be 10 to 12 pounds. Therefore, extra supporting posts will be needed every 20 to 30 feet down the row of plants. Cable diameter should be at least 1/16 inch with 3/32 inch preferred. Cont…
  18. Training and Pruning of Capsicum in Protected Cultivation Pruning Capsicum plants are pruned to retain four stems. The tip of the plant splits into two at 5th or 6th node and are left to grow.  These two branches again split in to two giving rise to four branches. At every node the tip splits into two giving riseto one strong branch and one week branch.  The pruning is done after 30 days of transplanting at an interval of 8 to 10 days,  Resulting in bigger fruits with better quality and high productivity. The capsicum plants can also be pruned to two stems and same level of yield can be maintained. Conti…
  19. Training The main stem of plant is tied with four plastic twine to train along and tied to GI wire grid provided on the top of the plants. This is practiced after four weeks of transplanting. The new branches and plants are trained along the plastic twines. Cont…
  20. Training and Pruning of Cucumber in Protected Cultivation Branches, leaves, flowers and fruit should be pruned to maintain a proper balance between the vegetative and reproductive growth to maximize production.  Cucumbers are often trained on a string or wire system. The umbrella system, which is best used for seedless varieties, is straightforward and not too demanding in labour. Seeded cucumber varieties perform best with the tree trellis system
  21. Umbrella System This system is straightforward, not too demanding in labor and easily understood. 1.Tie the cucumber plant to a vertical wire (A), 7 feet tall. Pinch out the growing point at the top. 2.Provide support for all fruit that develops on the lower part of the main stem. 3.Remove all laterals in the leaf axis on the main stem. (B)
  22. 4.The top two laterals should be trained over the wire to hang down on either side of the main stem. Allow these to grow to two-thirds of the way down the main stem. (E) 5.When the fruits on the first laterals have been harvested (C), those laterals should be removed back to a strong shoot, allowing the second laterals to take over (D). Repeat this process for lateral (E). 6.This renewal system will maintain productivity of plants.
  23. Tree Trellis System 1.Tie the cucumber plants to horizontal wires (B) spaced about 2 feet apart. The top wire should be about 6 feet from the ground. 2.Remove all the leaves and laterals on the bottom 20 inches of the plants. (D) 3.When the main stem has reached the top wire, tie it and remove the growing tip. (F)
  24. 4.Allow the laterals at each leaf axis along the main stem to develop two leaves, then cut the growing point. (E) 5.Train the top shoot developing the leaf axis along the wire. (G) 6.When most of the fruit has been harvested on the main stem, allow a lateral to develop as replacement and prune in the same manner as the main stem. (H)
  25. Over Head “Vertical Line” Trellis System Allow only one main stem to develop by pruning all lateral vines. Continue to remove all lateral vines on the main stem throughout the life of the crop
  26. Traning and Pruning in Bittergourd  Training the vines are allowed to spread on bower made from bamboo sticks.  Bitter gourd develops many side branches that are not productive. To improve yield, remove lateral branches until the runner reaches the top of the trellis.  Leave 4–6 laterals and cut the tip of the main runner to induce early cropping. Removal of lateral branches in the first 10 nodes has a positive effect on total yield.  Without pruning, most of the female flowers occur between the 10 th and 40 th nodes, or at a height of 0.5–2.0 m.
  27. Training and Pruning in Bottlegourd  Trained on bower system .  The auxiliary buds are to be removed weekly till the vine attaining bower and finally the top of the vine is to be pruned 15 cm below the bower allowing two auxiliary buds to grow which are later in trialed on the bower.  Two months after sowing male flower initiate following the female in the sequence of 5:5 at the end of 5th flower of female the vines are again pruned allowing 2-3 auxilliary bud to grow on the primary vines. When crop attains 2 ½- 3 month and stem of vine become thumb thickness the jute string is to removed and older pale to yellow coloured leaves near the bottom of the vine are to be removed and destroyed.
  28. Training and Pruning in Ridge gourd and Sponge gourd  In small homestead gardens, ridge gourd and sponge gourd are trailed or pandal at 1.5-2.0 m height.  Commercial crop are trained on a kniffing system.  The crop is trained when the seedling are about 10 -15 cm tall. The early crop can be allowed to trail on the ground, rainy season crop should be staked so that the fruits are prevented from direct contact with the soil.
