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(6) consonants (articulation aspects)

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(6) consonants (articulation aspects)

  1. 1. VoicingPlace of ArticulationManner of ArticulationCONSONANTSPART ONE
  2. 2. WHAT IS CONSONANT? Consonant is a speech sound produced bycompletely or partly stopping the air being breathedout through the mouth.(Hornby: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Consonant is a speech sound which ispronounced by stopping the air from flowing easilythrough the mouth, especially by closing the lips ortouching the teeth with the tongue.(Cambridge University Press. : Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).
  3. 3.  English consonants are described bythe IPA (International PhoneticsAlphabets) based on:A. Voicing;B. Place of articulation; andC. Manner of articulation.
  4. 4. A. Voicing The aspects of voicing are: voiced consonants(those created by the vibration of the vocal cordsduring production); and voiceless consonants(those created by the absence of vibration of thevocal cords during production).NOTE:In phonetic chart of the English consonants, wheresymbols appear in pairs, the one to the rightrepresents a voiced consonant.
  5. 5. B. Place of Articulation:Place of articulation refers to theplaces where the air stream from thelungs or the sound stream from thelarynx is constricted (limited) by thearticulators.
  6. 6. Place: Description:Bilabial Produced by lower and upper lips. Such as: [p, b, m, (w)].Labiodental Produced by lower lip and upper front teeth. Such as: [f, v].DentalProduced by tip or blade of the tongue and the upper front teeth.Such as: [θ, ð].AlveolarProduced by tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge or the gum.Such as: [t, d, n, s, z, ɹ (r), l].PalatoAlveolarProduced by the blade of the tongue and the back part of the alveolarridge.Such as: [ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ].Palatal Produced by front of the tongue and the hard palate. Such as: [j].VelarProduced by back of the tongue and the velum (soft palate).Such as: [k, g, ŋ, w].Glottal Produced in the epiglottis. Such as: [h].The Description of Places of Articulation:
  7. 7. C. Manner of Articulation:Manner of articulation refers to howthe air stream from the lungs isdirected to the mouth and modifiedby the various structures to producea consonant phoneme.
  8. 8. The Description of Manner of Articulation:Manner: Description:PlosiveProduced by the obstruction of air stream from the lungs followedby a release of the air stream. Such as: [p, b, t, d, k, g]NasalProduced by the release of the air through the nasal cavity.Such as: [m, n, ŋ]FricativeProduced by the release of a „frictionlike noise‟ created by the airstream escaping through a variant of narrow gaps in the mouth.Such as: [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h]LateralApproximantProduced by the obstruction of the air stream at a point along thecenter of the oral track, with incomplete closure between one orboth sides of the tongue and the roof of the tongue. Such as: [l]ApproximantProduced by proximity (closeness) of two articulators withoutturbulence (hard movement and frictionlike noise).Such as: [w, ɹ (r), j]AffricateProduced by involving more than one of those manners ofarticulation. Firstly, produce the sounds in the alveolar ridge, thenfollowed by or combined with fricative sounds. Such as: [tʃ, dʒ]
  9. 9. PHONETIC DIAGRAM OF ENGLISHCONSONANTS:p b t d k gm n ŋf v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ htʃ dʒ(w) r j wlBilabial Labio-dentalDental Alveolar Palato-alveolarPalatal Velar GlottalPlosiveNasalFricativeApproximantLateralApproximantAffricateNote: /w/ is also categorized as a voiced labiovelar approximant.
  10. 10. The Explanation of ConsonantsPresentation Format: For the purposes of clarity and consistency of theparameters of consonant sounds, generally, it can bedetermined sequentially based on the three aspects ofconsonants: Describe the sound based on the voicing; Describe the sound based on the place of articulation; and Describe the sound based on the manner of articulation.Thus, to make a sound parameter of /b/ for example, we candescribe it as following:“/b/ is a voiced bilabial plosive sound”.
  11. 11. The Phonetic Transcriptions of the English Consonantsin Words:Consonants: Words:PhoneticTranscriptions:[p] pen /pen/[b] bad /bæd/[t] tea /ti:/[d] did /dɪd/[k] cat /kæt/[g] got /gɒt/[tʃ] chin /tʃɪn/[dʒ] June /dʒu:n/[f] fall /fɔ:l/[v] van /væn/[θ] thin /θɪn/[ð] then /ðen/
  12. 12. Consonants: Words: Phonetic Transcriptions:[s] so /səʊ/[z] zoo /zu:/[ʃ] she /ʃi:/[ʒ] vision /vɪʒn/[h] how /haʊ/[m] man /mæn/[n] no /nəʊ/[ŋ] sing /sɪŋ/[l] leg /leg/[r] red /red/[j] yes /jes/[w] wet /wet/
  13. 13. Consonant Cluster: “A cluster is when two or moreconsonants of different places ofarticulation are produced together in thesame syllable.”(Source: Linda I. House – Introductory Phonetics and Phonology) Note that clusters are determined basedon the sounds, not the letters of the words.
  14. 14.  Initial clusters are usually formed by combining various consonants withthe /s/, /r/, or /l/ phonemes.Examples:sleep [sli:p], green [gri:n], blue [blu:] Medial clusters usually appear at the beginning of a second or thirdsyllable in a multisyllabic word.Examples:regret [rɪgret], apply [əplaɪ], approve [əpru:v]• Final clusters are usually composed of a variety of phonemes including/sk/, /mp/, /ns/, /st/, and /ŋk/.Examples:desk [desk], camp [kæmp], mince [mɪns], fast [fɑ:st],bank [bæŋk].Clusters can appear in the initial, medial, orfinal positions of words: