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VoicingPlace of ArticulationManner of ArticulationCONSONANTSPART ONE
WHAT IS CONSONANT? Consonant is a speech sound produced bycompletely or partly stopping the air being breathedout through the mouth.(Hornby: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Consonant is a speech sound which ispronounced by stopping the air from flowing easilythrough the mouth, especially by closing the lips ortouching the teeth with the tongue.(Cambridge University Press. : Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).
English consonants are described bythe IPA (International PhoneticsAlphabets) based on:A. Voicing;B. Place of articulation; andC. Manner of articulation.
A. Voicing The aspects of voicing are: voiced consonants(those created by the vibration of the vocal cordsduring production); and voiceless consonants(those created by the absence of vibration of thevocal cords during production).NOTE:In phonetic chart of the English consonants, wheresymbols appear in pairs, the one to the rightrepresents a voiced consonant.
B. Place of Articulation:Place of articulation refers to theplaces where the air stream from thelungs or the sound stream from thelarynx is constricted (limited) by thearticulators.
Place: Description:Bilabial Produced by lower and upper lips. Such as: [p, b, m, (w)].Labiodental Produced by lower lip and upper front teeth. Such as: [f, v].DentalProduced by tip or blade of the tongue and the upper front teeth.Such as: [θ, ð].AlveolarProduced by tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge or the gum.Such as: [t, d, n, s, z, ɹ (r), l].PalatoAlveolarProduced by the blade of the tongue and the back part of the alveolarridge.Such as: [ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ].Palatal Produced by front of the tongue and the hard palate. Such as: [j].VelarProduced by back of the tongue and the velum (soft palate).Such as: [k, g, ŋ, w].Glottal Produced in the epiglottis. Such as: [h].The Description of Places of Articulation:
C. Manner of Articulation:Manner of articulation refers to howthe air stream from the lungs isdirected to the mouth and modifiedby the various structures to producea consonant phoneme.
The Description of Manner of Articulation:Manner: Description:PlosiveProduced by the obstruction of air stream from the lungs followedby a release of the air stream. Such as: [p, b, t, d, k, g]NasalProduced by the release of the air through the nasal cavity.Such as: [m, n, ŋ]FricativeProduced by the release of a „frictionlike noise‟ created by the airstream escaping through a variant of narrow gaps in the mouth.Such as: [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h]LateralApproximantProduced by the obstruction of the air stream at a point along thecenter of the oral track, with incomplete closure between one orboth sides of the tongue and the roof of the tongue. Such as: [l]ApproximantProduced by proximity (closeness) of two articulators withoutturbulence (hard movement and frictionlike noise).Such as: [w, ɹ (r), j]AffricateProduced by involving more than one of those manners ofarticulation. Firstly, produce the sounds in the alveolar ridge, thenfollowed by or combined with fricative sounds. Such as: [tʃ, dʒ]
PHONETIC DIAGRAM OF ENGLISHCONSONANTS:p b t d k gm n ŋf v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ htʃ dʒ(w) r j wlBilabial Labio-dentalDental Alveolar Palato-alveolarPalatal Velar GlottalPlosiveNasalFricativeApproximantLateralApproximantAffricateNote: /w/ is also categorized as a voiced labiovelar approximant.
The Explanation of ConsonantsPresentation Format: For the purposes of clarity and consistency of theparameters of consonant sounds, generally, it can bedetermined sequentially based on the three aspects ofconsonants: Describe the sound based on the voicing; Describe the sound based on the place of articulation; and Describe the sound based on the manner of articulation.Thus, to make a sound parameter of /b/ for example, we candescribe it as following:“/b/ is a voiced bilabial plosive sound”.
The Phonetic Transcriptions of the English Consonantsin Words:Consonants: Words:PhoneticTranscriptions:[p] pen /pen/[b] bad /bæd/[t] tea /ti:/[d] did /dɪd/[k] cat /kæt/[g] got /gɒt/[tʃ] chin /tʃɪn/[dʒ] June /dʒu:n/[f] fall /fɔ:l/[v] van /væn/[θ] thin /θɪn/[ð] then /ðen/
Consonants: Words: Phonetic Transcriptions:[s] so /səʊ/[z] zoo /zu:/[ʃ] she /ʃi:/[ʒ] vision /vɪʒn/[h] how /haʊ/[m] man /mæn/[n] no /nəʊ/[ŋ] sing /sɪŋ/[l] leg /leg/[r] red /red/[j] yes /jes/[w] wet /wet/
Consonant Cluster: “A cluster is when two or moreconsonants of different places ofarticulation are produced together in thesame syllable.”(Source: Linda I. House – Introductory Phonetics and Phonology) Note that clusters are determined basedon the sounds, not the letters of the words.
Initial clusters are usually formed by combining various consonants withthe /s/, /r/, or /l/ phonemes.Examples:sleep [sli:p], green [gri:n], blue [blu:] Medial clusters usually appear at the beginning of a second or thirdsyllable in a multisyllabic word.Examples:regret [rɪgret], apply [əplaɪ], approve [əpru:v]• Final clusters are usually composed of a variety of phonemes including/sk/, /mp/, /ns/, /st/, and /ŋk/.Examples:desk [desk], camp [kæmp], mince [mɪns], fast [fɑ:st],bank [bæŋk].Clusters can appear in the initial, medial, orfinal positions of words: