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What is Research?A form of disciplined inquiry thatinvolves studying something in aplanned manner and reporting it sothat other inquirers can potentiallyreplicate the process if they choose(Frey et al 2000, 435).
Features of a Research Paper • Abstract • Introduction: Research question or Hypothesis, Aims • Literature Review • Presentation of Findings • Analysis and Interpretation • Limitations • Recommendation • Conclusion • References
A Literature Review is NOT! • An annotated bibliography • A list of unrelated sources • An argument about the importance of your research
Literature Review Defined • Ferfolja and Burnett of the University of New South Wales, Australia defined a literature review as an examination of the research that has been conducted in a particular field of study (p. 1). • Hart (2003) agrees with this notion but expanded its definition to “the selection of available documents…and the effective evaluation of these documents in relation to the research being proposed” (p. 13).
Purpose of a Literature Review • Attain a good knowledge of the field of inquiry – facts, scholars, etc. • Methodologies common to the field • Proposed research is really needed • Helps to narrow a problem • Generation of hypotheses, RQs or questions for further studies • Commence a long-term study of interest.
The Literature Review Process 1. Select a topic 2. Search & 4. Write the Choose the review literature 3. Analyse and Interpret the literature
Step 1: Select a Topic• Choose a research interest : Mass Communication - Media• Select a research interest from the everyday interest: Film Industry - the recent rise of Superhero films• Use the research interest to choose the research topic. The effects of Superhero films on the perception of masculinity among Trinidadian adolescent males.
Step 2: Search & Choose the Literature• Find materials relevant to the research subject. eg. effects of films (superhero), factors that influence adolescent behaviour etc.Where can the appropriate literature be found? Mostly from primary sources of literature such as: academic journals, conference proceedings, government pamphlets, theses and dissertations.
Step 2: Search & Choose the LiteratureIn scanning literature manage your data properly by documenting the author, book title etc, and the key idea(s) expressed.e.g. Author: Cowan, AngelaTitle: Boys, Masculinity and Television Violence: What is the difference between superheroes and football heroes?Key Ideas: Cowan’s research concluded that the way male superhero characters are televised teaches young boys that masculinity is associated with aggression.
Step 2: Search & Choose the LiteratureMap your materials – decide what data would be relevant to your research...This stage gives you the researcher a chance to refine and/or expand your research topic.
Step 3: Analyse & Interpret the Literature• Developing our argument and critiquing the literature to ensure that it supports our thesis.e.g. In 1995 both Boyatzis and Levin published papers in which they described that boys engaged in play that was a type of heroic-warrior behaviour, more frequently than girls. This indicates that these children have determined the ways that their genders should be performed in recreation. (As the boys displayed characteristics that they deemed to be masculine, and the girls refused to participate because they too saw it as masculine in nature.)
Step 4: Write the Review• Composing, molding and refining the literature.• The written literature review becomes a work that accurately conveys the research that can be understood by the intended audience.Beginning the Literature Review• Introduce your LR by defining or explaining your research problem.e.g. Explain this concept of superhero culture and the increase of produced films of this genre within the last five years. Highlighting its popularity among young adults.
Important TIPS:• Write in the past tense, except when discussing their significance - use the present tense.e.g. Martin (2007) found that there was a possible direct relationship between how children saw and felt about themselves and how they felt about the superheroes; which in the case of males the frequent aggressive behaviour appealed to them. This shows that it is probable that superheroes may be able to influence an adolescents’ perception of masculinity.
Important TIPS:• An organisational scheme should be used to arrange the literature.• Organisational Schemes:1. Topical order2. Chronological order3. Problem-cause-solution order4. General-to-specific order5. Known-to-unknown order6. Comparison-and-contrast order7. Specific-to-general order
Eg. Topical Organisational Scheme:• The nature of Superhero films: What exactly it is. Different themes expressed by these films:– Superheroes and Violence Superheroes and Heroism Superheroes and Machismo• Effects of films• Influencers of Adolescent behaviour – concept of maleness.
???Q&A???1. What is a literature review?2. What is the first stage in developing a lit review?3. List two places where one can find data for their lit review.4. T/F – Lit reviews MUST always be written in present tense.5. Name four (4) organisational schemes.6. Explain any one of the organisational schemes.
Works Cited Boyatzis, C., Matillo, G. & Nesbitt, K. (1995). Effects of the mighty morphin power rangers on children’s aggression with peers. Child Study Journal, 25(1), 44-55. Cowan, A. (2001). Proceedings from TASA 2001 Conference: Boys, Masculinity and Television violence: What is the difference between superheroes and football heroes? Sydney, Aus. Ferfolja, T. & Burnett, L. (2002). Getting Started on your literature review: A General Guide for Postgraduate Research Students. The Learning Centre, UNSW, Retrieved from http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/pdf/Litrev Frey, L. et al. (2000). Investigating communication: An introduction to research methods. USA: Allyn and Bacon. Hart, C. (2003). Doing a literature review: Releasing the Social Sciences Research Imagination. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Martin, J. F. (2007). Children’s attitudes toward superheroes as a potential indicator of their moral understanding. Journal of Moral Education, 36( 2), 239-250.