  29. Ratooning DEFINITION  It is a practice of cultivation crop regrowth after the first harvest for subsequent production. OR  Ratoon croping is growing a fresh crop from the stubbles or sucker of the plant crop without replanting.
  30. Ratooning in Brinjal  In northern plains the kharif crop of brinjal is transplanted in july and gives good fruiting till the end of november.  But due to prevailing low temperature in Dec. and Jan., fruiting and plant growth is totally checked. The summer crop of brinjal is planted at the end of Feb. or in the first week of march which starts giving fruiting only in the beginning of May.  This crops gives very poor return to the growers due to very late fruiting and also because of low yield in extremely hot months of summer season.
  31.  An extra early and profitable production of this vegetable can be obtained in spring summer season by following ratooning technology standardised by the division of vegetable crops, IARI,New Delhi. For this, the standing crop of kharif season is protected from frost and cold injury in Dec. and Jan. by giving 3-4 light irrigartion in the field.  When the danger of frost is over in the last week of Jan.or first week of Feb., the plant of standing crop are pruned in such a way that only 30-40 cm plant portion is left above the ground .  Dwarf varieties should be pruned lightly, whereas tall and spreading type should be pruned more severely as per their growth habit.
  32.  After that weeding spading is done and fertilezer Diammonium phosphate @150 kg/ha is mixed properly in the soil . Irrigation are given from time as per the requirement of the crop.  Two or three protective spray of insecticide and pesticide should be given at 15 days interval.  The first picking of fruit can be made 30 to 40 days after pruning.  Extra early harvest of fruit available from middle of march gives higher profit to the growers.  As per observation, 30 to 40 percent extra yield can br obtained from ratoon crop as compared to newly planted brinjal in summer season.
  33. Traning, Pruning and Ratooning in Pointed gourd  Training system Vines trained on trellis system facilitate effective pollination and luxuriant plant growth leading to earlier flowering and higher yields than flat bed system. (K. Singh 1989;Yadav et al. 1989) Genarally training is done by two system:- Bower system –Horizontal netted wire support 2.5 m above ground level. Single row trellis system – The trellis is generally 2 m high, constructed from stakes 2 m apart, where a system of vertical strings is spaced 30 cm apart between horizontal wires beginning 1 m above the soil surface.
  34. Pruning  During winter plants undergo a dormant phase and the growth of meristematic tissues is retarded to a great extent. Pruning vines to 30 cm long before winter increase fruit yield. (Anon,2005) Ratooning For ratoon crop, the NPK mixture with well FYM is applied by loosening the soil around the mound towards the end of winter or before start of fruiting every year.
  35. Training of Ivy gourd  Ivy gourd can be grown with training on trellis, 80 cm in height , staking with bamboo sticks, 2 m in length, and secured with plastic ties  Shoot tips are usually pruned three days after transplanting to stimulate vegetable growth for extra branches at the early stage of production. (Lin et al.,2006)
  36. Pruning of Ivygourd  Under dry cool conditions, plant growth slows down and the plant is readily infected by powdery mildew. Besides, older branches that dry out and become corky will no longer produce leaves.  The bottom 30 cm from the ground should be pruned to leave it bare. if the plant is grown for young shoots, flower and fruits should be cut back to stimulate new growth.
  37. Training, Pruning and Ratooning in MORINGA  Pinching the terminal bud when the central main stem is necessary and it attains a height of 75 cm which will be 75 days after planting.  Vijayakumar et al.(2002) reported that early pinching at 60 days after sowing is better than pinching at 90 days to realize higher pod yields.  Cutting down the plant to a height of about one meter from the ground level can be practices after one year of planting to allow ratooning of the crop.
  38.  This ratooning results in sprouting of several new branches and it is better to allow 6 to 10 branches per tree starting at a height of about 60 cm above the ground level.  This can be done during winter (Nov.-Dec.) during which no fruit production is seen. Crop can be normally retained for 3-4 years with regular pruning once an year.