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Happy webusers - World Information Arcitecture Day 2015

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Happy webusers - World Information Arcitecture Day 2015

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A discussion of the issues affecting the experience of older people and people with disability when online and some of the simple solutions to 'make them happy' in keeping with the WIAD theme for 2015

A discussion of the issues affecting the experience of older people and people with disability when online and some of the simple solutions to 'make them happy' in keeping with the WIAD theme for 2015


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Happy webusers - World Information Arcitecture Day 2015

  1. 1. Are all users ‘happy’ with your website? Andrew Arch @amja
  2. 2. Which of these users will be happy?
  3. 3. Which of these users will be happy?  Young man using head wand to type  Person using sign language over a video link  Older man sitting at desk with 6 screens  Hand holding mobile phone  Elderly women typing on laptop  Young women feeling refreshable baille (laptop screen is dark)  Child using mouse at computer
  4. 4. Do you know you users?  In Australia our population is ageing: ◦ 14% > 65 yrs (2012) ◦ 19% > 65 yrs (2031)
  5. 5. Do you know your users?  Disability in Australia: ◦ 18.5% of population ◦ 50% of people > 65 yrs
  6. 6. Are they online?  ~50% of older people are online
  7. 7. Do you care?  In 2012 seniors held over 40% of the nation's assets. Couples between 50 and 70 have the highest median net worth: $900,000!  Amazon does – in 2013 they launched a sub- site dedicated to people over 50  Coles does – after court case  Smashing Mag thinks we all should in 2015
  8. 8. Older people and people with disabilities care! There are many reasons why all Australians need to be connected, and those reasons grow in number and importance each year. • The internet … presents a significant opportunity for increasing the wellbeing of all of us as we age. We must ensure that older Australians don’t miss out on these benefits. • Susan Ryan, Ruby Hutchison Memorial Lecture, March 2012 • With disability, the web becomes more vital and at the same time more difficult to access. • Graeme Innes, July 2012
  9. 9. Unprecedented opportunities for:  Social interaction and communication  Access to information  Access to eCommerce  Access to government services and civic participation  Training and learning opportunities  Employment, research, and access to workplace applications
  11. 11. How are people affected?  Many disabilities impact access to print and the web: ◦ Visual (e.g. colour blindness, low vision, blindness) ◦ Auditory (e.g. hearing loss, deafness) ◦ Physical (e.g. limited motor skills) ◦ Cognitive and neurological (e.g. difficulty reading, concentrating, understanding, remembering) ◦ Users may have multiple disabilities (e.g. a deaf-blind user, older people)  Plus situational requirements …
  12. 12. Ageing and hearing loss  Impact: ◦ Audio can be difficult to discern ◦ Higher pitch sounds can be missed  Prevalence: ◦ 47% of people 61 to 80 years ◦ 93% of people 81+ years
  13. 13. Ageing and vision decline  Impact: ◦ Decreasing ability to focus on near tasks ◦ Changing colour perception and sensitivity ◦ Decreasing contrast sensitivity  Prevalence: (significant vision loss) ◦ 16% of people 65 - 74 years ◦ 19% of people 75 – 84 years ◦ 46% of people 85+ years
  14. 14. Ageing and physical decline  Impact: (Motor skill decline can result from many conditions including arthritis and Parkinson's Disease) ◦ Difficulty using mouse or keyboard ◦ Difficult to click small areas ◦ Strain from non-ergonomic tasks  Prevalence: (Conditions commonly reported) ◦ Arthritis  Affects at least 50% of people over 65 ◦ Essential tremor  Affects up to 20% of people over 65 ◦ Parkinson's Disease  Affects approx. 4% of people over 85
  15. 15. Ageing and cognitive decline  Impact: Navigation, comprehension, and task completion can be affected by: ◦ Short term memory issues ◦ Difficulty with concentration ◦ Distraction from movement or irrelevant material ◦ Difficulty coping with information overload  Prevalence: (Conditions commonly reported) ◦ Dementia:  1.4% of people 65-69 yrs  24% of people 85+ yrs ◦ Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is more common:  Around 20% of people over 70 years are estimated to experience MCI
  16. 16. What can you do?
  17. 17. Tackle usability? http://www.semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.php
  18. 18. Apply some standards? Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 • Perceivable • Operable • Understandable • Robust
  19. 19. Accessible web content Requirements include:  Readable and understandable text  Identifiable and understandable links  Clear and identifiable headings  Good orientation and navigation  WCAG 2.0 addresses these
  20. 20. Usability improvements Usability improvements especially help older people and people with disabilities: • Page layout and design - provide consistency and avoid overload • Text presentation - use left justification, increase line spacing & margins, avoid italics and underlining • Forms - avoid complexity and provide clear guidance • Menus and links - provide predictability and consistency  WCAG 2.0 also addresses these
  21. 21. Websites for Older People: How WCAG 2.0 Applies Perceivable • Text size • Text style and text layout • Color and contrast • Multimedia • Text-to-speech (speech synthesis) • CAPTCHA Operable • Links • Navigation and location • Mouse use • Keyboard use and tabbing • Distractions • Sufficient time Understandable • Page organization • Understandable language • Consistent navigation and labeling • Pop-ups and new-windows • Page refresh and updates • Instructions and input assistance • Error prevention and recovery for forms Robust • Older equipment/software http://www.w3.org/WAI/older-users/developing
  22. 22. And for non-web applications?  Guidance on Applying WCAG 2.0 to Non- Web Information and Communications Technologies  Mobile Accessibility: How WCAG 2.0 and Other W3C/WAI Guidelines Apply to Mobile (Draft)
  23. 23. Questions? Time to make more people happy!

