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Women trafficing

  1. presentation By Angad Singh M.Phil. Bio-statistics and Demography IIPS Mumbai 9 October , 2017 Women Trafficking in India
  2. Human Trafficking is as prevalent , present & real as Earth, water and air
  3. INTRODUCTION Traffic in human being means selling and buying men and women like good Women trafficking is a group of crimes involving the exploitation of women for financial gains which is violation of fundamental human rights. Women trafficking is the 3rd largest international crime.  20,000 girls are transported every year from India.  Millions of women and children are victims of trafficking. Women trafficking is a part of the larger problem of slavery Women trafficking is when Women are transported, by force or deception, to become enslaved.  Traffickers use blackmail, abuse, and threats to force victims to comply with their wishes in the destination country.  Usually caused by poverty/lack of economic opportunities, especially for women and children, and a demand for certain services in the destination country
  4. Constitutional Provisions on Trafficking • Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India. The specific provisions relates to Article 23 (1) of the Constitution which is as follows:- • 'Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law'.
  5. • Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and its Optional Protocols (Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography) [Ratified] • Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) [Ratified] • UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime [Signed] • Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially. Women and Children supplementing above Convention [Signed] • • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). International Legal Instruments
  6. SAARC • SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution [Ratified]. • SAARC Convention on Regional Arrangements for Promotion of Child Welfare in South Asia [Ratified]. • SAARC Charter where trafficking issues to be addressed at regional level
  7. National Legal Framework • Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1956 (being amended) • Indian Penal Code (select provisions) • Juvenile Justice ( Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000 • Child Marriage Prohibition Act 2006
  8. National Policies and Plans • National Child Labour Policy, 1987 • National Policy for the Empowerment of Women, 2001 • National Plan of Action to combat trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of women and children (1998) • National Plan of Action for Children, 2004 • Integrated National Plan of Action to Prevent and Combat Trafficking of Human Beings, with Special focus on Women and Children (being formulated)—will look at trafficking for all purposes
  9. COMMISSIONS • National Commission for Human Rights. • National Commission for Women. • Nation Commission for Protection of Child Rights.
  10. REASONS BEHIND WT • Prostitution • Religious Traditions • Labor Exploitation • Organ Trading • Begging , Entertainment • Adoption • Marriages • Pornography • Enmity 10
  11. 11 • 22ndnd largest criminal industry after druglargest criminal industry after drug trafficking.trafficking. • 2.70 crore people are victims of HT world wide.2.70 crore people are victims of HT world wide. • 95 % experience physical or sexual violence95 % experience physical or sexual violence • 40 lac prostitutes in India40 lac prostitutes in India • 40 % of them are minor40 % of them are minor • 80 % victims of HT are women & girls80 % victims of HT are women & girls HUMAN TRAFFICKING IS AHUMAN TRAFFICKING IS A REALITYREALITY
  12. Case Reported of Human Trafficking (2015) • India total – 6877, Stats – 6772, UT's – 105 • 1.) Assam – 1494 , (21.7%) • 2.) West Bengal – 1522 (18.2%) • 3.) Tamil Nadu – 577 (8.4%) • 4.) Telangana – 561 (8.2%) • 5.) Karnataka - 507 (7.4%) • 6.) Maharashtra – 421 (6.1%) • Girls imported from foreign countries – 0.0 (Reference NCRB -2015)
  14. Combating Trafficking has been a non-priority , neglected and unimportantnon-priority , neglected and unimportant area for the police, the people and the societythe police, the people and the society 14
  15. ROOTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING Human trafficking is economy driven & demand generated . Demand &Supply nexus • PovertyPoverty • Illiteracy and UnemploymentIlliteracy and Unemployment • Bad governanceBad governance • Skewed DevelopmentSkewed Development • Gender based violenceGender based violence • Demand for the victimsDemand for the victims • Poor enforcement of lawsPoor enforcement of laws • Lack of concern and indifference of the societyLack of concern and indifference of the society 15
  16. Dimensions of HT in India - Supplier (Gulf Countries)Supplier (Gulf Countries) - Transit point (For Nepalis and Bangladeshis)- Transit point (For Nepalis and Bangladeshis) - Receiver (From Nepal and Bangladesh)- Receiver (From Nepal and Bangladesh) Indian share in victims of HT world over is 4.7 % Young Boys and Girls are trafficked from economically under develop areas to economically well off states within India.