Notas do Editor

  • I’ve been working with the web since 1994 and with accessibility since 2000. Pleased to be speaking at http://2015.worldiaday.org/locations/canberra-australia/
  • Image of Terry Pratchett from http://caroleannecarr.blogspot.com/2011/04/wonderful-writer.html
    (see also http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/terry-pratchett-if-id-known-what-a-progressive-brain-disease-could-do-for-your-pr-profile-i-may-have-had-one-earlier-1036584.html? – George Wright)

    Image of grey-haired women at laptop – Copyright Andrew Arch

    Other images – source unknown
  • Image of Terry Pratchett from
    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/terry-pratchett-if-id-known-what-a-progressive-brain-disease-could-do-for-your-pr-profile-i-may-have-had-one-earlier-1036584.html? – George Wright

    Image of grey-haired women – Copyright Andrew Arch
  • Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3222.0Main%20Features12012%20(base)%20to%202101?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3222.0&issue=2012%20(base)%20to%202101&num=&view=
  • Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3A5561E876CDAC73CA257C210011AB9B?opendocument
  • Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/8146.0Chapter32012-13

  • Sources:
    1. http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=16094
    2. http://www.smh.com.au/national/coles-to-make-online-shopping-site-more-accessible-following-disability-discrimination-case-20150218-13ig1g.html
    3. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/02/05/designing-digital-technology-for-the-elderly/
  • Susan Ryan - http://hreoc.gov.au/about/media/speeches/age/2012/20120314_RHML.html
    Graeme Innes - https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/access-iq-launch-media-access-australia-2012
  • With the proportion of older people growing rapidly, the Web is increasingly important to enable older people to remain active and to participate equally. In particular, the Web enables older people to:
    maintain and extend social networks (email communication is often the starting point for those new to the Web)
    access commercial services online, including product research, shopping and banking, that can become more difficult to access in person as result of mobility issues
    access government information, services and civic participation
    access news, sport, travel, health and other information
    find employment and access employment-related Web applications during their later working life (retirement ages are being raised)
    access training and learning opportunities - professionally or for leisure and hobbies
    continue to live in their own homes, ensuring that they keep their independence for longer
  • Image: http://caroleannecarr.blogspot.com/2011/04/wonderful-writer.html

    With increasing age people often experience changing abilities - the next few slides look at the impact and prevalence of age-related impairments that affect web use.

    With ageing we find a gradual decline and a denial that their is a disability, even though the ABS report that around 50% of people over 65 have a disability.

    On 11 December 2007, Pratchett posted online that he had been newly diagnosed with a very rare form of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, which he said "lay behind this year's phantom 'stroke'." He has a rare form of the disease called posterior cortical atrophy (PCA),[42] in which areas at the back of the brain begin to shrink and shrivel.[17] … Discussing his diagnosis at the Bath Literature Festival in early 2008, Pratchett revealed that he now found it too difficult to write dedications when signing books.[44]

    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terry_Pratchett
  • Not just disability ...
    People using smart phones or tablets
    People with poor communications infrastructure
    People with old equipment
    Older people and casual users
    People working in restricted access environments
    People with temporary impairments
    People coping with environmental distractions
  • Hearing starts to decline at around 50 years and affects a person's ability to hear higher pitched sounds as well as discern the foreground from background audio such as music or other sounds.

    Some hearing loss is experienced by 47% of people 61 to 80 years and 93% of people over 81 years.

    Moderate or severe hearing loss or profound deafness is experienced by 20% of people aged 61 - 80 and 75% of people over 80.
  • Vision decline includes:
    Decreasing ability to focus on near tasks, including a computer screen
    Changing colour perception and sensitivity - less violet light is registered, making it easier to see red and yellows than blues and greens, and often making dark blue and black indistinguishable
    Decreasing contrast sensitivity from pupil shrinkage - resulting in the need for more light and higher contrast (an 80 year old typically has 80% less contrast sensitivity than a 20 year old)

    Vision decline often starts in a person's mid-40s with, for example, 86% of Australians over 40 require reading glasses to correct for near vision. Significant vision loss affecting everyday life is estimated to affect 16% of people 65 to 74 years, and 46% of those over 85 years in the UK.
  • Motor skill decline impacts on dexterity and can result from many conditions, for example arthritis with associated joint stiffening and reduced fine motor control, and essential tremor or Parkinson's Disease with associated hand trembling, making mouse use difficult or impossible for some and also affecting keyboard use. In particular, older people with physical impairments may have difficulty clicking small links, selecting radio buttons, and using many fly-out or pull-down menus.

    Arthritis is estimated to affect at least 50% of people over 65; essential tremor (one of many forms of tremor) is estimated to affect up to 5% of those over 40 and up to 20% of people over 65; and Parkinson's affects around 4% of those over 85.
  • Cognitive decline is also common, though only dementia and mild cognitive impairment are commonly reported. While Dementia (including Alzheimer's disease) is experienced by some older people (1.4% of people 65-69 years increasing to 24% of people over 85 years in the UK), forms of mild cognitive impairment (or MCI) are much more common, affecting over 20% of those over 70 years in the UK. MCI can result in:
    short term memory limitations (which may result in a person forgetting the purpose of a website visit if they lose orientation on the site)
    concentration and distraction issues (consider the volume of information on some pages, and the multiple animated advertisements that are sometimes present)
  • Image: Copyright 2008 Shawn Lawton Henry (William Loughborough) – used with permission
  • (Copyright Peter Morville, in [http://www.semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.php User Experience Design] (June 2004))
  • WAI-AGE project found that many of the suggested requirements for making Web sites accessible to people with disabilities match the requirements of older users:
    Font choice can affect ease of reading - studies have shown a slight preference for a sans serif font onscreen
    Size - many older people require larger font size, so an ability to increase the text size is essential
    Contrast - providing a suitably high contrast for text and other important information
    Color - not relying on color as an indicator of information such as which words are links or which form elements are required (e.g. blue links that are not underlined are indistinguishable from black text for many older people)
    Clearly distinguished from the regular text and identifying the link destination or purpose
    Clearly standing out from the text, and clearly identifying the sections to follow
    Orientation and navigation
    To help users know where they are in a website and where they can go
    WAI's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 addresses these requirements
  • Usability improvements that particularly help older Web users also help people with disabilities
    Layout - consistent layout across the site (and consistent with other sites) to aid recognition and familiarity
    Text presentation - left justification (for left to right texts), increased line-spacing, use of proper case, and avoidance of italics, underlining, and other text decoration can make reading easier
    Forms - providing instruction, grouping like questions, making required fields obvious, giving examples, and providing clear error messages and assisting with error recovery
    Predictability and consistency - meeting users expectations about how a website is presented and behaves, consistent menus and links, and clearly indicating links.

    These usability aspects benefit many other users too and are also included in WCAG 2.0, sometimes as advisory techniques to help optimize web content to specific user groups.
  • Reference: http://www.w3.org/WAI/older-users/developing
  • Image: http://www.churchleaders.com/wp-content/uploads/files/article_images/elderly_happy_573986507.jpg