  17. COMBATTING HUMAN TRAFFICKING Prevention Protection Prosecution 17
  18. 2. SOCIETY’S MIND SET • Not ready to accept victims of human trafficking as equal human beings worth re-integrating with society • Response of stake holders has been unwelcoming generally with few exceptions 18
  19. Family Response Weep Curse Forget & Hate 19
  20. Police Response Take Make Fake & Forget 20
  21. Societal Response Joke Mock Laugh & Hate 21
  22. Protection Home Manager’s Response Receive Deceive Abuse & Dispose 22
  23. NGO’s Response Discovery Recovery Custody Study Publish & Rubbish 23
  24. Ideal Response Suppress Prevent Educate Regulate Rehabilitate & Re-integrate 24
  25. IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY Fuels organized crime Deprives countries of human capital Promotes social breakdown Undermines public heal Subverts government authority Imposes enormous economic cost
  26. IMPACT ON VICTIMS  Loss of support from family and community  Loss of proper education  Obstacles in physical development  Psychological Traumas
  27. 3. CHANGE APPROACH TOWARDS COMBATING PROSTITUTION • Break demand-supply nexus • Make prostitution per se an offence & customer liable • Attempt in 2006 to amend PITA failed • Do we have the mechanism & infrastructure to rehabilitate and reintegrate 40 lac sex workers ? 27
  28. 4. BREAKING DEMAND SUPPLY CIRCLE (REDUCING DEMAND) • Improve male-female sex ratio • Proper enforcement of MTP & PCPNDT Laws • Educating the masses about importance of girl child • Strengthening moral fiber of the society • Sex-ratio(0-6) age group- all India- 919, Haryana- 834, improved by 10 points in last decade 28
  29. 5. BREAKING DEMAND-SUPPLY NEXUS (REDUCING SUPPLY) • Rehabilitation of children of sex workers • Reintegration of rescued sex workers • Post work rehabilitation of sex workers • Rehabilitation and reintegration of active sex workers • Ujjawala scheme of Govt. of India 29
  30. Combating HT for Labor Exploitation Laws are strict, enforcement is weak • Demand in every middle class family & in small time business • Mushrooming of placement service agencies • How to improve enforcement machinery, Non-priority area • Rehabilitation of the victims, lack of infrastructure • Public to be awakened for not employing children • Disabilities of civil nature for industries employing child labour • Enforcement of Right to education laws • Definition of child needs revisit • Zero tolerance on child labour
  31. COMBATTING TRAFFICKING FORCOMBATTING TRAFFICKING FOR MARRIAGESMARRIAGES • Trafficked for marriage, re-trafficked, re-trafficked and so on • Breaking the nexus of re-trafficking • Strict action against traffickers • Such trafficked women become facilitator • Trafficked women are treated second rate citizen • Protection of civil, personal and social rights of the trafficked brides and their off-springs 31
  32. TRAFFICKING FOR ORGAN TRADE, BEGGING RECREATION, PORNOGRAPHIC PURPOSES • Laws are strict • Law enforcement agencies need to be educated and geared up • Focus and priority 32
  33. WHAT IS LACKING? • Orientation • Competency • Will power • Public co-operation • Focus • Supervision and monitoring 33
  34. Way ahead…… •NCRB to collect data •Anti-Human Trafficking Bureau for quality investigation •National Portal on HT where citizen can upload pictures and information about trafficked person •Continuous public awareness campaign •Create adequate infrastructure for rehabilitation and re- integration of victims of HT as per PITA, JJ Act etc. •Central legislation for preventing religious prostitution & begging
  35. • Improve Sex Ratio, • Research should be encouraged in the Universities • Involving civil society, for identification & rehabilitation • Enforcement of existing laws to be ensured. • Accountability of all law enforcement agencies including Police , Labor deptt, Social Welfare deptt, Health deptt etc. should be fixed for inadequate enforcement of law.
  36. Remember • Human life is a gift of our Creator and it should never be for sale. -President BushPresident Bush • Human Trafficking is a degradation of our common Humanity - Barrack ObamaBarrack Obama • Civilization can not sustain unless justice is given to every soul.
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